Technology philosophy

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The philosophy of technology is understood to mean both the philosophical investigation of the importance of technology and the examination of the relationship between people , the world and technology .


The philosophy of technology, understood as the philosophy of technology, is not an invention of modern times . Rather, Protagoras , Plato (in the Timaeus , in the Politeia and in the Nomoi ) and Aristotle (in the Nicomachean Ethics , Book 6, and in Physics ) already dealt with technology in antiquity . Antiquity did not yet separate technology from art and craftsmanship . In the Middle Ages, with his increasing craftsmanship and urbanization spurts, Albertus Magnus , and in the Renaissance Giordano Bruno , addressed the anthropologically inspired question of whether man should be defined by technical creation. On the way to the modern age , which increasingly separated technology, science and art from one another, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , Karl Marx , Ludwig Wittgenstein , Martin Heidegger ( The question of technology , 1949), Walter Benjamin and Herbert Marcuse and with him the Frankfurt School , each with different aspects of technology and industrialization . The focus of the philosophy of technology was and is the ambivalence of mastery of nature and reliance on nature, the artisan's image of man or homo faber , the relationship between technology and work , the relationship between technology and art, between technology and science and the role of technology in structuring society as a whole. The engineering ethics is a branch of philosophy of technology (s. There).

The preoccupation with the subject of “technology” as a separate subject area of ​​philosophy was only triggered at the end of the 19th century by the book “Basics of a Philosophy of Technology” (1877) by the Hegelian Ernst Kapp . For him, technology is human organ projection, but it also forms culture in a comprehensive sense. With this, Kapp succeeded in separating the question of technology from the narrower field of anthropology and expanding it to include the question of relevance for the respective culture and its awareness. The philosophy of technology in the narrower sense therefore belongs to the philosophy of the Enlightenment and to the discussion about its conditions and consequences, especially since the high industrialization .

The starting point for the formation of the discipline was anthropological knowledge since the end of the 18th century, which humans regarded as “ deficient beings ”, i.e. H. regarded as deficient in the specialization of his organs and senses in comparison to the animal, but superior by his mind. Unlike all other animals, humans are not dependent on a special living environment, but can and must constantly create their own habitat due to the lack of their own biotope ( technotope ). In this context also belongs Friedrich Nietzsche's statement that humans are "undetected animals". So people necessarily need technology. In the 20th century Arnold Gehlen took up this thesis of human deficiencies again and integrated it into his more culturally pessimistic anthropology. However, the above was People's failure to adapt to nature is always a chance in terms of their cosmopolitanism - a term that Max Scheler and Helmuth Plessner emphasized in the first third of the 20th century .

Although the philosophy of technology is shaped by the thinking of German idealism , more materialistic positions developed in the 20th century that asked about the concrete social and economic changes caused by machinization, automation and rationalization, and thus about the role of the artifact (e.g. B. Gerhard Freyer, F. Gottl-Ottlilienfeld, Max Bense , Gerhard Banse, Günter Ropohl ). Some authors refer directly or indirectly to Karl Marx and his thesis of alienation , while others refer to certain crisis phenomena (e.g. the ecological crisis ). In this context, the discussion about the means character of technology and the question of the relationship between means / end and means / medium are important. In addition, there were phenomenological positions that asked about the relationship between technology and the world and its determination, as embodied by Hans Blumenberg and Jacques Ellul . The philosophical approaches to define the concept of technology in its dimensions are as varied as the positions of the philosophy of technology. The indeterminacy of the technology itself becomes a philosophical topic.

The philosophy of technology comes in culturally pessimistic and optimistic varieties. It is part of utopian ( utopia ) and dystopian thinking ( dystopia ) and their manifestation in fictional literature and in film. More recently, the technology philosophy has been devoted to virtual reality , ICT technologies , biotechnologies and the design of socio-technical systems and technological visions of the future.

Magic and technology

Both in antiquity ( Heron of Alexandria ) and in the Middle Ages, technology has not only the aspect of fulfilling a purpose or benefit, but also always that of the magical ( magic ). The Neo-Kantian Ernst Cassirer pointed out in 1930 (in the essay Form and Technology ) that today's technical culture already finds echoes in the magical worldview of pre-technical cultures ( Homo divinans ). The basis for technical thinking and acting is always the distance from the nature to be changed. Without the distancing of the subject from the objective world, no technical development can take place (technical idealism). This first objectifying attitude, as the first reflection on the constitution of the world and nature, is inherent in the magical world view. It is based on a belief that you can influence the world through rituals and courses of action. The arbitrariness or the belief in an all-encompassing and dominating force of fate (the divine) already takes a back seat in magical action. However, this distance relationship to nature does not mean that nature is objectified by technology.

