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Brandenburg class
Bayern at BALTOPS 2008
The Bayern at baltops 2008
Ship data
country GermanyGermany (naval war flag) Germany
Ship type frigate
Shipyard B + V , HDW , NSW , Vulkan
Construction period 1992 to 1996
Launch of the type ship August 28, 1992
Units built 4th
period of service Since 1994
Ship dimensions and crew
139 m ( Lüa )
width 16.70 m
Draft Max. 6.30 m
displacement 4900  t
crew 236 soldiers
Machine system
machine 2 GE LM 2500 gas turbine
2 MTU 20V 956 TB92 diesel
performanceTemplate: Infobox ship / maintenance / service format
38,000 kW (51,666 hp)
29 kn (54 km / h)

The class 123 ( also called the Brandenburg class after the type ship ) is a warship class of the German Navy consisting of four frigates . The Brandenburg was put into service on October 14, 1994. It was followed by Schleswig-Holstein (entering service November 24, 1995), Bavaria (entering service June 15, 1996) and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (entering service December 6, 1996). The Brandenburg -class ships replaced the class 101 / 101A destroyers in a ratio of 1: 1.

Until 2014, the focus of the frigates was on submarine hunting , with the possibility of attacking sea targets. The surface-to-air component was not very pronounced due to the NSSM missiles . ESSM missiles have been scaffolded since 2014 .


The name Brandenburg was first borne by the armored ship of the Imperial Navy , the Brandenburg of the class of the same name . The names Bavaria and Schleswig-Holstein were taken over from the class 101 / 101A destroyers .

In addition to the Brandenburg class (F123), ships of the Bremen class (F122) , the Saxony class (F124) and the Baden-Württemberg class (F125) are in service with the German Navy.


The frigates of the type F123 were to replace the obsolete in the 1980s destroyers of the class 101A ( Hamburg planned class). Based on the experience with the Bremen class and the abandoned NFR-90 project , Blohm + Voss began developing a new type of ship that also took into account the advantages of the modular MEKO system . In 1989 the construction of four ships was approved. The first ship, the Brandenburg , was laid on Kiel at Blohm + Voss in Hamburg in 1992, was launched in the same year and was put into service with the German Navy in 1994. In the same year, Schleswig-Holstein, built by Howaldtswerke in Kiel , was put into service. In 1996 the Bavarians followed , built by Nordseewerke in Emden , and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania , built by the Bremer Vulkan shipyard .

A comprehensive modernization program, the so-called "Capability Adjustment F123", is planned for the frigates of the type F123. Among other things, the Sea Sparrow ground-to-air missiles are to be replaced by the further development ESSM from 2014 as part of an ammunition exchange . As a further measure it was planned to extend the F123 for the purpose of improved stability. This measure has since been canceled for cost reasons; Instead, structural changes are made to the ship in order to improve stability. It is also planned to replace the still analog control of the ship's technical systems with a digital one. The 20 mm Rh 202 light guns were replaced by two 27 mm light naval guns. "SABRINA 21" is used as the new command and weapon deployment system (FüWES), which also extends the capabilities of the system as a whole; the fire control system will also be replaced. After the frigate F 216 Schleswig-Holstein in December 2006, four decoy (TKWA) of type MASS of Rheinmetall had been equipped by 2009 received the other three frigates of the type F123 this system.

In the period 2009–2011, all frigates were fitted with a new launching device for speedboats , while new speedboats from the Boomeranger company were installed at the same time. As a test, the frigate Bayern will be equipped in 2011 with a mass evacuation system from Viking Life Sea Systems; After successful testing, all F123 frigates are to be equipped with this system.


A possible conflict with the Warsaw Pact in the North Atlantic , the GIUK gap and in the European Arctic Ocean was already practiced by NATO in 1957 in Operation Strikeback. Operation Strikeback was the largest peacetime naval operation, with 200 warships, 650 aircraft, and 75,000 people, and assembled the largest fleet since World War II. Together with NATO exercises running at the same time, 250,000 people, 300 ships and 1,500 aircraft were set in motion on a front from Norway to Turkey in order to simulate the war against the Soviet Union. To simulate the REFORGER convoys, over 200 merchant ships were involved in the exercise, including the Queen Mary and Ile de France , both of which were marked as target ships. After a brilliant "sea battle" in which the two nuclear submarines Seawolf and Nautilus were also involved on the "opposing" side, and 8,000 marines who were landed in the Dardanelles after a simulated tactical nuclear weapon deployment in order to recapture them (Operation Deep Water), NATO occupied the Norwegian bases occupied by the “opposing” side with simulated tactical nuclear weapons and was thus able to win the “war”.

