List of astronomical catalogs

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This is a list of astronomical catalogs . An astronomical catalog is a directory of astronomical objects with common properties, such as shape, composition or their method of discovery. Astronomical catalogs are usually the result of an astronomical study .

Objects of the solar system (asteroids, comets, minor planets)

designation Property types number Year / status Description, format or example source
Orbits of Minor Planets Asteroids 545136 continuous update (database) as of March 2, 2020 The orbit data of the asteroids Info at VizieR
Orbital elements of comets Comets 1411 continuous update (database) as of January 17, 2020 The orbital data of comets Info at VizieR
IRAS Minor Planet Survey (IMPS) Minor planets 7 311 1992 A survey with IRAS Info at VizieR
IRAS Asteroid and Comet Survey Asteroids and comets 22 949 1986 A survey with IRAS Info at VizieR

Stellar individual objects (stars, exoplanets, pulsars, etc.)

Abbreviation designation Property types number Created by Year / status Description / format or example source
- Uranometria Stars ≈ 2,000 Johann Bayer 1603 The Bayer designation consists of a Greek letter followed by the genitive of the Latin name of the constellation in which the star is located.
ζ Centauri
Cross reference
- Flamsteed name Stars ≈ 2,600 John Flamsteed 1712 + 1725 The name consists of the Flamsteed number, followed by the genitive of the Latin name of the constellation in which the star is located. The stars are sorted by right ascension .
47 Ursae Majoris
Cross reference
ADS Aitken Double Star Catalog Double stars 17 180 Robert Grant Aitken 1932 The catalog was published in 2 volumes under the title "New General Catalog of Double Stars within 120 degrees of the North Pole".
Example:  ADS 16402
BD Bonn survey Stars 325,000 Friedrich Wilhelm August Argelander 1859-1903
V sign of the dec.
DD Degree of Decl. (Zone, rounded towards zero)
NNN No. of the object in the zone
E.g .: BD −10 ° 3166
Cross reference
description at VizieR
Brisbane Brisbane Catalog / Parramatta Catalog Stars 7 835 Parramatta Observatory 1835 Original title: "Catalog of 7385 Stars from Observations Made at the Observatory at Parramatta"
CD Cordoba Survey Stars 613 959 Thome JM 1892-1932
Format: CD -DD NNNNN
DD Degree of Declaration (Zone, always negative, rounded towards zero)
NNNNN No. of the object in the zone.
Cross reference
info at VizieR
Δ Dunlop double stars Double stars ≈ 250 James Dunlop 1826 Original title: "Approximate Places of Double Stars in the Southern Hemisphere, observed at Paramatta in New South Wales"
Gliese catalog or Gliese Jahreiß catalog Stars 3 803 Wilhelm Gliese from 1969 Stars within a radius of 25 pc; Original title: "Catalog of Nearby Stars"
Example:  GJ 3021 , Gliese 317
Info at VizieR
GSC The HST Guide Star Catalog Stars 25 241 730 Space Telescope Science Institute Catalogs and Surveys Group (CASG) with mainly Barry Lasker 1990, 2008 Example:  GSC 02620-00648 Version 1.2 (Lasker + 1996), description from VizieR
Version GSC-ACT (Lasker + 1996–99), description from VizieR

