Nakło nad Notecią

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Nakło nad Notecią
POL Nakło nad Notecią COA.svg
Nakło nad Notecią (Poland)
Nakło nad Notecią
Nakło nad Notecią
Basic data
State : Poland
Voivodeship : Kuyavian Pomeranian
Powiat : Nakielski
Gmina : Nakło nad Notecią
Area : 10.65  km²
Geographic location : 53 ° 8 '  N , 17 ° 36'  E Coordinates: 53 ° 8 '25 "  N , 17 ° 35' 34"  E
Height : 96 m npm
Residents : 18,718 (Dec 31, 2016)
Postal code : 89-100
Telephone code : (+48) 52
License plate : CNA
Economy and Transport
Street : Bydgoszcz - Piła
Rail route : Bydgoszcz – Piła
Next international airport : Bydgoszcz

Nakło nad Notecią [ ˈnakwɔ nad nɔˈtɛtɕɔ̃ ] ( German Nakel ) is a town in the powiat Nakielski in the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship in Poland . It is the seat of the Powiat and the town-and-country municipality of the same name with a little more than 32,000 inhabitants.

Geographical location

The city is located on the Netze , about 30 kilometers west of Bydgoszcz (Bromberg) .


The Nakel district, which used to include the Flatow district , originally belonged to Pomerania . The city's origins go back to about the middle of the 10th century, when a Pomoran settlement was established here on a narrow point of the Netzbruch . They maintained a frontier fortress here on what was then the border with Poland, which was besieged by the Polish duke several times in the 11th century. The fortress served them as a gathering place when they made forays into Polish areas.

Between 1109 and 1113 the district was up to the Flatow district by the Polish Duke Bolesław III. Conquered the wrymouth who incorporated him into Greater Poland . In 1220 the Pomeranian took possession of the district again, but soon after it was lost again to Poland. In 1299, the Polish King Władysław I. Ellenlang raised the town of Nakel to the status of a city under Magdeburg law . King Sigismund I issued a new privilege in 1520, thereby confirming their rights after all of the town's documents were lost due to fire around 1515. As a royal city, Nakel was directly subordinate to the king, whose representative was the Starost . There was a royal customs post and a court of second instance (court of appeal or Grodgericht ), held by the Starosten. The magistrate had 2 mayors (“President” and “Vice President”), 3 councilors (“Senators”), 1 judge, 3 judges and 1 town clerk. Mayors and judges were appointed by the Starost at the suggestion of the city council. The court had life and death rights without the need for confirmation from the starost. The court of appeal was the Assessorial Court in Warsaw. Around 1600 the walled city of Nakło was the seat of one of the six powiate of the (then) Kalisz Voivodeship (next to Gnesen , Kalisz , Kcynia , Konin and Pyzdry ).

During the first partition of Poland in 1772, the city fell to Prussia . In 1773 the Prussian travel commissioner recorded the administrative conditions of the Polish period: In addition to the royal city of Nakel, the Starostei (i.e. the powiat) Nakel also included eight other small towns: Mrocza / Mrotschen, Łobżenica / Lobsens, Kamień / Kamin, Złotów / Flatow, Krajenka / Krojanke, Miasteczko (renamed Friedheim 100 years later), Wysoka / Wissek and Wyrzysk / Wirsitz. Magdeburg law applied, the council language in the powiat Nakel was mostly Polish, only in Lobsens, Krojanke and Wirsitz German.

The Bydgoszcz Canal ( Kanał Bydgoski in Polish ), which was completed in 1774 under Frederick the Great and connected the Vistula with the Netze , Warthe and Oder and thus linked the most important waterways in the provinces of Pomerania and Poznan, was of great importance for the development of the city . Nakel had a Catholic church, an Evangelical church and a synagogue .

During the Napoleonic period, Nakel first came to the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807 , but was annexed to Prussia again by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 as part of the autonomous Grand Duchy of Poznan . There the city belonged to the district Wirsitz in the administrative district of Bromberg .

In the course of the industrialization of the 19th century, the connection of the city to the railway network in 1851 led to a further boom. Similar to the Bromberger Canal, the Prussian Eastern Railway , which runs through Nakel, had a major influence on the development of the city. Located between the railway junction of Schneidemühl and Bromberg , a large train station facility with extensive railway-related facilities was built in Nakel. Other industries settled in the area, including a sugar factory and a slaughterhouse. At the beginning of the 20th century Nakel had a Protestant church, a Catholic church, a synagogue , a district court, high school, heavy industry, various other production facilities including a cheese factory and a brewery.

After the First World War , the city came to the newly established Poland , but not yet through the Poznan Uprising (1918-1919) , but only on January 1, 1920 due to the provisions of the Peace Treaty of Versailles . The importance of the traffic routes running in the east-west direction declined because they had become transit routes for long-distance traffic. Like all parts of the former Posen Province that had become Polish again, Nakło remained with the Poznan Voivodeship until 1938 , when it was assigned to the expanded Greater Pomeranian Voivodeship .