Technology philosophy and science philosophy

Only the scientific-analytical experimental set-up in the experiment led to a theoretical detachment of the subject from the object in the course of the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. The description of natural laws according to fixed, ahistorical principles allowed an increasingly rational description of the world ( rationalism ), which has overcome the magical for the validity of its expressive range. The basic anthropological assumption of humans as defective beings does not, however, itself refer to any ahistorical natural law. The philosophy of technology can therefore not be converted into the philosophy of science , but both sub-disciplines have been related to each other since the end of the 19th century. Because the question of whether technology is to be regarded as an applied natural science (in the sense of a purely practical implementation of natural laws) or whether v. a. the scientific experiment does not owe rather to the technology in its materiality and functional instrumentality (e.g. qua apparatus and instrument ). A younger school of thought , particularly inspired by Bruno Latour , that wants to give up the separation of science and technology is that of technoscience . From a philosophical point of view, the problem arises that the different orientations on the one hand truth ( natural sciences ) and on the other hand fulfillment of purpose (technology and technical sciences) no longer analytically create a difference. This line of thinking reflects the science-political demand for an application orientation of the natural sciences ( applied sciences ) in their problems and evokes the question of the meaning and purpose of the category of basic research and the scientific claim to truth . For the theory of technical sciences, it is problematic that the concept of artifact , which refers to artificiality, usefulness and manual / industrial production, is usually transferred in technoscience to the more vague categories of thing (epistemic thing), agent or medium ( media philosophy ).

Philosophy of technology, philosophy of life and social philosophy

Especially in the 1920s and 1930s, when social Darwinism was increasingly able to manifest itself with the dogma of the “struggle for survival”, thinking about technology stood in the confrontation with various concepts of life and therefore had a close proximity to the thinkers of the philosophy of life (including the by Henri Bergson and José Ortega y Gasset ). In his work Der Mensch und die Technik (1931), the cultural philosopher Oswald Spengler connects , partly in fascist diction, the problem of the development of technology with the "primal question" of life, the struggle for power. Especially in the recent crisis (first half of the 20th century), this leads to catastrophic developments, especially within the Faustian culture . However, these are fateful to accept. In this argumentative tradition of technology and tragedy, the technology-critical Ludwig Klages , his friend Theodor Lessing and the 'middle' Martin Heidegger can also be classified in terms of the philosophy of technology .

On the other hand, there are the technical philosophies of Helmuth Plessner and (much later) Hans Jonas , who plead for a responsibility in dealing with technology and its power to structure or dissolve communities. Starting from the philosophy of life, you argue with a social-philosophical intention, i.e. H. with regard to the life of the community. Günter Ropohl ( Eine Systemtheorie der Technik , 1979) later also points to social responsibility for technical action and its material , whereby it is not about the relationship between technology and the biological concept of life, but rather to social life and the question of its technocratic control goes ( technocracy ). Here there are points of contact for the sociology of technology .

Both Gehlen and Cassirer and Hannah Arendt refer to the close connection between technical development and the emergence and support of the capitalist economic system, mostly with regard to the machine and machinery . This view of machine technology is continued in the 1960s by Helmut Schelsky and expanded to include human and orientation techniques. Since then, at the latest, the philosophy of technology was no longer tied to tools, machines and artefacts, but could also refer to processes that humans also apply to themselves.

The more recent approaches that investigate the relationship between technology, life and power stand in this tradition. These include the concepts of biopower and self- technology / technologies of the self by Michel Foucault , the concept of biofact and the philosophical discussion of neuro and psychotechnics.

Recent developments

Technology criticism since the 1950s

Günther Anders examined the effects of technical progress on the human psyche as well as its ethical and moral consequences ( Die Antiquiertheit des Menschen , Volume 1 : 1956; Volume 2 : 1980). Important in his philosophical and literary works are the cuts in civilization that are marked by the dropping of the atomic bomb and the invention of television. In a similar tradition, but with a thrust towards political philosophy , is the book Vita activa (German 1960; orig. 1958) by his companion Hannah Arendt . According to Arendt, the human image of Homo faber stands in contrast to the Aristotelian concept of humans as zoon politikon . In 2008, Arendt's student Richard Sennett presented a book on the philosophy of technology as a history of ideas of crafted thinking and acting, which Homo faber interprets positively, as he (she) is oriented towards problem solving ( The Craftsman. German 2010).