HAS Hungarian Automated Telescope Exoplanets 1 617 2004 The aim of this project is to discover and characterize extrasolar planets. In addition, bright variable stars discover and track
Ex .:  HAT-P-1b
Info at VizieR
HD Henry Draper Catalog Stars 272 150
+ 88 883
1918-1924 Two-part. Brightest stars up to a brightness limit of 9 mag.
E.g .:  HD 210702
First catalog
HIP Hipparcos catalog Stars 1 058 332
+ 117 955
Astrometry satellite Hipparcos 1997, 2003 Two-part. The satellite was able to measure the star locations , parallaxes and self-motions of almost 118,000 objects with a precision of about 0.003 "and 0.002" / year, and about a million more with a precision of 0.02 "/ year. Main catalog: Supplement:
MR Bright Star Catalog Stars 9 110 1930
(1991, 1983)
All stars brighter than 6.5 mag.
Example:  HR 2491
Main catalog (1991)
supplement (1983)
IRAS Infrared Astronomical Satellite Several catalogs with variable spellings
IRAS catalog of Point Sources Point objects 245 889 satellite IRAS <coordinates> Description at VizieR
IRAS Serendipitous Survey Catalog 43 886 satellite IRAS S <coordinates> Description at VizieR
IRAS Faint Source Catalog, b> 10 Dark objects 173 044 satellite IRAS F <coordinates> Description at VizieR
IRAS Point Source Reject Catalog Point objects 372 774 satellite IRAS R <coordinates> Description at VizieR
IRAS Small Scale Structure Catalog 16 740 satellite IRAS X <coordinates> Description at VizieR
Kepler Kepler Catalog Exoplanets ≈ 500 Kepler Mission Team 2009 Example:  Kepler-22
KIC Kepler Input Catalog Stars 13 161 029 Kepler Mission Team 2009 E.g .:  KIC 8462852 Description at VizieR
KOI Kepler Object of Interest Stars ≈ 150,000 Kepler Mission Team 2009 E.g .:  KOI-55
OGLE Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment 4 larger registers and many (> 50) regular updates.
OGLE Galactic Bulge periodic variables Periodically variable stars in the galactic center
(pulsating variables, eclipsing variables, other variables)
+1 650
= 2,861
Udalski A., et al. 1996
  • OGLE-BW <a> V <n> with <a> = {1 - 9, C} and <n> = consecutive number
  • OGLE-MM <a> <b> V <n> with <a> = {5, 7}, <b> = {A, B} and <n> = consecutive number
Description at VizieR
OGLE General Catalog of Stars. I. General catalog of stars for the galactic center 33 196 Szymanski M, Udalski A., Kubiak M., Kaluzny J., Mateo M., Krzeminski W. 1996 OGLE-BWC <num> with <num> = sequential number from 1 to 33 196 Description at VizieR
Transits observed in OGLE 2001–2003 (Udalski +, 2002–2004) Observed occultations 2001 to 2003 177 Udalski A., et al. 2002 to 2004 OGLE-TR-NNN with NNN = consecutive number from "001" to "177" Description at VizieR
OGLE-III. Magellanic Clouds stellar proper motions Proper motion of stars in the Magellanic Clouds 6 265 781 Poleski R., Soszynski I., Udalski A., Szymanski MK, Kubiak M., Pietrzynski G., Wyrzykowski L., Ulaczyk K. 2012
  • OGLE LMC <num1>. <num2>. <num3> with <num1>,. <num2>. and <num3> = numbers for objects of Gr. Magellanic cloud.
  • OGLE SMC <num1>. <num2>. <num3> with <num1>,. <num2>. and <num3> = numbers for objects of the class Magellanic Cloud.
Description at VizieR
PPM Positions and Proper Motions - North Stars 181 731 Röser S., Bastian U. 1988 Survey of the northern starry sky Description at VizieR
Positions and Proper Motions - South Stars 197 179 Bastian U., Röser S. 1993 Survey of the southern starry sky Description at VizieR
Bright Stars Supplement to PPM Stars 275 Bastian U., Röser S. 1993 Supplement to the north and south part Description at VizieR
The 90000 stars Supplement to the PPM Catalog Stars 89 676 Roeser S., Bastian U., Kuzmin A. 1994 Complement to the other parts Description at VizieR
PPMX Positions and Proper Motions - Extended Stars 18 088 919 Roeser S., Schilbach E., Schwan H., Kharchenko NV, Piskunov AE, Scholz R.-D. 2008 Extension of the PPM catalog Description at VizieR
PSR Catalog of Pulsars
(catalog using this nomenclature)
Pulsars 706 Taylor JH, Manchester RN, Lyne AG, Camilo F. 1995 Format:
PSR J <J-2000-coordinates>
PSR B <B-1950-coordinates>
E.g .:  PSR J0737-3039
Description at VizieR
Parkes Multi-Beam Pulsar Survey ( survey
using this nomenclature)
100 Manchester RN, Lyne AG, Camilo F., Bell JF, Kaspi VM, D'Amico N., McKay NPF, Crawford F., Stairs IH, Possenti A., Kramer M., Sheppard DC 2001 Description at VizieR
Parkes Multi-Beam Pulsar Survey new PSR ( survey
using this nomenclature)
120 Morris DJ, Hobbs G., Lyne AG, Stairs IH, Camilo F., Manchester RN, Possenti A., Bell JF, Kaspi VM, D'Amico N., McKay NPF, Crawford F., Kramer M. 2002 Description at VizieR
Parkes Multi-Beam Pulsar Survey. III.
(Survey using this nomenclature)
200 Kramer M., Bell JF, Manchester RN, Lyne AG, Camilo F., Stairs IH, D'Amico N., Kaspi VM, Hobbs G., Morris DJ, Crawford F., Possenti A., Joshi BC, McLaughlin MA, Lorimer DR, Faulkner AJ 2003 Description at VizieR
Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey. VI.
(Survey using this nomenclature)
142 2006 Description at VizieR
SAO Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory Star Catalog Stars 258 997 Smithsonian Institution of Washington 1966, (1990) Example:  SAO 252838 Description at VizieR
TYC-1 Tycho-1 catalog Stars  1 million 1997
TYC-2 Tycho 2 catalog Stars 2,539,913 2000 Large catalog of stars

