Richard von Schaukal

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Richard Schaukal, 1924
Richard Schaukal autograph.jpg

Richard (von) Schaukal (born May 27, 1874 in Brno , † October 10, 1942 in Vienna ) was an Austrian poet .

life and work

After finishing school in Brno, Richard Schaukal studied law in Vienna and then entered the civil service. In 1898 he received his doctorate as Dr. jur. and in 1899 was transferred to the district administration in Mährisch Weißkirchen . Also in 1899 he married Fanny Hückel, the daughter of a hat manufacturer, with whom he had three children. His career as a civil servant was extremely successful; In 1903 he was appointed to the ministerial presidium in Vienna, in 1908 to ministerial secretary, in 1909 to section councilor and in 1911 to ministerial councilor, in 1918 he was ennobled by Emperor Karl . In the same year he left the civil service to work exclusively as a freelance poet, critic and translator from then on. Schaukal died in Vienna in 1942, where he was last with his family at Cobenzlgasse 42 in Döbling , XIX. Viennese district lived.

From Vienna, Schaukal maintained close contacts with leading representatives of the literary scene, for example, he was in lively correspondence with the poets Arthur Schnitzler , Thomas and Heinrich Mann , Rainer Maria Rilke , Hermann Hesse , Karl Kraus , Arno Holz , Max Brod , Ferdinand von Saar , Bertha von Suttner , Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach and Dora Hohlfeld . He was also on friendly terms with painters and illustrators such as Heinrich Vogeler , who illustrated his volume of poems Pierrot and Colombine (1902), and Alfred Kubin .

Schaukal's essence as well as his writing was not closed and unified, one can often refute him with his own statements. If one compares the strict style-critical remarks that place him in the context of the ornament criticism by Karl Kraus or the architect Adolf Loos with his impressionistically colored literary works, which in addition to the early poems also included the novella Mimi Lynx (1904) blatant contradiction clear, which distinguishes Schaukal's character and his work as a whole. In his multifaceted activities as a writer, translator, reviewer and cultural critic, he was equally conservative and progressive. Since he sensibly registered and productively implemented the various influences of his time, he represented a seismographic figure not only at the turn of the century in Vienna, but also in European culture around 1900. The historian Gordon A. Craig sees the apolitical predominant in him, like his German contemporaries.

Schaukal's oeuvre , which focuses on poetry and novels, comprises over 75 works; the early poems were based on the French poetry of symbolism , which he also preferred to translate, and are characterized by sultry, youthful passion and elitist demarcation from the masses, especially the volume of poetry Meine Gardens. Lonely Verses (1897). Furthermore, Schaukal's writing revolved around the typical poles of love and death, which was evident in his poems as well as in the volume of short stories Eros Thanatos (1906). Illustrations by Joseph Beuys exist for some of the stories from the prose volume Von Tod zu Tod (1902) .

Schaukal's most well-known prose text Life and Opinions of Mr. Andreas von Balthesser (1907) describes the life of a dandy in glosses, dialogues, letters and sharp-tongued aphorisms. Andreas von Balthesser, "the most splendid dandy of Austrian poetry", as Peter Härtling called him, represents a decadently over-refined lifestyle, is superior, casual, elitist and hates society, which he nevertheless does not want to miss. The focus of interest is his external appearance, which he stages with great effort. Nevertheless, the dandy also pays attention to his behavior, his manners and his language; dandyism is an ideology.

Schaukal shared the enthusiasm for the First World War with many intellectuals , which was reflected in his Iron Sonnets (1915). Similar to Hugo von Hofmannsthal , Alexander Lernet-Holenia or Anton Wildgans , he could not come to terms with the fall of the Danube monarchy and, as a staunch Austrian and monarchist, wrote contemplative texts with a Catholic-philosophical character as well as biographical stories. He was buried at the Grinzing cemetery .

In 1973 the Schaukalgasse in Vienna- Hernals (17th district) was named after him.

Works (selection)

Richard von Schaukal Society

In September 1996, the Richard von Schaukal Society was founded at the University of Kassel . Her main journalistic activity is the publication of the yearbook Eros Thanatos . It contains literary essays and topicalities on research into Schaukal's work and the literature of Viennese modernism. In addition, they organize readings, exhibitions and collect philological material on Schaukal's life, environment and reception.

