Member States of the European Union
The 27 European states that are members of the European Union (EU) are referred to as member states of the European Union or EU member states, in short: EU member states or EU member states . They are also referred to as union members and, more rarely, union member states .
Member States of the EU
List of Member States
The official designation for statistical measurements are:
- EWG-6: up to and including 1972 (see European Economic Community )
- EG-9: up to and including 1980
- EG-10: up to and including 1985
- EG-12: up to and including 1994 (see European Communities )
- EU-15: up to and including April 2004
- EU-25: up to and including 2006 (see EU enlargement 2004 )
- EU-27_2007 (originally EU-27 ): up to and including June 2013
- EU-28: up to and including January 2020
- EU-27_2020 (partly also EU-27_2019 ): since February 1, 2020 (see UK exit from the EU )
- see also EA / Euro-11 to 19 for the Eurozone
By sorting the list according to the year of accession, the individual countries of these statistical groups can be read; for more details see EU enlargement .
|Inhabitants / km²||
|Belgium||BE||January 1, 1958||Brussels||11,398,589||30,528||373||423,048||37,500||118|
|Germany||DE||January 1, 1958
(October 3, 1990)
|France||FR||January 1, 1958||Paris||66.962.166||632.834||106||2,228,857||33,300||104|
|Italy||IT||January 1, 1958||Rome||60,483,973||302.073||200||1,680,523||27,700||97|
|Luxembourg||LU||January 1, 1958||Luxembourg||602.005||2,586||233||53.005||90,700||258|
|Netherlands||NL||January 1, 1958||Amsterdam||17.181.084||41,540||414||702.641||41,300||128|
|Denmark||DK||1st January 1973||Copenhagen||5,781,190||42,921||135||277,489||48,400||124|
|Ireland||IE||1st January 1973||Dublin||4,830,392||69,797||69||275.567||58,800||183|
|Greece||GR||January 1, 1981||Athens||10,741,165||131,957||81||174.199||16,200||68|
|Portugal||PT||January 1, 1986||Lisbon||10.291.027||92,225||112||185.18||17,900||77|
|Spain||IT||January 1, 1986||Madrid||46,658,447||505.970||92||1,118,522||24,100||92|
|Finland||FI||January 1, 1995||Helsinki||5,513,130||338.435||16||215.615||39,200||109|
|Austria||AT||January 1, 1995||Vienna||8,822,267||83,879||105||353.297||40,400||128|
|Sweden||SE||January 1, 1995||Stockholm||10.120.242||438,574||23||465.186||46,900||123|
|Estonia||EE||May 1, 2004||Tallinn||1,319,133||45.227||29||21,098||16,000||75|
|Latvia||LV||May 1, 2004||Riga||1,934,379||64,573||30th||24.927||12,700||65|
|Lithuania||LT||May 1, 2004||Vilnius||2,808,901||65,300||43||38.668||13,500||75|
|Malta||MT||May 1, 2004||Valletta||475.701||316||1,505||9,927||22,700||96|
|Poland||PL||May 1, 2004||Warsaw||37,976,687||312,679||121||425.98||11,100||68|
|Slovakia||SK||May 1, 2004||Bratislava||5,443,120||49,035||111||81.154||14,900||77|
|Slovenia||SI||May 1, 2004||Ljubljana||2,066,880||20,273||102||40,418||19,600||83|
|Czech Republic||CZ||May 1, 2004||Prague||10.610.055||78,867||135||176.564||16,700||88|
|Hungary||HU||May 1, 2004||Budapest||9,778,371||93.024||105||113.731||11,600||67|
|Cyprus||CY||May 1, 2004||Nicosia||864.236||9,251||93||18.123||21,300||83|
|Bulgaria||BG||January 1, 2007||Sofia||7,050,034||111.002||64||48.129||6,800||49|
|Romania||RO||January 1, 2007||Bucharest||19,530,631||238.391||82||169.578||8,600||58|
|Croatia||MR||July, 1st 2013||Zagreb||4,105,493||56,594||73||46.382||11,100||60|
|European Union||EU||-||Brussels||446.141.649||4,215,191||106||12,511.874||29,100 *||100 *|
* outdated data including the UK
- Notes on the list
- ↑ Originally the abbreviation EU-27 referred to the 27 member states before the accession of Croatia. Since this designation is not clear due to the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the EU (Brexit), the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat) has decided to use the designation EU-27_2007. In the Eurostat databases, this change will take effect on 3 March 2020.