Ex:  TYC 5963-1938-1

Description at VizieR
WASP Wide angle search for planets Exoplanets Catalog of the SuperWASP project. The SuperWASP is an automatic search engine for exoplanets.
Example:  WASP-1
WDS Washington Double Star Catalog Double stars Astronomical directory of more than 138,000 multiple systems. Description at VizieR
VFTS V LT F LAMES T arantula S urvey of massive stars in the Tarantula Nebula VFTS 102

Large-scale objects

Star clusters

Abbreviation designation Property types number Created by Year / status Description, format or example source
Cr Collinder catalog Open star clusters 471 Per Collinder 1931 E.g .: Cr 1
GCl Star Clusters Associations II. Globular Clusters (Ruprecht + 1981) Globular clusters 137 Alter G., Ruprecht J., Vanysek V. 1970 E.g .:  GCl 120 Description at VizieR
Ha Haffner Open star clusters 26th Hans Haffner 1957 (not with VizieR)
Lund Lund Observatory (Open Cluster Data) Star clusters 1 151 Gosta Lynga 1987 Example:  Lund 769 Description at VizieR
Mel Melotte open star clusters and globular clusters 245 Philibert Jacques Melotte 1915
Example:  Mel 25
OCISM Open Cluster InterStellar Matter Open star clusters 128 Leisawitz D. 1988
Example:  OCISM 10
Description at VizieR
OCl Catalog of star clusters and associations + supplements Open star clusters 1 112 Alter G., Ruprecht J., Vanysek V. 1983 Example: OCL 421 Description at VizieR
Pal Palomar star cluster Globular clusters 15th Example:  Pal 5
Raab Raab open star clusters 152 Raab S. 1922
Example:  Raab 4
St. Stock catalog Open star clusters 24 Jürgen Stock 1954 The star clusters were discovered on spectroscopic field recordings. All catalog members are located within 12 ° of the galactic equator. Example: St 1
Tr Trumpler catalog open star clusters 37 Robert Julius Trumpler 1930 Example: Tr 1

Interstellar matter (diffuse and planetary nebulae, dark clouds, molecular clouds, supernova remnants)

Abbreviation designation Property types number Created by Year / status Description, format or example source
B. Barnard Catalog Dark clouds 349 Edward Barnard 1927 Building on a first version from 1919, it was published in 1927 by the astronomer Edward E. Barnard , who discovered the nature of dark clouds. It only contains dark clouds north of the declination of −35 °.
Format: B NNN
Example:  B 33
Description at VizieR
Ced Catalog of bright diffuse Galactic nebulae galactic nebulae 330 Cederblad 1946
Format: Ced NNNa
NNN no. Of the object (up to 215)
a Code letter for differentiating several objects with the same no.
Example:  Ced 10
Description at VizieR
DEM The nebular complexes of the large and small Magellanic Clouds ; Mem. Roy. Astron. Soc. 81
( Young-star formation in the Magellanic HI bridge ; Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 223)
H-II regions and supernova remnants in the large and small magellanic clouds 329 in the LMC +
(167 + 5) in the SMC
Davies, Elliott, Meaburn (Meaburn) 1976 (1986) Description at VizieR
LBN Lynds' Catalog of Bright Nebulae galactic nebulae 1 125 BT Lynds 1965 Example:  LBN 974 Description at VizieR
LDN Lynds' Catalog of Dark Nebulae Dark clouds 1 791 BT Lynds 1962 Example:  LDN 1630 Description at VizieR
Mz (rarely also men) Menzel planetary nebula 5 Three planetary nebulae in the southern sky and two objects that cannot be clearly identified.