Literature on Richard von Schaukal since 1974


  • Enrico de Angelis: Poetry as an experience of the minimal. Two symbolists . In: Giuseppe Farese (Ed.): Files from the International Symposium "Arthur Schnitzler and his Time" (Yearbook for International German Studies / A; 13). Verlag Lang, Bern 1985, ISBN 3-261-03525-0 , pp. 225-243.
  • Henriette Blasl: "You have to keep people at bay". Memories of Richard von Schaukal . In: The literary wren. Journal of the Erika Mitterer Society , 2005, Issue 2, pp. 5–8.
  • Michael A. Burri: Theodor Herzl and Richard von Schaukal. Self-Styled Nobility and the Sources of Bourgeois Belligerence in Prewar Vienna . In: Austrian History Yearbook , Vol. 28 (1997), pp. 223-246, ISSN  0067-2378 .
  • Francis Claudon: Parisian and Viennese apocalypse paraphrases. Élémir Bourges, Richard von Schaukal . In: Gerhard R. Kaiser (Ed.): Poetry of the Apocalypse . Verlag Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1991, pp. 161–168, ISBN 3-88479-570-8 .
  • Claudia von Girardi-Why: Sultry Passion. Richard Schaukal and the Simplicissimus . In: Literature in Bavaria ; Special issue Simplicissimus , 1996, pp. 67-69, ISSN  0178-6857 .
  • Claudia Girardi: "And now the show society has formed, so to speak, behind my back". On the history of the Wiener Schaukalgesellschaft . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , vol. 1 (1997), pp. 9-28, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Claudia Girardi: "I love old castles ...". Moravian salon culture at the beginning of literary modernism. Letters from Marie von Ebner-Eschenbach and Richard Schaukal . In: Norbert Bachleitner u. a. (Ed.): Contributions to comparative literature and social history. Festschrift for Alberto Martino (Chloe; 26). Rodopi, Amsterdam 1997, pp. 741-778, ISBN 90-420-0294-8 .
  • Claudia Girardi: Schaukals Intérieurs from the life of the twenty year old. Publication as therapy or: “I gave it away. Now it's easier for me. ” In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , vol. 3/4. (1999/2000), pp. 5-26, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Claudia Girardi: Pierrot seals in the German-speaking area around 1900 . In: Florian Krobb, Sabine Strümper-Krobb (Hrsg.): Literature mediation around 1900. Case studies on ways into the German-speaking cultural system (international research on general and comparative literary studies; 54). Rodopi, Amsterdam 2001, pp. 93-111, ISBN 90-420-1356-7 .
  • Claudia Girardi: The poet Richard von Schaukal as a “conservator” of the good old days . In: Ulrich E. cellsberg (ed.): Conservative profiles. Ideas and practice in politics between FM Radetzky , Karl Kraus and Alois Mock . Verlag Stocker, Graz 2003, pp. 285-302, ISBN 3-7020-1007-6 .
  • Claudia Girardi:  Schaukal, Richard von. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 22, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-428-11203-2 , p. 590 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Alexander Huber: "Style is an essential expression". Notes on Richard Schaukal's understanding of language and style . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 2 (1998), pp. 67-92, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Wilfried Ihrig: Richard von Schaukal, “Life and opinions of Mr. Andreas von Balthesser” . In: Literature and Criticism , 1986, Issue 209/210, pp. 471-473, ISSN  0024-466X .
  • Gustav Kars: 1874 . In: Literature and Criticism , 1974, Issue 9, pp. 144-161, ISSN  0024-466X .
  • Karl Koweindl: “Our correspondence is so much geared towards feeling and intimate pronunciation”. Alfred Kubin and Richard von Schaukal . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 2 (1998), pp. 27-46, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Michael Kane, Florian Krobb: Afterword . In: Richard Schaukal: The Life and Opinions of Herr Andreas von Balthesser, Dandy and Dilettante (life and opinions of Herr Andreas von Balthesser, a dandy and dilettante). Ariadne Press, Riverside Calif. 2002, pp. 89-104, ISBN 1-57241-105-8 .
  • Florian Krobb: "In the darkest part of the spacious park ...". Rococo Gardens, Fin-de-Siècle Epigonality and Elective Affinities Echoes in Richard von Schaukal's Novella "Eros" . In: Modern Austrian Literature , Vol. 31 (1998), Issue 2, pp. 52-70, ISSN  0026-7503 .
  • Florian Krobb: "because concepts bury the life of appearances". About Richard Schaukal's "Andreas von Balthesser" and the "Germanization" of the dandy . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , vol. 3/4 (1999/2000), pp. 89–111, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Sibylle C. Leitner: Richard von Schaukal and Heinrich Vogeler . Paradigm of an Interaction of the Arts . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 2 (1998), pp. 7-25, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Steven D. Martinson: A mishap about: "Ruine Klamm". An unknown poem by Richard Schaukal . In: Modern Austrian Literature , Vol. 14 (1981), Issue 1/2, pp. 80-83, ISSN  0026-7503 .
  • Christian Neuhuber : The "Schaukal Case". Richard von Schaukal's arguments with the Nazi press about the “ Anschluss ” and the “Austrian Idea” 1932–1934 . In: Modern Austrian Literature , Vol. 38 (2005), Issue 3/4, pp. 13-36, ISSN  0026-7503 .
  • Christian Neuhuber: "... a not insignificant change". Culturally conservative Heine reception using Richard von Schaukal's example . In: Heine-Jahrbuch , Vol. 45 (2006), pp. 142-164, ISSN  0073-1692 .
  • Christian Oesterheld: "A high-altitude hiker for clarity of soul". Schaukal and the George Circle . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 3/4 (1999/2000), pp. 71-88, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Dominik Pietzcker: The memory of literature. Paradigms of forgetting using the example of Richard von Schaukal . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 3/4 (1999/2000), pp. 113-123, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Silke Regin: Richard von Schaukal and the "poetic mobilization" in August 1914 . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 1 (1997), pp. 29-43, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Nikola Roßbach: Richard Schaukal and Arthur Schnitzler. Correspondence . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 3/4 (1999/2000), pp. 27-50, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Adalbert Schmidt: Richard von Schaukal - poetic witness of old Austria . In: Sudetenland. European Culture Journal , Vol. 35 (1993), Issue 1, pp. 2-8, ISSN  0562-5173 .
