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Nimberg / Marchhügel
Nimberg near Nimburg

Nimberg near Nimburg

height 254  m above sea level NHN
location Baden-Wuerttemberg , Germany
Coordinates 48 ° 5 '20 "  N , 7 ° 46' 38"  E Coordinates: 48 ° 5 '20 "  N , 7 ° 46' 38"  E
Nimberg (Baden-Wuerttemberg)
Type Vorbergscholle
Age of the rock approx. 230 million years

The Nimberg (often also called March hill) is 253.6  m above sea level. NHN high undulating, loess- covered hill ridges made of solid rock. It is located in the south-west of Baden-Württemberg within the southern Upper Rhine Plain in the Breisgau region , north-west of Freiburg .

Name interpretation

Nimberg: The name actually applies only to the northern part of the hill back and is probably derived from the already in the late Middle Ages dialed Castle Nymburk from. The castle was mentioned in 1052 and was owned by the Counts of Nimburg . Only the moat remains of the former castle complex. At that time, the town of Nimburg , which is now part of the municipality of Teningen in the district of Emmendingen , settled around the castle .

March hill: The name for the southern part of the ridge comes from the six “March villages” around it.


View to the north: directly behind the church tower is the Riegeler Pforte
View to the south: in the middle the Holzhauser Kirchberg, behind the Freiburg Bay

The Nimberg is 253.6  m above sea level. NHN high, is located northwest of Freiburg im Breisgau and directly east of the Kaiserstuhl in the middle of the Freiburg Bay , from which it rises up to 70 m. The Dreisam flows in an arc to the west past the Nimberg, the Glotter directly on its eastern flank. Due to the associated erosion, the "historical" Glotter mainly formed the embankments and steep slopes of the Nimberg to the east. Historically, because today's Glotter is only a relatively small stream, which due to appropriate regulation practically never leads to high water, because at the exit of the Glottertal , near the Denzlinger sports area, most of the water from the Glotter is diverted into the Lossele . The influence of this erosion can still be clearly seen today: In the sections where the Glotter and Schobbach flow directly along the Nimberg ( e.g. near Bottingen and Nimburg), the eastern flank of the Nimberg is very steep; at Benzhausen or Holzhausen, where no stream flows or flowed directly along the flank, the east flank is gently sloping.

In contrast to the Kaiserstuhl massif, the Nimberg has no volcanic origin. In terms of space and climate, however, the Nimberg is inseparable from the Kaiserstuhl.

In some literatures there is also talk of the "Nimburger back" or the "Marchbuckel" when speaking of the Nimberg or Marchhügel or even both. From a morphological point of view, both the Nimberg and the Marchhügel form a single mountain range. In the area of ​​its lower “waist” between Neuershausen and Holzhausen, however, experts assume that it does not consist of Mesozoic solid rock, but, like the “Mengener Bridge” near Schallstadt , of loess and flood sediments (the Mengener Bridge, which is only Rising 15-20 meters from the plain is a hill covered with loess that connects the Tuniberg with the Batzenberg and thus separates the Freiburg from the Staufen Bay). From a tectonic point of view, Nimberg and Marchhügel were (or are) originally divided into two parts. It therefore seems legitimate that the northern and southern parts of the ridge - at least in the vernacular - each have their own name. The official name of the entire ridge, including the March hill, is Nimberg.

In its furthest extent from the north near Nimburg to the south-east foothills at the Schauinsland gas station and rest area near Freiburg- Hochdorf , the entire ridge of the hill is 6.85 km long, its average width is 1.0 km.

The Nimberg plateaus "Rennegerten" ( 254  m ) and "Kreuzacker" ( 250  m ) are the highest elevations of the Nimberg and are located near Bottingen. Only on the northern western flank, towards the Dreisam lowland, does the Nimberg optically set itself in scene with a steep edge. In the south it slopes gently into the area of ​​the municipality of March and rises barely visible from the plain. The transition to the Elz lowlands is also roofed flat towards the east. At Holzhausen the Nimberg gains height again and from here on, as already mentioned, is called “March hill”. The highest elevations of the Marchügel are the “Scheibenbuck” near Hugstetten ( 241  m ), “Eichacker” near Freiburg-Hochdorf ( 239  m ) and “Hölgacker” near Holzhausen ( 230  m ).

On their way to Dreisam near Riegel am Kaiserstuhl , the Schobbach, Glotter and their numerous tributaries are dammed up on the Nimberg and diverted north towards Dreisam and Elz . Therefore, the groundwater is high all year round in this low area of ​​the Freiburg Bay. This can be seen particularly well on the connecting road between Nimburg and its district of Bottingen.