Format: Menzel NNN
Example:  Menzel 3
PK Catalog of Galactic Planetary Nebulae Planetary nebula 1 759 Luboš Perek, Luboš Kohoutek 1967, 2001 Example:  PK 84-3.1 Description at VizieR
RCW RCW catalog galactic nebulae ( H-II areas ) 181 Rodgers, AW, Campbell, CT, & Whiteoak, JB 1959 Star formation areas in the southern Milky Way
e.g.  RCW 38
[2] ,
Sh Catalog of HII Regions galactic nebulae 313 Sharpless S. 1959 Two-part list (Sh 1-NNN-NNN and S 2)
Ex .:  Sh 2-244
Description at VizieR
VdB Catalog of Reflection Nebulae galactic nebulae ( reflection nebulae ) 158 Sidney van den Bergh 1966 Example:  VdB 1 Description at VizieR

Extragalactic objects (galaxies, galaxy clusters, quasars)

Abbreviation designation Property types number Created by Year / status Description, format or example source
Abell Abell catalog Galaxy clusters 4,073 George Ogden Abell 1958 + 1989 see
example:  Abell 520
edition 1989 edition
AT THE Catalog of Southern Peculiar Galaxies and Associations Galaxies and clusters 6 445 Halton C. Arp , Madore BF 1987 Detailed catalog with all the most interesting galaxies and groups of galaxies in the southern sky
Example: AM 0244-302
Description at VizieR
Ark or Arak Arakelian Emission Line Objects Galaxies (among others) 591 MA Arakelian Example:  Ark 365
Arp (rarely APG) Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies Galaxies 338 Halton C. Arp 1966 Directory of unusual looking galaxies, divided according to morphological criteria.
Example:  Arp 220
Description at VizieR
CGCG Catalog of Galaxies and of Clusters of Galaxies see ZWG
Ex .:  CGCG 461018
DDO David Dunlap Observatory Catalog Dwarf galaxies 243 Sidney van den Bergh 1959 This catalog is also known as A Catalog of Dwarf Galaxies . It was expanded in 1966.
Format: DDO NNN
NNN No. of the object
E.g .:  Barnard's Galaxy = DDO 209
GCRF2 Gaia Celestial Reference Frame 2 Quasars 556,869 ESA / DPAC 2918 The first version of GCRF1 from September 14, 2016 only contains the position of 2,152 ICRF2 quasars, these formed a first frame of reference for the Gaia mission. GCRF2 contains 556,869 quasars, including a sub-catalog of 2,820 ICRF 3 objects. First optical frame of reference that meets the requirements of the International Celestial Reference System .
HCG Hickson's Compact groups of Galaxies compact galaxy groups 100 Paul Hickson 1982-1994 E.g .:  HCG 92 Description at VizieR
Spar Holmberg catalog Galaxy pairs and multiple systems 827 Erik Bertil Holmberg 1937 Example:  Holm 427
ICRF International Celestial Reference Frame Quasars and other extragalactic radio sources 4,536 1998-2018 The ICRF is the reference system recognized by the IAU with which the positions of planets, stars and other astronomical objects are defined. The first version from 1998 contained 212, the second from 2009 3,414, the third is from 2018. ICRF replaced the FK6 as a reference.
HIPASS HI Parkes All Sky Survey Catalog HI galaxies 4 315 Meyer et al. A. 2004 Description at VizieR
KUG Kiso Ultraviolet Galaxy Catalog Galaxies Kiso observatory 1984-2000 Observation in the ultraviolet range of galaxies
e.g .:  KUG 1223 + 338
LBG Lyman Break galaxy Galaxies The galaxies have a redshift of z> 2.5.
Example:  LBG-2377
LEDA Lyon-Meudon Extragalactic Database See PGC
MCG Morphological Catalog of Galaxies Galaxies 32 521 Boris Alexandrowitsch Voronzow-Veljaminow and colleagues 1974
Example:  MCG -06-07-001
Description from VizieR
Description from VizieR
Mrk Catalog of Markarian Galaxies Galaxies 1 525 Benjamin Markarjan 1967-1981
Example:  Mrk 205
Follow-up catalog: Description at VizieR
PGC or LEDA Principal Galaxies Catalog Galaxies 983 261 Published by astronomers from Lyon and Meudon 1989 The catalog published in 1989 originally contained 73 197 galaxies and grew to its present size by 2003, when it was transferred to the HYPERLEDA database. The catalog is also known under the abbreviation LEDA.
E.g .:  PGC 29194
Description at VizieR
SGC Southern Galaxy Catalog Galaxies 5,472 Harold G. Corwin , Antoinette and Gérard de Vaucouleurs 1985 Contains galaxies that are larger than 1.5 to 2 arc minutes and lie south of the declination of −17 degrees. E.g
.:  SGC 1001.9-2705
Description at VizieR
UGC Uppsala General Catalog of Galaxies Galaxies 12 940 Peter Nilson 1973
E.g .:  UGC 8
Description at VizieR
VCC Virgo Cluster Catalog Galaxies 2 096 Binggeli 1985 Contains galaxies that are safe or possibly in the Virgo Cluster .
Example:  VCC 759
Description at VizieR
VV Atlas and Catalog of interacting galaxies Interacting galaxies 2,014 BA Vorontsov-Veljaminov 1959-1977
Example:  VV 245
Description at VizieR
ZWG or CGCG Zwicky Catalog (Zwicky Galaxy Catalog (Zwicky + 1968)) Galaxies and galaxy clusters 28 840 Fritz Zwicky and co-workers 1961-1968
Example:  ZWG 158.108
Description at VizieR

