Mountains of trees
|Mountains of trees|
|Highest peak||Westerberg ( )|
|location||Coesfeld district , Münsterland , North Rhine-Westphalia ( Germany )|
|part of||Burgsteinfurter Landes , Kernmünsterland|
|Classification according to||Handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany|
|rock||Baumberger sand-lime brick|
|Age of the rock||Campan|
The Baumberge in the North Rhine-Westphalian district of Coesfeld - located between the independent city of Münster and Coesfeld as the district town of the district of the same name - are the highest mountain range in the Münsterland .
The name Baumberge goes back to the term Bomberg , which in turn is a fusion of the old German word bo , synonymous with house / yard , and the deity Odin .
The Baumberge are located in the Kernmünsterland between the cities of Münster in the east and Coesfeld in the west. They are divided into the Bomberge , the Osterwicker Platte , the Coesfeld-Daruper Heights and the Schöppinger Ridge . The Altenberger Ridge to the northeast , which is no longer counted among the tree mountains , is set apart from them by the Hohenholter Depression . Centrally in the Baumberge, where Bomberge, Osterwicker Platte and Coesfeld-Daruper Heights meet, is the Billerbeck resort in a very central location in the Berkel Valley .
The Bomberge between Billerbeck, Havixbeck , Nottuln and Horstmar are a flat high plateau in which with Westerberg ( ), Bomberg ( ), Billerbecker Berg ( ), Luseberg ( ) and Hoheberg ( ) the highest heights of the mountain range can be reached. The latter two are located in the south-west of Havixbeck against Tilbeck pulling Stever mountains .
Beyond the connecting road Nottuln – Billerbeck ( Landesstrasse 577), the height up to (elevation west of the farmstead ) is only separated by a saddle at (street point north-northwest of the fish ponds at the Nonnenbach near the Schulze Bisping homestead) Frieling ) high Coesfeld-Daruper heights as the southwest foothills of the southern part. Towards Coesfeld, the Coesfelder Berg moves , which reaches a height of on the Ludgerirast above the Gerleve monastery .
In terms of area, the Osterwicker Platte in the west is the largest of the four sub-units of the Baumberge. It reaches a height of south of Osterwick and drops to the northwest. It is separated from the Schöppinger Berg by the Vechte , from the Coesfeld-Daruper heights by the valley of the Berkel.
(to 54 Westphalian Bay )
(to 541 Kernmünsterland )
(to 541.0 Burgsteinfurter Land )
- 541.00 Osterwicker Hügelland (up to ; flatter north-west foothills , separated from the Schöppinger ridge by the Vechte )
- 541.02 Schöppinger Ridge (up to ; northern foothills of the Baumberge)
- 541.03 Baumberge (up to )
- 541.05 Altenberger Ridge (up to about ; northeast parallel, flatter mountain range to Baumbergen and Schöppinger Ridge, separated by the Steinfurter Aa )
- 541.07 Coesfeld-Daruper Höhen (up to ; southwest foothills of the Baumberge)
- (to 541.0 Burgsteinfurter Land )
- (to 541 Kernmünsterland )
The surveys of the tree mountains and their foothills (*) include - sorted by height in meters above sea level (NHN):
- Westerberg ( ; with Longinusturm observation tower ) - between Billerbeck , Havixbeck and Nottuln
- Luseberg ( Stevern and Havixbeck ) - in "Stever Mountains" between Nottuln-
- Bomberg ( ) - between Billerbeck, Havixbeck and Nottuln
- Detter Berg ( Schapdetten ) - near
- Hoheberg ( ) - in "Stever Mountains" between Stevern and Havixbeck
- Bartels- / Bertelsberg ( ) - in "Stever Mountains" between Stevern and Havixbeck
- Billerbecker Berg ( ) - east of Billerbeck
- Weter- / Westerberg ( Darfeld ) - between Billerbeck and
- Hanloer Mark * ( Coesfeld-Daruper heights ) - northwest of Nottuln, in the southwest foothills of the
- Schöppinger Berg * ( ) - east of Schöppingen, on the northern foothills of the Schöppinger ridge
- Südberge ( ) - southeast of Billerbeck
- Coesfelder Berg * (up to ) - east of Coesfeld , in the southwestern foothills of the Coesfeld-Daruper heights
- Dillen- / Nohnenberg ( ) - in "Regelmanns Bergen", east-southeast of Darfeld
- Mölleringshügel ( ) - directly south-southeast of Billerbeck
- Hill southeast of Osterwick * ( ) - southeast of the northwestern foothills of the Osterwick hill country
- Paschhügel * ( ) - in Altenberge , main mountain of the Altenberg Ridge, which is parallel to the Baumberge (together with the Schöppinger Ridge) to the northeast
- Hill southeast of Holtwicks * ( ) - southwest of the Osterwick hill country
Within the framework of the Baumberge watershed, the Baumberge form a kind of wedge, especially between the rivers of the Rhine and Ems . Due to their proximity to the sea , the ridge has a share in the catchment areas of some rivers . The Hagenbach and the Stever , which rises there and flows south, are tributaries of the Lippe , which in turn belongs to the Rhine. The Münstersche Aa flowing to the east is part of the Ems electricity system. The Vechte , which rises near Darfeld at the foot of the Baumberge and flows north-west into the Netherlands , forms its own small current system with the Dinkel . The westward flowing Berkel has its confluence with the Dutch IJssel .