The above was concerned with the ethical and moral aspect of our increasingly technological world. Moral philosopher Hans Jonas , who is particularly affected by the unsustainable handling of nature and the progress of medical technology. Here, too, atomic technology is leading to knowledge. He put the discussion under the theme “The Principle of Responsibility” (1979). According to Jonas, a “heuristic of fear” has developed that only protects against human self-destruction by the technology he has developed. In the long term, only moral responsibility can guide technology. When assessing the risk of which technology should be further developed and used, the disaster prognosis is preferable to the salvation prognosis. This means that in the sense of the said "heuristic of fear" one must refrain from all techniques that could endanger humanity with even a low probability, even if such techniques had the potential to be of great benefit.

Technology philosophy and science fiction

The more recent developments include the explicit confrontation of the philosophy of technology with science fiction , which is linked to a close connection between technology and futurism . In a literary thought experiment, Stanisław Lem transferred the biological theory of evolution to technical systems and in this context also speculated about the possibilities of nanotechnology and distributed artificial intelligence ( Der Invincible , 1964). He dealt with these and similar topics in Summa Technologiae (1964). There he conceptualized his ideas about biological, technical and sociocultural evolution , artificial intelligence , virtual reality , computer simulation , nanotechnology and technological singularity .

Transhumanists think - mostly in the sense of a technical optimism - about the technical development of humans up to their overcoming (vision of the cyborg ).

Technology philosophy and the engineering profession

Another direction deals with the engineering profession in philosophical, v. a. ethical point of view (see also VDI ). Subsequently, the technology philosophy also includes the methodological and conceptual fundamentals of technology assessment and technology ethics . The VDI guideline 3780 ("Technology Assessment") from 1991 is a product of philosophers' analysis of the requirements of the engineering profession. The guideline systematizes values ​​in technical action, which implies those of creative action. A multitude of factors that play a role in a development and design process must all be taken into account and merged into a whole. Today's engineering education increasingly ensures that students have an adequate attitude. The basic values ​​of this attitude include a. Economy and ecology, logic and morals, ethics and aesthetics, precision and innovation. This creates important points of contact with design theory and links engineering with many other scientific disciplines. This results in various requirements for coping with complexity (conveying technology and design as a coping strategy for the connection between complexity and time - also and especially in the social dimension). The so-called “factory of the future” is one such research topic. For more than 20 years of informatization in traditional industries, it has now represented as " Industry 4.0 " a future project in the high-tech strategy of the federal government.

Philosophical attempts to establish an engineering ethic or an engineer oath (analogous to the Hippocratic oath in medicine) also belong in this context.

Technology philosophy under gender aspects

Since the publication of the book TechnoFeminism by Judy Wajcman in 1994 and the work of Donna Haraway , the connection between the philosophy of technology and gender has also been a research topic in the philosophy of technology. Technofeminism criticizes the culturally practiced alliance between technology and man, which can a. from the history of the craft trades and engineering studies. Another field that has long semantically supported the closeness of man and technology is that of the military and military technology . Not least because of the close connection between the philosophy of technology and anthropology, the question is increasingly being asked whether the traditional view of the man as the hunter-gatherer and the woman as the guardian of fire, which is questioned among paleoanthropologists, should not also have consequences for the philosophy of technology (especially for the development of the human image of Homo faber ).

Further suggestions arise from the field of technical education ( technology didactics ) and the history of technology , which always understand technology as part of a manual and material culture in addition to the ideal culture.

A challenge of the future is to combine the philosophy of technology with intercultural philosophy and natural philosophy , since the philosophical examination of technology, also in the form of technoscience , has so far been almost exclusively in relation to 'Western' categories such as enlightenment , democracy and technical progress and consequently is mainly led by philosophers from western industrial nations.

Philosophy of technology as the philosophy of science of the technical sciences

In more recent times, the philosophy of technology has also dealt with the theoretical foundations of the technical sciences, i.e. H. it tries to substantiate the specifics of construction from cognition to design in terms of scientific method, conceptual and epistemological principles. One of the central terms here is “technical knowledge”.