The Warsaw Pact "retaliated" in 1970 in exercise Okean , the largest naval exercise in the world since World War II. Over 200 ships and several hundred aircraft simulated the war against NATO in the Baltic Sea, the Barents Sea, the Atlantic, Mediterranean, Northern and Pacific, in the Philippine Sea and the Sea of ​​Japan. Bombers flew simulated attacks against Soviet task forces in the Atlantic and Pacific, which were US carrier combat groups . In 1981, amphibious warfare with the landing of troops was rehearsed with Syria . In 1983, in a large naval exercise, in addition to the usual attacks on "US carrier combat groups", combat with convoys was also practiced with 40 Soviet merchant ships.

The ships of the Brandenburg class were ultimately designed to escort REFORGER convoys across the Atlantic together with the navies of the NATO countries . The Red Fleet would have tried to sink these convoys with backfire attacks and submarines. As a result, emphasis was placed on combined air and submarine defense, with the main focus of the Brandenburg class being placed on submarine hunting. Since the delivery, the following increases in combat value have been implemented only rudimentarily or not at all, which were considered, possible or necessary:

  • The ASW can scaffolding by a towing sonar be improved to either passively listening to or in the low frequency range in the medium frequency range with the U-boats of the class 212A to form a bistatic arrangement, to improve their situational awareness. The vertical take-off system Mk. 41 Mod. 4 can also be loaded with anti-submarine missiles such as the RUM-139 VL-ASROC , which were not procured by the Bundeswehr.
  • The association air defense can be significantly improved by upgrading the vertical take-off system from 16 to 32 cells. The Mk. 41 Mod. 4 can also accommodate the Standard Missile 2 and ESSM , which can be guided to the target by the STIR. Ultimately, the Bundeswehr only decided to replace the NSSM with more extensive ESSM from 2014 in order to keep the NSSM available for the Bremen- class frigates .
  • The Exocet MM38 anti-ship missiles used will end in 2015. In the future, the RGM-84 Harpoon sea ​​target LFK will also be scaffolded on board the class 123 frigate as an Exocet replacement.

The Saxony class is designed for an identical range of tasks, but the focus here is on association air defense. As a result, far-reaching SM-2 guided missiles and the latest radar technology were equipped. The TASS-6-3 tow sonar can also be scaffolded in the Sachsen -class ships .



Originally, the Brandenburg class did not have any sensor fusion . The control system SATIR -III with AN / UYK-43 and 14 consoles from Atlas Elektronik only had the Norden Track Management System (TMS) for track fusion. The data processing was programmed in Ada . In 1997, SATCOM terminals of type SCOT 3 by Matra Marconi were retrofitted in the operations center (OPZ). In order to maintain contact with submerged submarines, the class has a Honeywell-ELAC UT 2000 underwater telephone. The torpedo consoles were cannibalized by the class 101 / 101A destroyers . A stabilized multi-sensor platform (MSP) 500 was later installed.

The frigates Schleswig-Holstein and Bavaria are also equipped with the MAIGRET from EADS in order to be able to eavesdrop on enemy communications. The system uses a number of additional antennas to intercept and locate signals from 1 to 1000 MHz. An emitter database enables automatic identification. The system can scan 3,300 channels per second (linearly, i.e. without frequency hopping ) in the V / UHF band, or up to a billion per second in adaptive mode (i.e., frequency hopping). The heading bearing can be viewed on a PPI or A-Scan. The characteristic properties of incoming signals are statistically recorded and evaluated.