Tree mountains as karst mountains
The subsoil of the Baumberge consists of sand-lime brick, which is well permeable to water. As a result, the rainwater on the plateau seeps into great depths. For centuries, the existing farms had to get their drinking water from 40 m to 50 m deep wells - more often, however, was the supply from rainwater cisterns - before they were connected to a drinking water pipe in the early 1970s. The rainwater that has seeped away then emerges at the edges of the tree mountains in spring horizons , whereby entire streams can emerge within a few meters. Well-known examples of high spring discharges are Schwarthoffs Quelle and the Leerbachquelle near Leer (Horstmar) on Schöppinger Berg. Some other characteristics of a karst mountain range such as stream shrinkage and sinkholes can also be found in the tree mountains .
The subsoil of the Baumberge is formed by a sandstone , which is very popular in construction , which is bound with lime . This material is pale yellow in color, is very easy to work with and defines the image of the cities in the whole area.
For example, the St. Paulus Cathedral and the town hall of Münster are built entirely from this stone material. Other prominent examples of the use of this building material is the provost Church of St. Ludger in Billerbeck , the interiors of between Billerbeck and Coesfeld located Gerleve Abbey and the Baumberge Club maintained Longinusturm on the Westerberg. Baumberger sandstone was already very popular as a material for sculpting work in the Middle Ages , figures made of this stone from this period can be found throughout the Hanseatic region , examples include Lübeck and Riga .
Parts of the Baumberger sandstone are very soft and very sensitive to environmental influences such as acid rain and other air pollution, which has led to this stone's reputation as a building material. However, the position in which the material is installed is decisive for the susceptibility of the stone to weathering : workpieces that are installed in the same position as the raw material was removed from the quarry are significantly more resistant. In contrast, material placed on a gap weathers very quickly; this basic rule was not adhered to, especially in the new buildings of the 19th century, so that there is an increased need for repairs here in particular . The local stonemasons currently deliver a large number of workpieces that have to be replaced because of this damage.
In the center of the tree mountains lies the nature reserve Baumberge ( CDDA -No 378,156;. 2006 reported 3.78 square kilometers in size) that is part of the Natura 2000 network belonging Fauna Flora Habitat type region Baumberge (FFH No. 4010. 302; 3.97 km²). is. In the northwest is the NSG Bombecker Aa (CDDA no. 162493; 1993; 1.49 km²), which is also designated as the FFH area Bombecker Aa (FFH no. 4010-301; 1.49 km²). In addition, the following nature reserves are located in the landscape ( starting clockwise in the north): Hangsbach springs (CDDA no.378201; 2005; 13 ha ), Lasbecker springs (CDDA no.378228; 2006; 7 ha), Kötterberg (CDDA no. 378223; 2006; 10 ha), Hexenkuhle (CDDA no. 378209; 2006; 7 ha), Stever (south) (CDDA no. 378290; 2005; 23 ha), Stever (north) (CDDA no. 165739; 1988; 13 ha) and Brookbusch (CDDA no.378167; 2005; 30 ha). The Baumberge landscape protection area (LSG) is located on the Baumberge (CDDA no. 319818; 2006; 77.3 km²), and parts of the LSG Darfeld (CDDA no. 344909; 1974; 20.16 km²) are located in the northwest of the landscape . .
The Baumberge tower over the otherwise flat landscape by up to 100 m and reach Westerberg ; its summit is crowned by the Longinusturm . Characteristic for this landscape is a relatively flat and forest-free plateau with steep and, from a certain height, wooded edges. The plateau is without closed settlement because of its lack of water .height of on the
In the area of the Coesfelder Berg east of Coesfeld lies the Sitter , an area of partly wooded, steep dry valleys that formed in the last Ice Age. Etymologically, the word sitter is derived from the pagan deity Ziu ; Ziutir means "honor of the Ziu".
In the part of the Baumberge, which extends between Schapdetten , Tilbeck , Nottuln and Havixbeck , there is an extensive Landwehr facility, the Tilbecker Landwehr . This form of border fortification, which dates back to the Middle Ages, consists of two parallel ramparts that stretch several kilometers through the mountains of trees.
The Grinkenschmied sits in Detter Berg near Schapdetten and forges plow irons, shod the horses, does all the blacksmithing, but receives no payment for it, only a roast; especially for this wage you lend your skewer at weddings. That happened once, and when the wedding is over, the farmer sends his servant back to Grinkenschmied with a spit and roast; But the servant eats the roast on the way, and when Grinkenschmied says: "Dat's min spitt, aver where is min braden?" the servant freshly replies: "Da wett ik nist van." Was di, ik sall minen braden wull kregen. ”When the servant who was on horseback heard this, he hurried off; but when he got home his horse had ripped a large chunk out of the heap; that was Grinkenschmied's roast.