Technology philosophy as an academic discipline

The philosophy of technology or philosophy of technology is a younger sub-discipline of academic philosophy; H. the denomination of chairs, the future owners of which should explicitly devote themselves to the philosophy of technology, did not begin worldwide until the 1970s, around a century after Ernst Kapp's philosophical foundation . But today, unlike natural philosophy , which goes back further in the history of philosophy , it is firmly established in the philosophical teaching canon, also in the form of textbooks. The areas of responsibility to be dealt with by professors in the context of the philosophy of technology are often associated in the denominations with the philosophy of science or, more recently, with the philosophy of culture . Chairs for philosophy of technology are now mostly located at technical universities or technical colleges, and more rarely at art colleges.

In Germany, the philosophy of technology as an academic discipline in the narrower sense in the last three decades and. a. Developed further by Max Bense , Hans Sachsse , Friedrich Rapp , Hans Lenk , Hans Poser , Rafael Capurro , Walther Christoph Zimmerli , Bernhard Irrgang , Gerhard Banse , Christoph Hubig , Klaus Kornwachs , Günter Ropohl and Nicole C. Karafyllis (see literature). The borderline is to philosophers from the field of natural philosophy (e.g. Gernot Böhme , Ernst Oldemeyer , Lothar Schäfer ) and the philosophy of science (e.g. Wolfgang Krohn , Brigitte Falkenburg , Gregor Schiemann , Alfred Nordmann ) as well as phenomenology ( Hans Blumenberg , Don Ihde ) and media philosophy (e.g. Friedrich Kittler , Bernard Stiegler , Sybille Krämer , Gerhard Gamm , Erich Hörl ), because technology is often analyzed philosophically using counter-terms such as nature , body or spirit . Technology philosophers can also be found among theologians (e.g. Ivan Illich ).

For the US context, recent disciplinary trailblazers include a. Andrew Feenberg , Carl Mitcham , Don Ihde and Earl R. McCormack and, with a media focus, Marshall McLuhan . Hans Achterhuis is pioneering for the Dutch philosophy of technology , for the French Gaston Bachelard , Gilbert Simondon , Jacques Ellul and Bruno Latour . Both Latour and Carl Mitcham began their academic careers at mining academies. Understood in an even broader sense, technology assessment via Herbert Paschen and Armin Grunwald was able to develop as an academic discipline in Germany, although it is genuinely interdisciplinary and is close to the field of policy advice .

In the Anglo-Saxon region, the philosophy of technology has often been integrated into the science and technology studies course in recent years .