Villages on the Nimberg

Listed geographically clockwise north, east, south and west:


The Nimberg lies in a zone with a warm and humid temperate climate with comparatively mild winters and warm to hot summers, some of which can even have average temperatures of over 20 ° C in the months of July and August. Due to the prevailing south-westerly winds - influence of the Burgundian Gate - Atlantic-oceanic climatic influences predominate in the Freiburg Bay . Due to this oceanic influence and its location in the Rhine Valley, the Nimberg is also in the rain shadow of the Vosges . The Upper Rhine Plain has annual mean temperatures of a little over 10 ° C, making it one of the warmest areas in Germany. Parts of the Nimberg, which climatically assigned to the Kaiserstuhl, even have a Mediterranean climate in places .

March (2011)
Climate diagram
J F. M. A. M. J J A. S. O N D.
Temperature in ° Cprecipitation in mm
Source: Meteomedia AG
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for March (2011)
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Max. Temperature ( ° C ) 5.4 7.7 13.9 20.6 24.1 24.4 23.9 27.1 24.9 16.5 9.6 8.4 O 17.3
Min. Temperature (° C) 0.2 0.8 2.7 6.7 9.4 12.7 11.8 14.1 11.7 5.9 2.8 2.8 O 6.8
Precipitation ( mm ) 31.7 25.1 44.5 26.6 51.5 121.3 90.9 60.9 41.3 56.6 0.5 89.6 Σ 640.5
Hours of sunshine ( h / d ) 2.3 3 6.4 8.9 9.2 6.5 7th 7.6 7.2 5 5.8 1.1 O 5.8
Rainy days ( d ) 15th 11 10 6th 9 18th 11 14th 9 9 2 23 Σ 137
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Source: Meteomedia AG

Meteorological data

The annual average temperature of the Nimberg area is 10.2 ° C. In 2011 there were 15 " hot days " with more than 30 ° C at the weather station on the March hill near Holzhausen . On August 22, 2011 the thermometer on the Nimberg even climbed to 34.3 ° C - on January 22, 2011 it fell to −7.6 ° C. In 2011, 47 frost days and 84 summer days with more than 25.0 ° C were registered. Which is probably the least of all to know: At the aforementioned weather station was on 13 August 2003 with 40.2 ° C, the highest ever recorded in Germany temperature registered. March shares this figure with Gärmersdorf near Amberg , Freiburg and Karlsruhe .

Even with around 1,800 hours of sunshine per year, the Nimberg takes a leading position in Germany (2011: 2,041.7). At 772 mm, the mean annual rainfall is slightly lower than the national average of around 800 mm (2011: 640.5 l). Most of the precipitation falls in summer with a peak of 103 mm in July (2011: 91). The lowest precipitation falls in January with 25 mm (2011: 32). In 2011 there were 137 rainy days on the Nimberg, most of the rain fell on July 12 with 23.8 l / m². The high precipitation in summer can be explained by the largest number of thunderstorms in Germany that occur in the neighboring Black Forest or the Vosges. Exceptionally little rain fell in November 2011: only 0.5 liters fell on two days! A lower amount of precipitation is not historically known in this area. Even in August of the “ summer of the century 2003 ”, almost 50 times more rain fell than in November 2011.


At the entrance to Weinbergstrasse in Nimburg-Bottingen, a layer of limestone sediments several meters thick is still exposed.
The most imposing rock formation on the Nimberg: The Red Rock near Hugstetten

Geologically and tectonically, the Nimberg is an isolated foothill floe from the Mesozoic and Tertiary, consisting of different parts, delimited by hidden faults or erosion edges . The Nimberg is the "older brother" of the Kaiserstuhl and is divided into several clods lengthways by a bundle of faults, the western edge of which apparently runs past Freiburg-Uffhausen to Schönberg near Merzhausen and has jump heights of over 200 meters.

The former quarry on the so-called “Red Rock” - at today's Indian camp in March-Hugstetten - is the most imposing, clearly visible rock formation on the Nimberg. Up to 15 meters high 90 ° steep and dark red colored rock walls tower up there. The oblique stratification of the rock banks suggests that these formations were formed under sea cover. They are over 230 million years old and therefore around 16 times as old as the Kaiserstuhl massif. On the other hand, in the upper slope of the west flank of the Nimberg, you can occasionally come across small rock faces of the Hauptrogenstein . This got its strange name from the fish-roe- like structure of the rock. At the time of its formation, the wave zone of a shallow sea was located at this point, in which shell remains and other lime particles rounded in constant motion and caked together after the water had retreated to the lime bank. In Nimburg-Bottingen, for example, a shell limestone formation is still clearly visible, even if the fish-roe-like structure of the rock cannot be seen there.