Mixed catalogs (nebulae, star clusters, galaxies)

Abbreviation designation Property types number Created by Year / status Description, format or example source
Dun Dunlop catalog foggy objects 629 James Dunlop 1828 Original title: "Catalog of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars in the Southern Hemisphere observed in New South Wales"
Example:  Dun 265
ESO ESO / Uppsala Survey of the ESO (B) Atlas Screening 18 438 ESO 1982 Consists of 606 photo plates, of which 18438 objects are written on.
Format: FFF-oooNNN
FFF No. of the plate
ooo 1–3 characters for the object type
NNN No. of the object on the disk
E.g .:  ESO 474-29
Plates: Description from VizieR
Objects: Description from VizieR
GC General Catalog of Nebulae and Clusters galactic nebulae and star clusters 5 096 John Herschel 1864 Example:  GC 4318 Cross reference
H Discoveries by Wilhelm Herschel galactic nebulae , star clusters and galaxies 1,000
+ 1,000
+ 500
Wilhelm Herschel 1786, 1789, 1802 see
example:  H 3.39
H Observations and Discoveries by John Herschel galactic nebulae , star clusters and galaxies h 1 - h 2307
h 2308 - h 4021
John Herschel 1833, 1847
E.g .:  h 1252
(IC I and
Index catalog galactic nebulae , star clusters and galaxies 5 386
(IC I 1 529 IC II 3 857)
Johan Ludvig Emil Dreyer IC I 1895
IC II 1908
Originally there were two catalogs, the first index catalog (IC I) and a little later the second index catalog (IC II). Nowadays, both are summarized under the term index catalog (IC).
E.g .:  IC 10
M. Messier catalog galactic nebulae , star clusters and galaxies 110 Charles Messier 1764-1782 Best-known directory of bright celestial objects
Example:  M 1
For allocation see Messier catalog
NGC New General Catalog of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars galactic nebulae , star clusters and galaxies 7 840 Johan Ludvig Emil Dreyer 1888 see
example:  NGC 1
Follow-up catalog: Description at VizieR
NGC 2000.0 The Complete New General Catalog and Index Catalog galactic nebulae , star clusters and galaxies 13 226 Roger Sinnott 1988 Revision of the NGC and IC NGC follow-up catalog: Description at VizieR
RNGC Revised New General Catalog of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars galactic nebulae , star clusters and galaxies . 7 840 Jack Sulentic and William Tifft 1973, 1977 This catalog is a revision of the NGC catalog Description at VizieR

Sky surveys (not object-specific)

Abbreviation designation Property types number Created by Year / status Description, format or example source
2MASS Two Micron All Sky Survey Comprehensive survey 470 992 970 1997-2001 A near infrared survey of the entire sky. Format: 2MASS J <coordinates>
Example: 2MASS J1207334-393254
Description at VizieR
AllWISE Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer 750 million 2009-2013 Survey of the entire sky in infrared. Format: WISE J <coordinates>
Example: WISE J072003.20−084651.2
Description at VizieR
Gaia DR1 Gaia DR1 mostly stars 1 142 679 769 ESA / DPAC 2016 Comprehensive digital surveys, no large-scale objects Description at VizieR
Gaia DR2 Gaia DR2 Stars

variable stars

1 692 919 135
550 737
556 869
14 099
ESA / DPAC 2018 Comprehensive digital surveys, no large-scale objects Description at VizieR
Gaia EDR3 Gaia EDR3 Stars