See also


Textbooks and introductions


  • Hans Achterhuis (Ed.): American Philosophy of Technology: The Empirical Turn. Indiana University Press, Bloomington 2001, ISBN 0-253-21449-1 .
  • Hannah Arendt : The Human Condition. 1958. (German: Vita activa , 1960)
  • Gaston Bachelard : The formation of the scientific mind , Frankfurt am Main 1987.
  • Gerhard Banse, Käthe Friedrich (ed.): Technology between knowledge and design. Philosophical views on technical sciences and technical action. Berlin 1996.
  • Max Bense: disobedience of ideas. Final treatise on intelligence and the technical world. Cologne 1966.
  • Hans Blumenberg : Intellectual history of technology. Frankfurt am Main 2009.
  • Gernot Böhme : Invasive mechanization. Technology philosophy and criticism. Food 2008.
  • Jacques Ellul : La technique ou l'enjeu du siècle. Paris 1954. (The Technological Society, New York 1964)
  • Brigitte Falkenburg : Whom does technology serve? Nomos, Baden-Baden 2004.
  • Andrew Feenberg: Alternative Modernity. The Technical Turn in Philosophy and Society. revised Edition. Cambridge 1995.
  • Gottl-Ottlilienfeld , F. Economy and Technology. (= Outline of Social Economics. 5). Tubingen 1914.
  • Christoph Hubig : The Art of the Possible I. Technology philosophy as a reflection of mediality. transcript, Bielefeld 2006.
  • Don Ihde: Technology and the Life World. Indianapolis 1990.
  • Ivan Illich : Self-limitation. A political critique of technology. Reinbek 1975. (Munich 1996, 1998)
  • Hans Jonas : Technology, Medicine and Ethics. To practice the principle of responsibility. Frankfurt am Main 1985.
  • H. Jonas: Why technology is an object for ethics. Five reasons. In: H. Lenk, G. Ropohl (Hrsg.): Technology and ethics. Stuttgart 1987, pp. 81-91.
  • Ernst Kapp : Basic lines of a philosophy of technology. On the history of the origins of culture from new points of view. Braunschweig 1877. (Reprint: Düsseldorf 1978)
  • Nicole C. Karafyllis , Tilmann Haar (Hrsg.): Technological philosophy on the move. Festschrift for Günter Ropohl . edition sigma, Berlin 2004.
  • K. Klagenfurt: Technological civilization and trans-classical logic. An introduction to Gotthard Günther's technical philosophy. Frankfurt am Main 1995.
  • Klaus Kornwachs (Ed.): Technology, System, Responsibility. (= Philosophy of technology. 10). LIT, Münster 2002.
  • B. Latour: Aramis, or the Love of Technology. Cambridge (Mass.) 1996.
  • B. Latour: Science in Action. How to Follow Scientis and Engineers Through Society . Cambridge 1987.
  • Stanislav Lem: Summa technologiae. Frankfurt am Main 1976.
  • Hans Lenk: Power and feasibility of technology. Stuttgart 1994.
  • H. Marcuse: De l'ontologie à la technologie. Les tendences de la société industrial In: Arguments. 4, 1960, pp. 54-59.
  • H. Marcuse: Language and Technological Society. In: Dissent. 8/1, 1961, pp. 66-74.
  • H. Marcuse: The Problem of Social Change in the Technological Society. In: R. Aron, BF Hoselitz (ed.): Le développement sociale. Paris 1965, pp. 139-160.
  • José Ortega y Gasset : Considerations on Technology. The intellectual and the other. Stuttgart 1949. (also in: Th. Zoglauer (Hrsg.): Technikphilosophie. Freiburg / Munich 2000).
  • Günter Ropohl : General Technology - A Systems Theory of Technology . Universitätsverlag Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe 2009 (3rd edition). doi : 10.5445 / KSP / 1000011529
  • Richard Sennett : Craft. Berlin 2010.
  • Gilbert Simondon : The existence of technical objects. Diaphanes, Zurich / Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-03734-195-7 .
  • Bernard Stiegler: Thinking to the limits of the machine. published and with a foreword by Erich Hörl. Diaphanes, Zurich / Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-03734-057-8 .
  • Bernard Stiegler: Hypermateriality and Psycho Power. ed. and with an essay v. Erich Hörl. Zurich 2010.
  • Bernard Sieger : Technology and Time. Epimetheus's mistake. (= Transpositions. Volume 25). Diaphanes, Zurich / Berlin 2009, ISBN 978-3-03734-012-7 .
  • Judy Wajcman : TechnoFeminism. Wiley, New York 2013, ISBN 978-0-7456-3043-4 . ( english )