Paleozoic and Mesozoic

At the end of the Paleozoic , around 250 million years ago, the land surface of the Breisgau, divided into ridges and depressions, was largely leveled. From today's low mountain range Black Forest , Vosges and Kaiserstuhl - even of the Alps - there was nothing to be seen at that time and the continent of that time had absolutely nothing in common visually with today's Europe . During the following era of the Mesozoic Era (Mesozoic Era), mighty, partly continental and partly marine sediments from the Triassic and Jurassic (Neptunian formations) were deposited in the southern Baden region . In the Freiburg area in the foothills zone between Emmendingen and Staufen , these can still be found today, even if only in small deposits and mostly incomplete. Within the Upper Rhine Rift , they are mainly preserved deep underground. With some broken clods, however, they are still clearly visible on the surface today: such as B. Nimberg, Marchhügel or Lehener Bergle.

Mesozoic and Tertiary

Gravel of the Freiburg Bay after the last Ice Age

During and after the last Ice Age, abundant erosion debris from the Vosges and especially from the Black Forest (created during Ice Age frost splitting and glacier activity) was transported to the Freiburg Bay. Due to the debris carried in a large estuary alluvial cone, above all the Dreisam, but also - to a much lesser extent - from the Elz and other Black Forest rivers and streams, the plaice mosaic of the Freiburg Bay, which emerged mainly in the Young Tertiary, was made up of around 60 million year old (Mesozoic) rocks, mostly buried. Therefore, the Nimberg hardly rises above today's level. This estuary alluvial cone of the Dreisam, which starts directly at the exit of the Zartener Basin and covers around two thirds of the Freiburg Bay, is responsible for the barely visible but clear slope of the Freiburg Bay towards Nimberg (see also the adjacent graphic). For comparison: the Münsterplatz in Freiburg is located at almost 280  m .

Today's level largely corresponds to the height of the fill of the last ice age. Before the embankment, the relief of the Nimberg was much stronger. If one assumes the greatest thickness of gravel, which was measured during the “Thermalwasserbohrung 2” in Freiburg, then before the gravel, the Nimberg rose almost 200 m from the plain instead of the current 70 m.


In the past, mining was also carried out on the Nimberg: Iron ore was mined on the southwestern foothills of the March hill, the Red Rock and in the neighboring "Erzknappenloch", as well as on the northwest flank of the Nimberg, near the Nimburg mountain church in the Kreuzacker district. However, the tunnel at the Red Rock is no longer accessible today and the entrance is locked. It is now above all a paradise for bats, which populate the tunnel in large numbers. Already the Celts promoted from 600 BC. Material from the mountain, as the laying of stones in the burial mounds like the Great Bürgle in Buchheim prove. On the steep western flank of the Nimberg in Gewann Kreuzacker, you can find some old, hidden and now barely accessible quarries under thick thorn bushes. They used to give insights into the geological structure of the Nimberg. The layers of the Brown Jurassic are 20 to 40 meters thick at this point. Particularly striking are the so-called Murchisona layers - high iron-containing sand-lime bricks, from which iron was previously melted and - as old calculations from the 17th century show - smelted in Simonswald . The striking brown-red arable soil at the foot of the slope is also due to the weathering of these iron-containing layers ( rust ). This can also be observed in the area of ​​the Red Rock, which is where its name comes from. The quarry in Kreuzacker is currently the only known one in Eocene freshwater limestone (Melania limestone) north of Freiburg. These old-tertiary freshwater limestones show the first movements in the Upper Rhine Rift. The formation of the Upper Rhine Rift began about 35 million years ago.

Terrace landscape

Terracing on the Nimberg. The March lies in the background.

Not only the Kaiserstuhl and the Tuniberg, but also the Nimberg probably show the first terracing of the loess-covered hills since the Alemannic-Franconian early Middle Ages (from around 550 AD). Even at that time, land cultivation technology was so advanced that one tried to avoid the risk of erosion in the loess by terracing, while at the same time creating better cultivated flat areas. All of this was done in painstaking manual work that must have dragged on over several centuries. In contrast to Kaiserstuhl and Tuniberg, the still high proportion of arable terraces in the Nimberg reveals the sensitive approach to the small climatic differences between the individual locations. As a habitat, the terraced landscape with its network of rainen is of great importance for the animals in the fields. Hare, badger and partridge benefit from the constant change of cultures and from the embankments as a networked retreat. Nowhere in Breisgau is the density of hares greater than on the Nimberg.