- ↑ For the 27 EU member states remaining after Brexit, the designation EU-27_2019 was initially chosen with regard to the planned exit date. However, since the exit did not take place until 2020, the name EU-27_2020 results. In the Eurostat databases, this change will take effect on 3 March 2020.
Candidate countries (candidate countries)
GDP per capita
in PPS 2013 ( euros )
|GDP per capita
in PPS 2016 (EU28 = 100)
|Tirana||2,886,026||28,748||21.7||7,800||29||Candidate status since June 24, 2014|
|Skopje||2,073,702||25,713||18.7||9,000||37||Candidate status since December 17, 2005|
Accession negotiations since June 29, 2012
(3 of 33 chapters closed, 33 opened)
Accession negotiations since January 21, 2014
(2 of 34 chapters closed, 18 opened)
Accession negotiations since October 3, 2005
(1 of 33 chapters closed, 18 opened, 8 suspended)
Other potential candidate countries are Bosnia and Herzegovina (application for membership submitted on February 15, 2016) and Kosovo .
Some areas that belong to or are administered by EU states have a special legal status vis-à-vis the European Union. In many cases these are overseas and former colonial areas.
Overseas territories of Member States that are wholly part of the EU
Some EU member states have overseas territories, which, however, are fully integrated into their state structure and do not have any special role vis-à-vis the EU. They have the same status as other regions in mainland Europe. It refers to:
- Portuguese Autonomous Regions:
- Azores ( North Atlantic )
- Madeira (North Atlantic)
- Spanish Autonomous Region:
- Canary Islands (Atlantic)
Territories that belong to the EU but not to the customs union
Some areas belong to EU member states and are also part of the EU, but do not take part in the internal market and do not belong to the customs territory of the EU, but mostly to the euro zone (marked with *)
- the German communities of Helgoland * and Büsingen on the Upper Rhine *
- the French overseas departments:
- French Guiana ( South America ) *
- Guadeloupe ( Caribbean ) *
- Martinique (Caribbean) *
- Mayotte ( Indian Ocean ) *
- Réunion (Indian Ocean) *
- the French overseas authority Saint-Martin (Caribbean) *
- the Spanish areas of Ceuta and Melilla ( exclaves on the Moroccan Mediterranean coast) *
- the Greek Mount Athos *
- the Italian municipality of Livigno *. (Until December 31, 2019 also Campione d'Italia and the Italian part of Lake Lugano )
- the Finnish archipelago of Åland *
Some overseas territories of EU member states are associated with the European Union as overseas countries and sovereign territories within the meaning of Part 4 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union , but are not part of it. In these countries and territories only individual aspects of European law apply , e.g. B. sporadic membership of the Eurozone (marked with *)
- French territories:
- French Polynesia (Pacific)
- French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Indian Ocean)
- New Caledonia (Pacific)
- Saint-Barthélemy (Caribbean) *
- Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (North Atlantic) *
- Wallis and Futuna (Pacific)
- Dutch areas:
- Aruba (Caribbean)
- Curaçao (Caribbean)
- Sint Maarten (Caribbean)
- Caribbean Netherlands = Bonaire , Sint Eustatius and Saba (Caribbean)
- Danish autonomous area:
- Greenland (North Atlantic, left the EC in 1985)
Areas that do not belong to the EU
Some other areas are represented in foreign policy by EU member states, but do not belong to the territory of the EU and are not associated with it:
- Faroe Islands as a Danish autonomous region (was never part of the EC)
- Algeria (from 1957 to 1962 as a colony of France, member of the EC)
European dwarf states
The EU maintains special and intensive relationships with the European miniature states. Each small state is fully independent , but is in a customs and currency union with a neighboring country, which itself maintains close ties to the EU, either through its own membership or through bilateral agreements . As a result, the dwarf state also benefits from the EU customs regulations , although Liechtenstein has special regulations due to the customs union with Switzerland . Apart from Liechtenstein, the dwarf states have been using the euro as their currency unit since 2002 ; Andorra , Monaco , San Marino and Vatican City have their own euro coins. Nevertheless, these states are not members of the EU:
|Small state||Customs and Monetary Union with|
|Principality of Andorra||Kingdom of Spain|
|Principality of Liechtenstein||Swiss Confederation|
|Principality of Monaco||French Republic|
|Republic of San Marino||Italian Republic|
|Vatican City State||Italian Republic|
Often counted among the European dwarf states , Malta has been a full member of the EU since the EU was enlarged in 2004 . Luxembourg, which is also very small, is a founding member of the EU's predecessor, the European Economic Community (EEC).
