|Country||People's Republic of China|
|density||301.7 Ew. / km²|
Guangji Pagoda from 1057
Jǐnzhōu ( Chinese 錦州 市 / 锦州 市 , Pinyin Jǐnzhōu Shì ) is a district-free city in the southwest of the province of Liaoning in the People's Republic of China with 3,050,000 inhabitants (2017) and an area of 10,111 km². At the 2010/2011 census in the People's Republic of China , a good half of the population lived in the villages and towns of Jinzhou, the rest was urban. At that time, 96% of the population were Han Chinese . There were also more than 30 other ethnic groups, the largest in number being Manchu , Mongol , Hui-Chinese and Koreans .
During the spring and autumn annals (722–476 BC) and the subsequent Warring States period , Jinzhou, then called "Tuhe" (屠 何) after the tribe who lived there, belonged to the state of Yan . When this 222 BC Was annexed by Qin and Qin Shihuangdi became the empire in 221 BC. Divided into 36 command posts, the area of today's Jinzhou was assigned to the command post Liaoxi (辽西 郡). In the Eastern Han Dynasty (25-220), Tuhe was renamed Shuguo (属国), but still belonged to the Liaoxi headquarters, which had its seat in the neighboring city of Liaodong (辽东), not to be confused with the Liaodong headquarters east of Liao He . During the Three Kingdoms period was one Jinzhou, now as commander Changli (昌黎郡) with administrative headquarters in what is now county Yi , 220-265 for State Wei , from the Western Jin Dynasty (265-316) then back to China, where the Commandant's office from around 300 onwards formed the border to the area of the Kitan tribes.
At the beginning of the Tang Dynasty (618–907) the northern tribes were pushed back far. Jinzhou was, now under the name "Yingzhou" (营 州), part of the Hebei military district (河北 道), not to be confused with today's Hebei province , which was only a small part of the area that then extended to Siberia. From 907 onwards, Yelü Aboka , the chief of the Yila, united the Kitan to form the later Liao dynasty and conquered the northeast of what was then China. He had the current city built by Chinese prisoners of war in 911–926, which was given the Chinese name “Jinzhou”, meaning “Brocade Prefecture” (Aboka or Abaoji was a great admirer of China).
At that time, the Wanggiyan clan of the Jurchen lived in the catchment area of the Amur , a Tungus people who would later take the name “ Manchu ”. Their chief Wanggiyan Aguda (1068–1123) united the tribes of his people in 1115 and founded the Jin dynasty . In 1125 he overthrew the Kitan rulers of the Yelü clan from Liao and took over their empire. Jinzhou retained its prefecture status and Chinese name. In the following Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) of the Mongols, the administrative structure was changed. Jinzhou was no longer the seat of the local government; this was relocated to the Guangningfu (广宁 府路) district 70 km northeast, today's Beizhen .
Of Zhu Yuanzhang , the first emperor of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644), were from 1380, numerous on the borders of the empire fortresses (卫, Pinyin Wei built), from 1387 also in the room Jinzhou. Guangningfu became the "Guangning Fortress" (广宁 卫), and today's Jinzhou became the "Guangning Zhongtun Fortress" (广宁 中 屯 卫). "Zhongtun" means "Central Defense Village" - in the area there was also a "Front Defense Village", a "Rear Defense Village", a "Left Defense Village" and a "Right Defense Village". There were good reasons for this: Jinzhou is far beyond the Great Wall , in Beizhen more than 60% of the population is Manchu.
During the Ming Dynasty, Jinzhou formed the end point of the so-called "Guan-Ning-Jin Defense Line" (关 宁 锦 防线) from the Shanhaiguan Pass of the Great Wall via Ningyuan (宁远, today's Xingcheng ) to Jinzhou. Between 1627 and 1642 Jinzhou was besieged six times by the troops of the Manchu Khan Aisin Gioro Abahai and finally captured on the 8th day of the 3rd month (April 7th) 1642. After the Manchu finally overthrew the Ming Dynasty in 1644 and established the Qing Dynasty , the old fortified villages of the area were merged into Jin County (锦 县) in 1662.