  • Catrin Siedenbiedel: Richard Schaukal's “Der Sturm” (1925) as a adaptation of William Shakespeare'sThe Tempest ” (1611) . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 2 (1998), pp. 47-66, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Catrin Siedenbiedel: The garden motif in Richard Schaukal's “My Gardens” . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 3/4 (1999/2000), pp. 141–156, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Johann Sonnleitner: Brazen Sonnets 1914. Richard von Schaukal and the First World War . In: Klaus Amann, Hubert Lengauer (ed.): Austria and the Great War 1914–1918. The other side of the story . Brandstätter Verlag, Vienna 1989, pp. 152–158, ISBN 3-88447-296-X .
  • Viktor Suchy: The “Austrian idea” as a conservative state idea with Hugo von Hofmannsthal, Richard von Schaukal and Anton Wildgans . In: Friedbert Aspetsberger (ed.): State and society in modern Austrian literature . Österreichischer Bundesverlag, Vienna 1977, pp. 21–43, ISBN 3-215-02358-X .
  • Markus Tinhof: Richard Schaukal's "Life and Opinions of Mr. Andreas von Balthesser" in the context of literary characterology . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 1 (1997), pp. 65-88, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Reinhard Urbach : bodily dilemma at the turn of the century. Comments on Richard Schaukal . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung from 26./27. April 1975, p. 57.
  • Ingo Warnke: Beyond the words, through them. Richard Schaukals "Andreas von Balthesser" as a treatise on the sign . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 1 (1997), pp. 45-64, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Ingo Warnke: Etymology of Mimi Lynx . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 1 (1997), pp 114-118, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Ingo Warnke: perforated (w) places. On the semiotics of silence in Richard Schaukal . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 3/4 (1999/2000), pp. 157-170, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Claudia Why: Richard von Schaukal and dandyism . In: Siegfried Loewe u. a. (Ed.): Literature without borders. Festschrift for Erika Kanduth (Viennese contributions to comparative literature and Romance studies; 3). Lang publishing house, Frankfurt / M. 1993, pp. 441-476, ISBN 3-631-45295-0 .
  • Claudia Why: Letters from a Moravian man from Vienna to his homeland and to Bohemia. Richard von Schaukal and his relations with the Bohemian countries . In: Literature in Bavaria. Vol. 39 (1995), pp. 74-80, ISSN  0178-6857 .
  • Claudia Why: Richard von Schaukal as a translator of French literature . In: Herbert Zeman (Ed.): The Austrian literature. Your profile from the turn of the century to the present (1880–1980), Vol. 1 . ADEVA, Graz 1989, pp. 297-316, ISBN 3-201-01499-0 .
  • Claudia Why: Une relation littéraire franco-autrichienne. Georges Duhamel et le traducteur des Elégies et des Ballades, Richard von Schaukal . In: Association des Amis de Georges Duhamel et de l'Abbeye de Créteil (ed.): Georges Duhamel et l'Europe. Actes du colloque 3rd fev. 1990 . Alliance française, Paris 1990, pp. 69-80.
  • Andreas Wicke: The birth of the novella from the spirit of myth. On the Eros Thanatos motif in Richard Schaukal's novella “Eros” . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 1 (1997), pp. 89-104, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Andreas Wicke: "Schaukal is a curious owl". On the relationship between Thomas Mann and Richard Schaukal . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 1 (1997), pp. 105-113, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Andreas Wicke: Richard Schaukal's novella "Mimi Lynx". Between 'embarrassingly tight naturalism' and 'violent symbolism' . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 2 (1998), pp. 93-117, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Andreas Wicke: Richard Schaukal "Marriage remains a functional and adventurous institution" (Section 3.3). Ders .: Beyond lust. On the problem of marriage in the literature of Viennese modernism . Carl Böschen Verlag, Siegen 2000, pp. 101–124, ISBN 3-932212-22-3 (plus dissertation, University of Kassel 1999).
  • Andreas Wicke: Richard Schaukal's poem "Mondnacht" as a reflex on Joseph von Eichendorff . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 3/4 (1999/2000), pp. 125-140, ISSN  1433-3333 .
  • Andreas Wicke: Richard Schaukal and the poetry theory of the turn of the century . In: Modern Austrian Literature , Vol. 34 (2001), Issue 3/4, pp. 79-93, ISSN  0544-6465 .
  • Andreas Wicke: The paradoxical dandy. Richard Schaukal's "Life and Opinions of Mr. Andreas von Balthesser" . In: Günter Helmes u. a. (Ed.): Literature and life. Anthropological Aspects in Modern Culture; Festschrift for Helmut Scheuer on his 60th birthday . Narr Verlag, Tübingen 2002, pp. 147-160, ISBN 3-8233-5883-9 .
  • Andreas Wicke: "The words blew the world apart". To Richard Schaukal's volume of poetry "My Gardens" . In: Richard Schaukal (author), Andreas Wicke, Ingo Warnke (ed.): My gardens. Lonely verses . Carl Böschen Verlag, Siegen 2002, pp. 113-131, ISBN 3-932212-31-2 .
  • Andreas Wicke: "The vague is the youth". Aestheticism and the search for identity in narratives of Viennese modernism . In: German lessons. Contributions to its practice and scientific foundation , Vol. 60 (2008), Issue 6, pp. 40–51, ISSN  0340-2258 .
  • Rolf E. Windhorst: Richard von Schaukal's encounters with French literature . In: Sprachkunst , Vol. 5 (1974), pp. 244-267, ISSN  0038-8483 .
  • Franz Zeder: “Experience” versus “Do”. The Richard Schaukal-Thomas Mann controversy in the field of tension between “poet” and “man of letters” . In: Eros Thanatos. Yearbook of the Richard von Schaukal Society , Vol. 3/4 (1999/2000), pp. 51-70, ISSN  1433-3333 .