After the German invasion of Poland in 1939, the city belonged to the German Reich in violation of international law until 1945 . During this Nazi dictatorship there were numerous executions in the area. City residents were deported to concentration camps or for forced labor . The city was occupied by the Red Army in January 1945 and became part of Poland again.

From 1945 to 1950 Nakło belonged to the Pomeranian Voivodeship (as Großpommerellen was called from 1945 after the coastal area was spun off to the Gdansk Voivodeship), then until 1975 to the old Bydgoszcz Voivodeship .

Nakło / Nakel is now a post-industrial small town on the outskirts of the metropolitan area of ​​the city of Bromberg.

Railway systems

Population development

year Residents Remarks
1772 00.566
1783 00.683 excluding garrison members, including 236 Evangelicals and the remaining Catholics or Jews
1788 00.768 in 194 residential buildings
1802 01,453
1816 01,514 including 685 Catholics, 463 Evangelicals and 366 Jews
1821 01,765
1826 02,050 including almost 400 Jews
1837 02,320 including military personnel, including 787 Jews
1843 02,740
1858 04,300
1861 04,487 including 182 military personnel
1867 05,337
1870 05,454 without military personnel
1875 05,651
1880 06,035
1885 06,430
1890 06,766 of which 3,435 Protestants, 2,735 Catholics and 581 Jews (1,200 Poles )
1895 07,401
1900 07,780
1905 08,176 including 3,788 Catholics and 342 Jews
1909 08,627
2007 19,393

Religious life until 1910

Catholic Church of St. Laurentius

Christianization began with the conquest of Poland in 1109. A church was probably built soon after the city was founded in 1299. An old wooden Catholic church was replaced by a brick building in 1847. The St. Laurentius Church belonged to the deanery Nakel in the Archdiocese of Gniezno.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, Protestant Scots lived in Nakel, who were expelled because of their beliefs. It was only shortly before the first partition of Poland in 1767 that the Protestants in Poland were again guaranteed religious freedom. On the Polichno estate near Nakel, an evangelical prayer house was built in 1775, in which church services were held four times a year by external clergymen. In 1799 a Protestant congregation was founded in Nakel. It was not until 1824 that a Protestant church was inaugurated on the market square, and in 1887 another, larger church for the growing parish. The old church in Polichno and a new church in Erlau bei Nakel were subsidiary churches of the parish Nakel in the diocese of Lobsens in the old Prussian church province of Posen (until 1920), after which the diocese became part of the Uniate Evangelical Church in Poland .

Since 1852 there was also an old Lutheran church in Nakel, initially as a branch congregation of Bromberg, since 1895 as an independent congregation in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Prussia and after 1920 in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in western Poland .

As early as 1515, in the year of the city fire, there were 21 Jewish houses and a synagogue in Nakel. A new synagogue was built in 1853 after the old one was destroyed by fire in 1852.


Nakel has a train station on the Kutno – Piła railway line and the Oleśnica – Chojnice railway line, which is only used here for freight . The narrow-gauge railway Nakło nad Notecią – Kasprowo of the former Bydgoszcz and Wirsitzer Kreisbahn used to start here .

local community

District administration, former school building

The city-and-rural community (gmina miejsko-wiejska) Nakło nad Notecią includes the city and 20 villages with school boards.

Partner communities




  • R. Heidrich: The city of Nakel and its history . Nakeler Zeitung, Nakel 1910 ( e-copy ).
  • Heinrich Wuttke : City book of the country Posen. Codex diplomaticus: General history of the cities in the region of Poznan. Historical news from 149 individual cities . Leipzig 1864, pp. 381-384.
  • Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia. Second part, which contains the topography of West Prussia . Kantersche Hofdruckerei, Marienwerder 1789, pp. 85–86, no. 5.).

Web links

Commons : Nakło nad Notecią  - collection of images, videos and audio files


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  2. ^ Ludwig Albrecht Gebhardi : History of the Wendish-Slavic States . Volume 2, Hall 1793, p. 40 .
  3. ^ Territorial changes in Germany and German administered areas 1874 - 1945
  4. ^ A b Leopold von Zedlitz-Neukirch : The state forces of the Prussian monarchy under Friedrich Wilhelm III . Volume 2, Part 1, Berlin 1828, pp. 121-122.
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  6. ^ Johann Friedrich Goldbeck : Complete topography of the Kingdom of Prussia. Second part, which contains the topography of West Prussia . Kantersche Hofdruckerei, Marienwerder 1789, pp. 85–86, no. 5.).
  7. ^ A b c d e Heinrich Wuttke : City book of the country of Posen. Codex diplomaticus: General history of the cities in the region of Poznan. Historical news from 149 individual cities . Leipzig 1864, p. 384.
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  9. The Orient. Reports, Studies, and Reviews for Jewish History and Literature . Quarterly magazine, 1st quarter. Leipzig 1840, p. 69.
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