To end the chaos, the new command and weapon deployment system (FüWES) SABRINA 21 will be used from 2011. This also extends the capabilities of the system as a whole; the fire control system will also be replaced. Like the Sachsen -class CDS, SABRINA is based on the TACTICOS from Thales and without exception networks all sensors and effectors on the ship via Ethernet with distributed computer cabinets and modern multi-purpose consoles that work with open gateways and mission-specific software. The system can also work with commercial software and special programs such as database management systems , expert systems , blackboards and artificial neural networks . Each console has the entire application software in its mass storage device so that the operator can quickly switch between different tasks. Programs and computing power are automatically moved via the network nodes in the event of failures; functional and database information is continuously and automatically shifted on the basis of semantic links .


Two Brandenburg -class frigates with SMART-S on the mast tips. On the ledge below the STIR. The boxes of the FL 1800 are located at the corners of the mast top under the SMART-S.

Thales Naval Nederland's SMART-S is a passive phased rotating radar . The rectangular antenna is on the highest mast. The radar was developed explicitly to locate low-flying, Mach-3-fast anti-ship missiles with a radar cross-section of 0.1 m², but can also locate missiles in a dive with a 60 ° sink angle. The signal processing can track up to 160 air and 40 ship targets at the same time.

The S-band (2-4 GHz) was chosen as a compromise between range, clutter and antenna dimensions. The 4.8 × 2.05 m antenna rotates at 27 revolutions per minute and weighs 1.2 tons. The radar energy is generated by a traveling wave tube with a peak power of 145 kW, the transmission lobe is then emitted by a horn antenna with 23 dB wide. The received signals are perceived by 16 horizontal strips that generate 12 stacked virtual signal cones with 2 ° horizontal and 9 ° vertical opening angles or 31.5 dB, which cover all elevation areas from 0 ° to 90 °. The signal processing eliminates the roll and pitch of the ship.

The radar enables direct target assignment to the lighting technician. The SMART-S has fixed character suppression through fast Fourier transformation and coherence . Normally, a pulse repetition rate of 3800 / s and a pulse width of 0.6 µs is sent, with EloGM this changes gradually. The transmission frequency then also changes from pulse to pulse. The radar has neither friend-foe detection nor the ability to identify non-cooperative targets.


The target lighting radar STIR 180 is used to illuminate targets so that the NSSM or ESSM missiles can control the radar reflections in order to hit the target. The two STIRs are located on the intermediate deck in front of and under the SMART-S and behind the LW 08. The rotatable and nodular antenna with a total weight of 1.7 tons and a diameter of 1.8 m is the bottleneck of the ground-air - Ability of the frigate, as only one target per lighting operator can be fought. The STIR also serves as the fire control of the turret.

The Cassegrain monopulse antenna works in the X and K u band and sends a radar beam with an opening angle of 1.4 ° (0.3 ° K u band) towards the target. The magnetron generates a pulse power of 220 kW or 20 kW in the K u band. If the object is switched on, it can be tracked at up to 170 ° / s in azimuth and 115 ° / s in elevation. The pulse repetition rate can be 1800 pps or 3600 pps with a pulse width of 0.29 or 0.14 µs.

Since the summer of 2002, the manufacturer has been offering a combat value upgrade . The protection against chaff and the hit assessment were improved. Germany had an upgrade option until March 2003 but, unlike Canada and the Netherlands, did not take advantage of it. The STIR can track a target with a radar cross-section of 1 m² over 140 km, the displayed range is 60 km.

FL 1800 S

The FL 1800 is the standard EloKa system of the German Navy, which was developed to repel mass attacks with anti-ship missiles in the Baltic States or the North Sea. The system consists of four ESM boxes , each of which contains two combined antenna areas. The antenna surfaces cover a frequency range from 0.5 to 18 GHz, with ten spiral antennas available for each band . The system can precisely determine the elevation and azimuth angle to an emitter through the seven computer racks below deck and calculate out the multipath reception. To interfere with the opposing radars, there are four additional antenna surfaces that carry out electronic countermeasures using passive phase-controlled signal cones with eight traveling wave tubes in the frequency range from 7.5 to 18 GHz. Each signal lobe can disrupt a single target or a radar together. The effective radiation power is sufficient to cover the RCS of the frigate. In addition to hardware improvements and the ability to generate pulsed noise interference, the "S" variant also has a feature for estimating distances based on amplitude, for example to be able to fire RAM missiles in anti-radar ship-to-air mode at anti-ship missiles and aircraft.