Loess covering

Today the Nimberg is almost completely covered by a quaternary loess layer. Loess is a loose sediment that is formed by the erosion of other rocks and is transported to its place of deposition by aeolian transport . The loess was created - as in the entire edge area of ​​the Upper Rhine Plain - during the last, largely vegetation-free Ice Age by blowing out of the Rhine mud. The deposition took place in the periglacial (that is, an area free of ice, but surrounded by glacier ice) around the Kaiserstuhl . The main process that takes place in this region is freeze blasting of rocks. Since there is no vegetation that could slow the wind down, it blows strongly. He takes the lightest material with him and deposits it again on obstacles such as the Nimberg. It should be noted that the deposition takes place on the leeward side , in the case of the Nimberg - where the wind was blowing from the southwest - i.e. in the northeast. The higher the sedimentation site, the thinner the layer of actually deposited material. On the Nimberg, the loess layer is up to 15 meters thick. The place of origin of the loess on the Nimberg was mainly in the northern Limestone Alps . The loess soils of the Nimberg are - as in the Kaiserstuhl - intensively used agriculturally because they offer good ventilation and a high water storage capacity as well as good mechanical properties. The grown loess is also important for flood protection because it absorbs heavy precipitation like a sponge and then releases it again evenly. Nevertheless, the water balance of the Nimberg is not sufficient to keep lush forests. The entire ridge of the hill is not forested.

Loess hollow alleys

The entire Nimberg and March hill run through numerous ravines . The paths, which are often several meters deep, were made possible by the erosive coexistence of man and nature. Nature initially contributed the starting material. The blown loess that got stuck on the Nimberg appears like partly loose, partly solidified soil, but as a dust sediment is geologically real rock. In it, the predominant quartz grains hold together at will through a cemented lime content . However, if its structure is compressed by the pressure of the frictional forces of a wagon, water can quickly tear deep trenches in the surface. Also through the traditional wagon brakes and their centuries-long use of the tracks, these deepened as small ravines in the loess surface and created the hollow streets.

Field and corridor

In contrast to the Kaiserstuhl, the fields and vineyards on the Nimberg still have many mighty fruit trees. Due to the warm climate and the relative dryness, cherry trees predominate. Because the fruit used to be associated with a significant increase in yield, the fruit trees were carefully tended. Local farmers and winegrowers were less worried about a possible impairment of arable land and vineyards. If everything had to be regulated by hand or using workhorses anyway, the expansive tree did not play such a major role. The shading of the vines was countered with a coordinated plant location - for example at the foot of the adjacent rains or on one's own plot, upstream to the north. If similar land consolidation procedures had been carried out on the Nimberg as on the Kaiserstuhl and Tuniberg, many of these impressive tree shapes would have been lost. The common redstart , wryneck and little owl thank you today for this “inactivity”.


Bee-eater ( Merops apiaster )

The richly structured landscape on the Nimburg plateau offers good opportunities to observe rare species of bird life. In addition to the redstart, wryneck, green woodpecker and blackcap , the hoopoe also has its home on the Nimberg. But golden oriole , the endangered little owl and the particularly rare bee-eater are also native here; as well as some hawks and buzzards . The pheasant on the Nimberg is anything but rare .

As already mentioned, the brown hare is particularly well represented on the Nimberg and can therefore be observed often. On the other hand, you will hardly see the local badger , he is very shy. Wild boars and deer find food easily, especially in the field gardens on the hill, but are less frequent guests and prefer to stay in the neighboring forests.


Viticulture is not only an issue at the Kaiserstuhl (background)

Viticulture on the Nimberg has been practiced since the earliest times. The terraced vineyards on the west flank of the Nimberg can be seen on a map from 1589, for example. The plants were from the Rebknecht Schafferei upper-Nimburg (to 1545 in Nimburger mountain church, along with dairy) as well as the surrounding communities in drudgery processed. The district plan of the Baden margraviate of Nimburg from 1764 to 1767 already lists vines on all south-west facing slopes and plateau locations. The short valley cuts on the western flank and large parts of the Nimber ridge were then reserved for agriculture.

In the 18th century, over 50 hectares were cultivated with wine in Nimburg. After that, people turned more to hemp cultivation because it seemed more economical. At the beginning of the 19th century, the area under vines shrank to just under 13 hectares. It was only after the Second World War that wine growing became increasingly important. In order to better organize the sales of the wine, the Nimburg-Bottingen wine cooperative was founded in 1958. The grapes are grown in the Badischer Winzergenossenschaften in Breisach . Numerous awards were the reward for the good work of the winemakers.