  • Michael A. Burri: Mobilizing the aristocrat. Pre-war Vienna and the poetics of belligerence in Herzl, Hofmannsthal, Kraus and Schaukal . Dissertation, University of Pennsylvania 1993.
  • Thomas Mann (Author), Claudia Girardi (Ed.): Letters to Richard Schaukal (Thomas Mann Studies; 27). Klostermann Verlag, Frankfurt / M. 2003, ISBN 3-465-03243-8 .
  • Cornelius Mitterer: In the Lives of Others. Richard Schaukal's literary field and network . Dissertation, University of Vienna 2017.
  • Karl Johann Müller: The problem of decadence in Austrian literature at the turn of the century, presented in texts by Hermann Bahr, Richard von Schaukal, Hugo von Hofmannsthal and Leopold von Andrian (Stuttgart works on German studies; 28). Verlag Heinz, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-88099-027-1 .
  • Dominik Pietzcker: Richard von Schaukal. An Austrian poet at the turn of the century. Verlag Königshausen & Neumann, Würzburg 1997, ISBN 3-8260-1367-0 (plus dissertation, University of Freiburg / B. 1996).
  • Claudia Why: Richard von Schaukal as a critic and translator from the French . Dissertation, University of Vienna 1993.

Web links

Commons : Richard von Schaukal  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Richard von Schaukal  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Gordon A. Craig: Deutsche Geschichte 1866-1945. From the North German Confederation to the end of the Third Reich. Beck, Munich 1980; last Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-42106-7 , here p. 247.
  2. ^ Richard von Schaukal grave site , Vienna, Grinzinger Friedhof, Group 4, No. 23A.