- Andreas von Gehlen: Party democracies. To legitimize the EU member states through political parties . De Gruyter Oldenbourg, Berlin / Boston 2017, ISBN 978-3-11-056412-9 .
Armin von Bogdandy , Pedro Cruz Villalón , Peter M. Huber (eds.): Handbuch Ius Publicum Europaeum :
- Volume 1. Diana Zacharias, Leonard Besselink: Basics and basic features of state constitutional law . CF Müller, Heidelberg 2007, ISBN 978-3-8114-3541-4 .
- Volume 2. Diana Zacharias, Stanisław Biernat: Open statehood; Science of Constitutional Law . CF Müller, Heidelberg 2007, ISBN 978-3-8114-6301-1 .
- Volume 3. Diana Zacharias, Jean-Bernard Auby: Administrative Law in Europe: Basics . CF Müller, Heidelberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8114-9808-2 .
- Constitutions of the EU member states . Text edition, introduction and subject index by Adolf Kimmel and Christiane Kimmel (dtv 5554: Beck texts in dtv ). 6th, updated edition, dtv / Beck, Munich 2005, ISBN 3-423-05554-5 (dtv) / ISBN 3-406-53461-9 (Beck).
- Official website of the European Union on the common online portal of the EU institutions and bodies (europa.eu), managed bythe European Commission's Directorate-General for Communication (COMM).
- ↑ See an overview of all EU countries (here for the individual countries: EU member states ), The EU - in brief (here: (EU) member states, member states ), search for member states ; European Union website, accessed June 22, 2019.
- ↑ Glossary: EU enlargements and Glossary: Euro area enlargements , both Eurostat, epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
- ↑ a b European Commission> Eurostat> Help> Frequently asked questions> Brexit. Retrieved February 3, 2020 .
- ↑ Eurostat , Population on 1st January. As of 2018.
↑ Eurostat: Area by NUTS 3 Region. Status 2014.
Note: In addition to the eponymous data set for the NUTS 3 level, the Eurostat source also contains aggregated data for NUTS 2, NUTS 1 and the relevant national level NUTS 0).
- ↑ a b Eurostat , gross domestic product at market prices. As of December 20, 2017, accessed on January 3, 2018.
- ↑ Eurostat , GDP per capita in PPS. As of December 1, 2017, accessed on January 3, 2018.
- ↑ This population information is for the entire French Republic.
- ↑ According to the World Fact Book of the CIA, the area of the entire French Republic is 643,801 km², which is about 11,000 km² above the Eurostat value. According to the Foreign Office, the area of the " French metropolitan area " without overseas islands and territories is 543,965 km² , according to the CIA 551,500 km² .
- ↑ Sweden without the four great lakes Vänern, Vättern, Mälaren and Hjälmaren.
- ↑ Eurostat , Population on 1st January (as of 2017, accessed on 3rd January 2018)
- ↑ Gross domestic product in PPS List of countries based on gross domestic product data from 2013
- ↑ Gross domestic product per capita in PPS List of countries according to gross domestic product per capita data from 2013
- ↑ Eurostat , GDP per capita in PPS (as of December 1, 2017, accessed on January 3, 2018)
- ↑ www.tagesspiegel.de
- ↑ Delegation of the European Union in Liechtenstein, the Principality of Liechtenstein and the EU ; see also resolution of the EEA Council No. 1/95 of March 10, 1995 on the entry into force of the EEA Agreement for the Principality of Liechtenstein .