LW 08

LW 08 on the rear superstructure, behind the stern STIR 180

The LW 08 is an L-band radar for airspace search and was produced by Thales. The 8.8 m × 7.5 m radar stabilized against rolling and pitching of the ship generates a Cosecans² diagram with a side angle of 2.2 °. The transmission pulse is generated by pulse compression and emitted with 150 kW and 30 dB. To search for airspace, the 1.5 ton antenna (5 ton total system) rotates around itself at 7.5 or 15 revolutions per minute. Pulse repetition rate and width can be changed between 1000 pps and 35 µs as well as 500 pps and 69 µs. The radar first sends a 1 µs pulse for close range measurements, followed by a chirp for greater distances. The distance resolution is 100 m. The rod-shaped object above the reflector is the secondary radar for friend-foe detection .

The radar can track 64 tracks at the same time, but the old radar does not have an auto tracker. H. tracking of an air target from position point to position point must be initiated manually. The system is also very susceptible to targeted and pulsed noise interference, as well as impulse response interference , as only six discrete frequencies between 1250 and 1350 MHz can be used. The low bandwidth of only 100 MHz also makes the radar susceptible to broadband noise interference. The (undisturbed) location range is 261 km against a target at a height of 28.3 km with a radar cross-section of 2 m², whereby target speeds of up to Mach 5 can be located. In order to reduce the influence of sea clutter, the antenna is tilted slightly backwards, which in turn makes it difficult to locate low-flying objects.


The DSQS-23BZ from Atlas Elektronik, known in-house as the ASO 96 and part of the ASO-90 family, is installed as the bug sonar. Modern bow sonars usually have piezo-based sound transducers in polyvinyl fluoride, which, like active electronically scanned arrays, can form and swivel virtual signal lobes. The cylinder base of the ASO 96 has a diameter of 2.5 m and can form 32 to 64 virtual signal lobes, which are stabilized against 25 ° rolling and 8 ° pounding by electronic beam pivoting. The antenna covers the frequency ranges from 2 to 11 kHz in passive mode and from 6 to 9 kHz in active mode, whereby a bandwidth of 1 kHz is used for purely passive reception. Two different CW frequencies can be used during a ping . Sending still takes place in the same way. The pulse length can be between 5, 50 or 300 ms. Either CW, FM or a combination of both can be sent, for example 50 ms CW followed by 50 ms FM. The received data from CW and FM are processed in parallel to achieve faster results. The CW component is used to calculate the Doppler effect to determine the radial speed of the target, the FM component profiles the target lengthways and thus outputs the course angle and body length of the target. The computer outputs the speed of the target based on the course angle and Doppler and classifies whether the contact is a submarine. Several CM50 / FM50 pulses or one CM300 / FM300 pulse are required for this. The transmission modes are: Omnidirectional (ODT), omnidirectional with three active signal cones (TRDT), each with any combination of 5 ms and 50 ms pulses; omnidirectional search in one sector (S-ODT), S-TRDT as a combination of both and SDT as a sector search for fire control solutions, where only 300 ms pulses are used. Different frequencies are used depending on the target size, required resolution and location range.

The integrated intercept sonar works passively in the frequency range from 1 to 100 kHz and can hear the pinging of ultrasonic torpedo seekers. In the period from 1996 to 1997, the sonars were equipped with a mine search facility. Originally, the low-frequency (15 Hz to 1.2 kHz) towing sonic TAS 6-3 was supposed to be installed in 1997 in order to be able to passively locate submarines at acceptable distances. This did not happen, however, and instead the installation of the Low-Frequency-Towed-Active-Sonar-Towed Sonar (LFTAS) was considered. The LFTAS is a variable depth sonar (VDS) that should transmit in the frequency range of 2-3 kHz. The system should not only be able to locate submarines monostatically in about 50 km, but also be able to work as bistatic sonar in cooperation with the class 212 A submarines in order to give their sonar a passive location range of about 80 km. The CSU 90 of the submarines evaluates the angle and time difference between the LFTAS ping and the echo of the same at the destination. The scaffolding has not yet taken place.