Web links


  1. ^ Albertus Magnus: About the man De homine. around 1240 (Meiner Verlag, Hamburg 2004)
  2. ^ Lewis Mumford: Art and Technics. New York 1952.
  3. M. Kroß: Wittgenstein's technician or: The engineer as a philosopher. Theses on the relationship between technology and philosophy in Wittgenstein. In: R. Haller, K. Puhl (eds.): Wittgenstein and the Future of Philosophy. A reassessment after 50 Years / Wittgenstein and the future of philosophy. A reassessment after 50 years . Proceedings of the 24th International Wittgenstein Symposium / files of the 24th International Wittgenstein Symposium, Kirchberg am Wechsel 2001, Vienna 2002 (series of publications by the Wittgenstein Society, Volume XXX).
  4. Martin Heidegger: The technology and the turn. Pfullingen 1962. (9th edition. 1991)
  5. ^ Walter Benjamin: The work of art in the age of its technical reproducibility . (Orig. 1938).
  6. ^ H. Marcuse: Some Social Implications of Modern Technology. In: Studies in Philosophy and Social Science. 9/3, 1941, pp. 414-439.
  7. ^ P. Murray: The Frankfurt School Critique of Technology. In: PT Durbin, C. Mitcham (Ed.): Research in Philosophy and Technology. Volume V, Greenwich (Conn.) 1982, pp. 223-248.
  8. Ernst Kapp : Basic lines of a philosophy of technology. On the history of the origins of culture from new points of view. Braunschweig 1877 (reprint: Düsseldorf 1978).
  9. ^ Günter Ropohl : Technological Enlightenment. Contributions to the philosophy of technology. Frankfurt am Main 1991. (2nd edition. Frankfurt am Main 1999)
  10. Arnold Gehlen : The soul in the technical age. Sociopsychological problems in industrial society. Hamburg 1957. (also in: A. Gehlen: Anthropological and social-philosophical investigations. Reinbek 1986, pp. 145–266; in: A. Gehlen: Gesamtausgabe. Volume VI: The soul in the technical age and other social-psychological, sociological and cultural-analytical writings. Frankfurt am Main 2004.)
  11. Max Scheler: The position of man in the cosmos. 1928. (11th edition. Bouvier, Cologne 2001)
  12. Helmuth Plessner: The stages of the organic and the human. De Gruyter, 1975.
  13. ^ José Ortega y Gasset : Considerations on technology. The intellectual and the other. Stuttgart 1949. (also in: Th. Zoglauer (Hrsg.): Technikphilosophie. Freiburg / Munich 2000)
  14. Christoph Hubig : The Art of the Possible I. Technology philosophy as a reflection of mediality . transcript, Bielefeld 2006. Cf. also the article Gerhard Gamm: Technik als Medium. In: Ders .: Not nothing. Suhrkamp, ​​Frankfurt am Main 2000.
  15. Gerhard Gamm, A. Hetzel (Ed.): Indeterminacy Signatures of Technology. A new interpretation of the technological world. transcript Verlag, Bielefeld 2005.
  16. KN Ha: Hype about hybridity. Cultural difference consumption and postmodern exploitation techniques in late capitalism. transcript, Bielefeld 2005.
  17. ^ NC Karafyllis: "Biotechnology". In: G. Banse, A. Grunwald, W. König, G. Ropohl (eds.): Recognize and shape. A theory of engineering science. edition sigma, Berlin 2006, pp. 319–328.
  18. Günter Ropohl : General Technology - A Systems Theory of Technology . Carl Hanser Verlag, Munich / Vienna 1999.
  19. Ernst Cassirer: Form and Technology. (1930) In: EW Orth, JM Krois (ed.): Symbol, Technik, Sprache. Articles from 1927–33. Meiner, Hamburg 1985.
  20. Bruno Latour: We have never been modern. 2nd Edition. Frankfurt am Main 2002.
  21. Hans-Jörg Rheinberger, Experimental Systems and Epitemic Things, Göttingen: Wallstein 2001.
  22. NC Karafyllis (Ed.): Leading Life? Lifestyle between technology philosophy and life philosophy. edition sigma, Berlin 2014.
  23. ^ NC Karafyllis: "Biofacts. Basics, Problems and Perspectives ". In: Consider knowledge ethics. (EWE) Vol. 17 (4), pp. 547-558.
  24. Oliver Müller, Jens Clausen, Giovanni Maio (ed.): The mechanization of the brain. Mentis, Paderborn 2009.
  25. Günther Anders : The antiquity of man. 1956, Munich 1994.
  26. ^ Richard Sennett : Craft. Berlin 2010.
  27. Hans Jonas: The principle of responsibility. Attempting ethics for technological civilization. Frankfurt am Main 1979.
  28. ^ H. Marcuse: Technology, War, and Fascism. Collected Papers, Volume I, London 1998.
  29. See e.g. B. Nancy Tanner: On becoming Human. Cambridge 1982.
  30. Wolfgang König (ed.): Propylaea history of technology. 5 volumes, 1995.
  31. Leo Marx, MR Smith (Ed.): Does Technology Drive History? The Dilemma of Technological Determinism. Cambridge (Mass.)
  32. Banse, Gerhard & Friedrich, Käthe (ed.): Technology between knowledge and design. Philosophical views on technical sciences and technical action. Berlin 1996.
  33. Sandro LS Gaycken : Technical knowledge. Thinking in the service of action. Munster 2009.
  34. Wolfgang Krohn: Technology and Nature. A story of opposites full of relationships. In: Dialectic. 3/1993; Nicole C. Karafyllis: "Nature as counter-technology", In: NC Karafyllis, T. Haar (Hrsg.): Technological philosophy on the move. edition sigma, Berlin 2004.
  35. ^ Andrew Feenberg: Questioning Technology. London 1999.
  36. ^ Thomas Petermann, V. v. Thienen (Ed.): Technology and Parliament. Consequences of technology: assessment, concepts, experiences, opportunities. Berlin 1986; Thomas Petermann, Armin Grunwald (ed.): Technology assessment for the German Bundestag. The TAB - Experiences and Perspectives of Scientific Policy Advice. edition sigma, Berlin 2005.