From 1907 the district belonged to the then Fengtian Province (奉天省, Manchu: Abkai Aliyangga Golo ), from 1929 "Liaoning" (辽宁 省) called. After the " Mukden incident " staged by two Japanese officers on September 18, 1931, which formed the pretext for the occupation of Manchuria by Japan and the establishment of the puppet state " Manchukuo ", the "Jinzhou Province" (锦州 省) was founded in 1934 . After the end of World War II, the Kuomintang government formed the “district-free city of Jinzhou” (锦州 市) there for the first time. During the Red Army's Liaoshen Campaign (辽 沈 战役) in the fall of 1948, the area was the scene of the so-called "Battle of Jinzhou" (锦州 之 之), which began on October 15, 1948 with the victory of the Lin Biao- led CCP. Troops and the capture of the city ended. When the CCP established Liaoxi Province (辽西 省) in January 1949, Jinzhou was the seat of the provincial government. In June 1954, Liaoxi was united with Liaodong to form Liaoning Province , with the capital in Shenyang , and since 1955 Jinzhou has once again been a district-free city under the direct control of the provincial government.
The district-free city consists of three urban districts, two independent cities and two districts. These are:
- Taihe District (太和 区), 459 km², 210,000 inhabitants;
- City district Guta (古塔 区), 28 km², 240,000 inhabitants;
- Linghe district (凌河 区), 48 km², 420,000 inhabitants;
- Linghai City (凌海市), 2,862 km², 600,000 inhabitants;
- City of Beizhen (北 镇 市), 1,782 km², 530,000 inhabitants;
- Heishan County (黑山县), 2,436 km², 630,000 inhabitants, administrative center: Heishan street district ;
- Yi County (义县), 2,496 km², 440,000 inhabitants, capital: Yizhou Municipality (义 州镇).
The "Technical-Economic Development Zone of Jinzhou (锦州 经济 技术 开发区 / 錦州 經 劑 技術 開發區)" belongs to the administrative structure of the independent city of Linghai, but is directly subordinate to the government of Jinzhou and is therefore equated with the county level.
3. Chinese Air Force Aviation Academy
Until 2012, the 3rd pilot academy of the Chinese Air Force (中国人民解放军 空军 第三 飞行 学院) was located on the northern outskirts of Jinzhou . The facility was founded on December 1, 1949 as the 1st Fighter Pilot School of the Chinese People's Liberation Army (中国人民解放军 第一 驱逐 机 学校), with the 2nd Squadron of the Aviation School of the Northeast China Military District (东北 军区 航空 学校 第二 大队) as its base and the The People's Revolutionary Military Commission is directly subordinate to the Central People's Government . Less than three weeks later, on December 20, 1949, the fighter pilot school was opened in “3. Aviation School of the Chinese People's Liberation Army ”(中国人民解放军 航空 航空 学校) renamed, on April 5, 1976 to“ 3. Aviation School of the Chinese Air Force ”(中国人民解放军 空军 第三 航空 学校), on June 9, 1986 finally in“ 3. Chinese Air Force Pilot Academy ”. At that time, the base comprised an area of 29.58 km² with a building area of 3,570,000 m². On the one hand, there was advanced pilot training on interceptors and fighter-bombers , on the other hand, staff officers for the corresponding units were also trained there. Together with basic training that had to be completed at the Chinese Air Force pilot's academy in Changchun (中国人民解放军 空军 长春 飞行 学院), such training usually lasted four years.
At a meeting of the armed forces in 2011 it was decided to reduce the then six pilot academies of the Air Force to three: Harbin , Shijiazhuang , Xi'an . As a result, on April 25, 2012, the 3rd pilot academy was merged with the 1st pilot academy in Harbin and the facility in Jinzhou was dissolved. The new school is now called "Harbin Pilot Academy of the Chinese Air Force" (中国人民解放军 空军 哈尔滨 飞行 学院). At that time, it was initially subordinate to the Shenyang military district , and since the military reform of January 1, 2016, the northern war zone . Famous graduates of the 3rd pilot academy included the future space travelers Liu Boming (1989), Zhai Zhigang (1989) and Zhang Xiaoguang (1990).
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