Today the area under vines has expanded considerably. In contrast to the nearby Tuniberg and large parts of the Kaiserstuhl, however, the Nimberg vineyards have not undergone major restructuring. For the vine, unfavorable valley areas remained in arable use. Despite the large growing areas of Kaiserstuhl and Tuniberg in the immediate vicinity, Nimberg wine is highly regarded by connoisseurs. The Nimburg-Bottinger Steingrube site, for example, produces distinctive Burgundy wines. A sparkling wine also grows on the March hill, which, along with the Buchheimer Rebstuhl and Neuershauser Steingrube (both Müller-Thurgau as well as Pinot Noir and Pinot Noir ) and the Nimburg-Bottinger Steingrube, is part of the wine-growing region of the volcanic Kaiserstuhl mountains.

Since viticulture was traditionally less important in the March villages than on the Nimberg near Nimburg or Bottingen, you can hardly see any vines around the southern March hill (i.e. near Hugstetten and Hochdorf) today; only in Holzhausen you can still see a few areas at (Holzhauser) Rebstuhl , Kirchberg and Bergle . The "Marcher Wein" became a rarity. The establishment of a wine cooperative in March was therefore neither an issue in the past nor in the present. In 1880 around 5 hectares were cultivated in Buchheim am Rebstuhl , almost only for their own needs. We find similar orders of magnitude in Holzhausen am (Holzhauser) Rebstuhl , Kirchberg and am Bergle (1880: 5 ha) and on Scheibenbuck in Hugstetten (1913: 3 ha). In Neuershausen, however, where the conditions at the piston were more favorable, the area under vines was 14 ha in 1880; In 1897 13 hectoliters were produced here.


The monumental war memorial near Nimburg

A few structures were erected on the ridge of the hill. In addition to some elevated water tanks that are barely visible embedded in the landscape, as well as the Holzhausen cemetery with chapel and consecration hall and the Nimburg cemetery with the Nimburg mountain church , some 110 and 220 kV high-voltage lines cross the high-altitude Nimberg plateau near Bottingen.

The most monumental building on the Nimberg is the war memorial on the "Beckebirgle", a steep hill on which the aforementioned Nimburg Castle once stood and which marks the northernmost branch of the Nimberg. The monument, which is illuminated in the dark and is the landmark of the town of Nimburg, which can be seen from afar, commemorates the fallen German soldiers of the two world wars.

Above Buchheim has in 225  m , a height Aussiedlerhof settled with living and economy buildings. In the area of ​​the southern March hill from “Hölgacker” to “Eichacker”, a total of three free-standing telecommunication masts were built, as well as one at the Hochdorf water reservoir and another at the aforementioned Aussiedlerhof.

At the southernmost foothills of the March hill, the A5 motorway still sweeps the hill in an arc. The Schauinsland gas station and rest area is also located in this area and marks the southernmost branch.

Leisure offers

Nimberg path

There is a dense network of signposts on the Nimberg.

The Nimbergpfad is a hiking trail through the Nimberg with themed boards explaining the landscape. It begins at the Nimburg town hall and runs over a length of 7.5 km as a circular route over the Nimberg. The themed trail and other trails are - as you know from the Black Forest or the Alps - equipped with new signposts. The Nimbergpfad offers a unique view of the Kaiserstuhl, the Glotter and Dreisam lowlands, as well as the Teninger Almend and the Neuershauser Mooswald.

Nordic walking and inline skates

Information board for the Nordic walking route

On May 1st, 2008, the municipality of March, in cooperation with the German Ski Association (DSV), opened four Nordic walking and one inline skate routes, which are generously signposted and equipped with appropriate information boards. The Nordic walking routes are categorized in difficulty levels:

  • 1. Length: 5.1 km, total altitude: 63 m, altitude difference: 37 m
  • 2. Length: 10.0 km, total altitude: 57 m, altitude difference: 38 m
  • 3. Length: 10.5 km, total altitude: 80 m, altitude difference: 48 m
  • 4. Length: 10.0 km, total altitude: 68 m, altitude difference: 32 m

The inline route is 13.9 km long and leads in the area of ​​March-Holzhausen over the March hill.


  • State Office for Geology, Raw Materials and Mining in the Freiburg Regional Council
  • March (Breisgau)
  • Helge Körner (Ed.): Die Mooswälder: Natural and cultural history of the Breisgauer Bucht , Lavori Verlag, 2008, ISBN 978-3-9357-3755-5 .
  • Climatic and meteorological information: Patrick K. Gutmann (municipality March), source: Meteomedia AG
  • PLENUM Naturgarten Kaiserstuhl, Nimberg theme path

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ( information )
  2. Climatic and meteorological information: Patrick K. Gutmann (municipality March), source: Meteomedia AG