In addition to the listed main armament of the ships run Brandenburg class two MLG 27 - revolver cannon to Speedboatabwehr (formerly Rh 202 with) and a number of handguns. The frigates originally had two Oto Melara SCLAR decoys for chaffs and flares. By 2009, these were replaced by four MASS launching systems from Rheinmetall .

Gun turret

76 mm gun turret of the Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

The OTO Melara 76 mm gun is located on the foredeck in front of the RAM launcher. The weapon 62  caliber lengths verschießt a wide range of ammunition with a cadence of up to 85 / min and a muzzle velocity of 925 m / s. The effective range against ground targets is 8,000 m, against air targets as anti-aircraft guns up to 5,000 m. The gun barrel can be moved 35 ° / s in elevation in a range of + 85 ° / −15 °. The rotation speed of the tower is 60 ° / s. The mass is reduced through the use of light metal, the housing is made of GRP . The small muzzle brake reduces recoil by 35%.

The gun works as follows: Below deck is the double loading ring with a capacity of 70 shells, which are moved from the outer to the inner ring by the rotary movement of the loading device. On the left there is a drum with six shots, which forms the intermediate magazine. This feeds a screw conveyor in the rotation axis of the tower, which guides the ammunition vertically upwards. Once at the top, the projectiles are picked up by loading levers. These two loading levers pivot alternately (that is, when one moves up, the other moves down) behind the breech and deploy the grenades. If the shot is fired and the weapon system returns, the loading arm catches the ejected case and the other starts a new grenade when it is retrieved. The shells are ejected forward from the turret. High-explosive projectiles with impact or proximity fuses were procured as live ammunition.

Vertical take-off system

The Mark 41 Mod. 4 from Raytheon was chosen as the vertical launching system . The system is located behind the RAM launcher in front of the bridge and consists of 2 × 8 = 16 cells, with the option of upgrading to 32 cells. The “cells” consist practically only of a frame with a plenum at the end and a lid at the head. The gas duct, which is also covered to protect against water, is located between the two rows of four of a unit. There are three devices on the frame, which requires more than two decks: A launch sequencer (LSEQ) on the top deck , which establishes a connection between the ship and the missile and monitors the system status. The Motor Control Panel (MCP) , which is connected to the LSEQ via Ethernet, is located on the deck below . The MCP controls the flaps and valves as well as the drainage of the plenum. One deck below, at the lower end of the Mk. 41, there are two programmable power supply units (PPS) that supply the VLS with energy and are controlled by the LSEQ via Ethernet.

The weapons are delivered in square canisters that are inserted into the vertical take-off system from above and connected to the system using standard 145-pin connectors. The canisters protect the missile from environmental influences and enable the LSEQ to recognize the type of weapon. The starting sequence is as follows: The cover of the cell and the gas duct (uptake) are opened and the drainage valves of the plenum are closed. Then the rocket motor fires, which punctures the canister's tailgate. The missile accelerates and pierces the front cap of the canister. The flaps are then closed and the plenum drain valve opened again.

Although the Mk. 41 Mod. 4 can also fire RUM-139 VL-ASROC and SM-2 , the Bundeswehr only procured NSSM missiles (RIM-7M). These surface-to-air guided missiles have a range of approximately 18 km against air targets. The scaffolding of ESSM will begin in 2014, four of which can be carried per cell (maximum 4 × 16 = 64 missiles). With the missile's range of 50+ km and a speed of Mach 4+, the association air defense can be significantly improved.

Close-range defense system

RAM starter of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania

The Mark 31 Close-In Weapon System consists of the missiles RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile, which are in EX-8 transport canisters. The combination is again referred to as EX-44. The rotating launcher with 21 cells of the Mark 49 type consists of the start box and a mount that was taken over from the Phalanx CIWS and is known as the Mark 144. For the sake of simplicity, the entire system is simply referred to as RAM, after the Rolling Airframe Missile . The Brandenburg class has two RAM starters, one between the gun turret and the vertical take-off system, and one on the hangar. The main task of the short-range defense system is to intercept enemy anti-ship missiles.