Traffic and walking
The A 43 leads south past the Baumberge at a minimum of 2 km (south of Schapdetten) and the A 1 to the east at 8 km . The northern part of the ridge is separated by the Baumberbahn as a railway line . The landscape can be hiked through on forest paths and paths as well as on dirt roads.
The Baumberge-Verein (BBV) was founded in 1896 and is based in Münster . Its first chairman was Friedrich Westhoff . It signs and maintains hiking trails, including the Baumberger Ludgerusweg , the Hollandgängerweg and the Westfälische-Friede-Weg . In addition, the association maintains seven circular hiking trails starting at the Longinusturm with a total length of 53 km and 58 local circular hiking trails with a total length of 605 km. The association publishes hiking maps and literature about the Baumberge.
- Lioba Beyer: The mountains of trees . Ed .: Geographical regional studies department of the Westphalian Heimatbund (= Landscape Guide of the Westphalian Heimatbund . Volume 8 ). Aschendorff, Münster 1975, ISBN 3-402-06344-1 (German: Die Baumberge .).
- Baumberge hiking map , self-published by the Baumberge Association, Münster 2015
- Walter Werland, Die Baumberge , self-published by the Baumberge-Verein, Münster 1971. In the appendix the chronicle of the 75th anniversary of the Baumberge-Verein .
- The Baumberg region. (PDF; 11.7 MB) On the trail of nature . Baumberge Touristik , an association of the cities and municipalities Billerbeck , Coesfeld , Havixbeck , Nottuln and Rosendahl , January 27, 2014, accessed on November 22, 2011 .
- Baumberge nature reserve. (PDF; 4.5 MB) Nature Conservation Center District Coesfeld e. V. , accessed on August 13, 2012 .
- The Baumberge , on baumberge-touristik.de
Natural area maps from the single sheets 1: 200,000 of the Federal Institute for Regional Studies - the tree mountains are the natural area "541.03" on:
- Sofie Meisel: Geographical land survey: The natural spatial units on sheet 83/84 Osnabrück / Bentheim. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1961. → Online map (PDF; 6.4 MB); see about in the middle at the bottom of the sheet margin
- Wilhelm von Kürten: Geographical land survey: The natural spatial units on sheet 95/96 Kleve / Wesel. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1977. → Online map (PDF; 6.9 MB); see northeast corner of the sheet
- Sofie Meisel: Geographical land survey: The natural spatial units on sheet 97 Münster. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1960. → Online map (PDF; 4.1 MB); see northwest corner of the sheet
- The sources in the Baumbergen (Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe), on lwl.org
- Baumberge Association V. Münster , on baumberge-verein.de
- Topographical Information Management, Cologne District Government, Department GEObasis NRW ( information )
- The Baumberg region. (PDF; 11.7 MB) On the trail of nature . Baumberge Touristik , an association of the cities and communities Billerbeck , Coesfeld , Havixbeck , Nottuln and Rosendahl , January 27, 2014, p. 10 , accessed on November 22, 2011 .
- Lioba Beyer: The tree mountains . Ed .: Geographical regional studies department of the Westphalian Heimatbund (= Landscape Guide of the Westphalian Heimatbund . Volume 8 ). Aschendorff, Münster 1975, ISBN 3-402-06344-1 , p. 1 f . (German: Die Baumberge .).
- Sofie Meisel: Geographical Land Survey: The natural space units on sheet 83/84 Osnabrück / Bentheim. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1961. → Online map (PDF; 6.4 MB)
- Provincial Institute for Westphalian Regional Studies and Folklore: Westphalian Research . tape 30 . Aschendorff, 1980.
- Baumberge Nature Reserve. (PDF; 4.5 MB) (No longer available online.) Naturschutzzentrum Kreis Coesfeld e. V. , archived from the original on February 2, 2014 ; Retrieved August 13, 2012 .
- Map services of the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation ( information )
- Brungert: The current Coesfeld in Festschrift to celebrate the 700th anniversary of the city of Coesfeld , page 70, published by J. Hardworking, Coesfeld 1897th
- Adalbert Kuhn: Legends, customs and fairy tales from Westphalia and some others, especially the neighboring areas of northern Germany, compiled by Adalbert Kuhn . Brockhaus, Leipzig 1859, p. 84 ( online in Google Book Search).
- Baumberge-Verein e. V. (BBV) information sheet, on wanderverband.de (PDF; 30.4 kB)
- Hollandgängerweg ( Memento from February 21, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), on lwl.org
- New circular routes for hikers , on wn.de
- Baumberger "Ludgerusweg" receives a certificate for the expanded hiking trail , on coesfelder-nachrichten.de
- New signs for the "Hollandgängerweg" , on wn.de
- Ludgerusweg Baumberge: first quality trail in the flat part of Westphalia , on dhd-news.de
- On foot through the city , on agfs-nrw.de (PDF; 4.29 MB)
- All paths at a glance , at azonline.de
- Baumberge hiking map , 1st edition, self-published by the Baumberge-Verein, Münster 2015