The RIM-116 missile is based on an old AIM-9 Sidewinder , the viewfinder was taken over from the FIM-92 Stinger . The advantage is the low cost, the disadvantage is the typically short range of older Sidewinder versions, which is only 9 km with the RIM-116. The Mach 3 fast missile has an RF / IR dual viewfinder, whereby the target can be controlled as an anti-radar surface-to-air missile. The RF part is in the form of four antennas - two of which form forward-facing "horns" - integrated next to the imaging IR viewfinder. The IR viewfinder in the tip consists of a linear 80-pixel array that, due to the rolling motion of the missile, performs a rosette scan in flight. In the vicinity of the target, additional guidance is provided by the viewfinder’s intelligent image processing, but shooting is only possible using RF guidance. The RAM missile can be used against both air and ground targets. The advantage is that the ship can fire passively through the FL 1800 S emitter. The fire-and-forget missile automatically searches for the target after it has been fired; an approach is not necessary.

Anti-ship missile

Two double launchers for anti-ship missiles of the type Exocet MM 38 are scaffolded. The double starters are located between the main mast and the chimneys. One is oriented to port, the other is oriented to starboard. When developing the Exocet, the designers were aware that an anti-ship missile that could destroy a ship with one hit would be so heavy that it could only be transported from very large platforms. It has been argued that a 160 kg warhead of a comparatively small missile with a take-off mass of 700 to 800 kg, which impacts at Mach 0.9, would have the effect of an armor-piercing 34 cm shell of a capital ship , which would cause devastating damage. Ultimately, however, the burning out rocket fuel (unintentionally) turned out to be the most effective effect. The comparatively small range of only 40 km corresponds to the radar horizon of the electronic support measures of a warship. After firing, the rocket goes to 9–15 m cruising altitude and then drops 12–15 km from the target to an attack altitude of 2.5–8 m (depending on the sea state). The magnetron of the on-board radar is activated (60 seconds warm-up time) while the radar altimeter continues to measure the altitude.

The weapon is very simple, there is no inertial navigation system and waypoints cannot be entered. The Fire-and-Forget weapon is only sent the course of the launch platform, the course of the target, the distance and angle to the target, the viewfinder angle and activation distance, the attack height and the firing mode. In the ignition mode, you can choose between impact and pseudo proximity detonators (0.015 seconds delay). If the pseudo-proximity fuse is selected, the Exocet will ignite low in a chaff cloud instead of piercing it, or above the ship if a high attack altitude has been set.

It is planned to replace the anti-ship missile Exocet as part of a capability adjustment with the missile AGM-84 Harpoon , which will be released by the phasing out of the Bremen class .

Torpedo tubes

The torpedo tube twins of type Mark 32 are installed at a fixed angle of 45 ° to the outside and are located in the small side opening behind the fuselage. The torpedoes are ejected with compressed air. Depending on the setting, this takes place at 10–126 bar. The tubes of the launcher are made of GRP, the mass of one unit is about one ton. The Brandenburg class carries the Torpedo Mk 46, which can be dropped not only from the twins but also from the on-board helicopter.

The American Mark 46 lightweight torpedo with a diameter of 324 mm and a length of 2.6 m is powered by a piston engine in which a monergol releases energy. The motor drives the counter-rotating twin screws directly. At a maximum speed of 45 kn a range of 7.3 km is achieved, at 40 kn about 11 km. The viewfinder can take a bearing as well as passively pursue the target. Active pursuit can only be started from a distance of about 1.3 km to the target. For this purpose, the seeker head is equipped with 32 transducers in a 6 × 6 matrix. The 230 kg torpedo contains a massive 44 kg warhead made from PBXN-103 .

In the mid-1990s, the federal government submitted an export application to the USA for the much better Mark 50 torpedo , but it was rejected. The following F124 ship series uses the European MU90 torpedo .



With a bundle of measures, the standing strength of the Brandenburg class was increased, which denotes the ability of the ship to remain buoyant even after damage and to continue the battle if possible. The key to this was a drastic reduction in the radar signature  - for the first time on a German Navy ship . Another novelty in the Navy was the MEKO principle . Thanks to the design, the radar signature could be reduced to only 10% of the signature of the Bremen class (F122), and the stability was increased. The prairie masker system of the F122 was dispensed with.

The structural stability is significantly improved by six double transverse bulkheads and three box girders running in the fore and aft direction. The box girders go at the level of the upper deck from the VLS to the helipad on the port and starboard sides of the ship and in the middle of the hull in order to cover 80% of the ship's length. The cross-section of the rectangular outer box girders is 1.2 m × 1.2 m, the cross-section of the middle 1.5 m × 0.6 m. These additional stiffeners and coffer dams mean that the gas hammer and the fragmentation cloud can only expand to a limited extent in the ship after a shell or missile impact and that the longitudinal strength is maintained. In this way, the hull can largely be prevented from breaking apart. The ship is divided into twelve large watertight compartments and four damage prevention areas, with each of the four having its own command area for internal combat. Two diesel-powered and ten electric fire pumps are distributed throughout the ship. The basic structure of the Brandenburg class has been adopted for the Saxony class in a further developed form.

Propulsion system

A combination of two diesel engines and two gas turbines ( CODOG drive ) serves as the drive . In this, a 19,000 kW gas turbine of the LM 2500 SA-ML type from General Electric and a 20V 956 TB92 drive diesel engine with 3,820 kW from MTU act on a gearbox from which a shaft with a controllable pitch propeller extends. At full load, a total output of 38,000 kW is available from both gas turbines.

The drive works as follows: A hydrodynamic coupling is used to connect the diesel engine to the stationary gear. The power of the diesel engine is then fed into the Renk gearbox BGS 178 Lo. This is designed as a simple reduction and summing gear. The diesel engine and gas turbine can easily change their operating states via automatic overrunning clutches in order to alternately drive the ship. The gas turbine with a nominal output of 25 MW without inlet and outlet losses generates a pressure ratio of 18: 1 with a 16-stage compressor. The annular combustion chamber is followed by a two-stage air-cooled turbine that drives the compressor. The downstream six-stage power turbine is driven by the hot gas generated in this way and transfers its torque to the gearbox. The turbine weighs around 22 t including the sound capsule and elastic bearing, and the consumption is around 0.242 kg / kWh. The summing gear transfers the power to the variable pitch propeller from Sulzer Escher Wyss via a shaft.

The acoustic signature of the diesel engines has also been reduced by having them double-elastically supported and surrounded by a sound capsule. Between the shafts behind the drive diesels there are two more Deutz MWM TBD-602-V16K diesel engines with 750 kW each for power generation on board, which are supplemented by two more in front of the gas turbines. The Brandenburg class is qualified for sea ​​supply . With full bunkers , over 4,000  nm can be covered at 18 kn.

Board helicopter

Flight deck of the Brandenburg

As with the Bremen and Saxony class frigates , the two on-board helicopters are used to combat sea targets that are outside the weapon range of the frigate itself and for submarine hunting . Two Sea Lynx helicopters are carried. The on-board helicopters are automatically moved from the helipad to the hangar and vice versa with the help of an on-board helicopter moving system . The on-board helicopters can be armed with four low-performance anti-ship missiles of the Sea Skua type ; two Mark 46 torpedoes can be carried for anti-submarine hunting . The MH90, which is the sea-based version of the NH90 , is too large for the Brandenburg -class hangars . To start flight operations, the flight deck railing must be folded down. During the submarine hunt, one Sea Lynx carries the diving sonar ("Dipper"), while the other is ready with torpedoes ("Pony"). There is no fixed deployment scheme in the anti-ship role.

Ship list

A total of four units were purchased for DM 2.42 billion . This results in a price of DM 605 million or EUR 303 million per ship .

Identifier Surname Callsign shipyard Keel laying Launch Commissioning home port
F 215 Brandenburg WIRE Blohm + Voss AG, Hamburg February 11, 1992 August 28, 1992 October 14, 1994 Wilhelmshaven
F 216 Schleswig-Holstein DRAI Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft AG, Kiel July 1, 1993 June 8, 1994 November 24, 1994
F 217 Bavaria DRAJ Thyssen Nordseewerke GmbH, Emden December 16, 1993 June 30, 1994 June 15, 1996
F 218 Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania DRAK Bremer Vulkan , Bremen November 23, 1993 February 23, 1995 December 6, 1996

Web links

Commons : Brandenburg- class frigates  - collection of images, videos and audio files


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