approx. 1,700,000,000


ESA / DPAC 2020 Comprehensive digital surveys
PPMXL (Position and Proper Motion Extended Large) "The PPMXL catalog of positions and proper motions on the ICRS". Digital linking of the 2MASS and USNO-B1 catalog. 910 469 430 Röser S., Demleitner M., Schilbach E. 2010 Combination of data, especially IR magnitudes and rel. Positions from the 2MASS catalog with the ICRS data (position, proper movement) from the USNO catalog. Description at VizieR
RAVE RAdial Velocity Experiment Digital screening ≈ 400,000 Steinmetz et al. 2010 Spectroscopic catalog with radial velocities , temperature, gravity and metallicity. Description at VizieR
SDSS Sloan Digital Sky Survey Digital screening 2 304 179 200 Adelman-McCarthy JK et al. (2007) Photometric catalog. More than 2 billion "sources", mostly point objects. E.g
.:  SDSS J142625.71 + 575218.3
The SDSS Photometric Catalog: Description at VizieR
USNO-A2.0 The PMM USNO-A2.0 Catalog Area-wide survey, mostly stars 526 280 881 United States Naval Observatory 1998 A large directory. Format: USNO-A2.0 NNNN-NNNNNNNN Description at VizieR
USNO-B1.0 The USNO-B1.0 Catalog Area-wide survey, mostly stars 1 045 913 669 United States Naval Observatory (Monet and others) 2003 Big directory. Format: USNO-B1.0 NNNN-NNNNNNNN Description at VizieR
OF Dark Energy Survey Digital screening ~ 310 million galaxies, ~ 80 million stars TMC Abbott et al. (2018) Photometric catalog. More than 400 million "sources" arxiv : 1801.03181


  1. The catalog is an expanded version of George Ogden Abell's original northern catalog from 1958, which only contained 2,712 galaxy clusters. In 1989 it was supplemented by a further 1,361 clusters from the previously unrecognized parts of the southern sky. The catalog was created by inspecting the red-sensitive images of the Palomar Observatory Sky Survey with the help of a magnifying glass. The southern addition comes from images taken with the UK Schmidt telescope. Each of the clusters contained includes at least 30 galaxies between the brightness of the third brightest cluster member m3 and two magnitudes weaker (m3 + 2).
  2. William Herschel published his observations at the Royal Society of London in 1786 (1000 objects), 1789 (1000 objects) and 1802 (500 objects). He divided the objects into the following categories:
    1. Bright fog
    2. Faint fog
    3. Very faint fog
    4. Planetary nebulae
    5. Very large nebulae
    6. Very compact and star-rich star clusters
    7. Compact clusters of small and large stars
    8. Coarsely scattered star clusters
    The categories can be found as Roman numerals or as normal numbers (H III.39 or H 3.39).
  3. 1833 h 1 - h 2307 Publication by the "Royal Society" of observations in Slough, England in the "Philosophical Transaction".
    1847 h 2308 - h 4021 observations at the Cape of Good Hope: "Results of Astronomical Observations made during the years 1834, 5, 6, 7, 8 at the Cape of Good Hope , being a completion of a telescopic survey of the whole surface of the visible heavens commenced in 1825 "Published by Smith, Elder & Co., London
  4. It was created in the 1880s, mainly based on observations by Wilhelm Herschel , and published in 1888. In 1895 and 1908 the two index catalogs IC I and IC II were added. Due to the large number, it also contains some minor errors. B. contain some objects several times under different catalog numbers. The objects are sorted by right ascension .

See also

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e Cross reference HD-BD / CD-GC-HR-HIP-Bayer-Flamsteed at VizieR
  2. ^ Robert Grant Aitken and Eric Doolittle: New general catalog of double stars within 120 ° of the North Pole . Ed .: Carnegie Institution of Washington. Washington, DC 1932, LCCN  32-014978 .
  3. ^ List of corrections to the New general catalog of double stars within 120 ° of the North Pole , Robert Grant Aitken, Washington, DC: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1934.
  5. GSC-I
  6. GSC-II
  8. ^ The Collinder Catalog of Open Star Clusters
  9. Project: Stock Catalog
  10. ^ Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol. 121, p. 103, bibcode : 1960MNRAS.121..103R
  13. bibcode : 1975SoByu..47 .... 3A
  14. David Dunlap Observatory (DDO)
  15. ^ NED, Detailed Description of KUG
  18. James Dunlop's Catalog of Deepsky Objects
  19. Andris Lauberts: ESO / Uppsala survey of the ESO (B) atlas , European Southern Observatory (ESO), Garching 1982 ( information site ); Abstract by: EB Holmberg / A. Lauberts / HE Schuster / RM West : The ESO / Uppsala Survey of the ESO (B) Atlas of the Southern Sky , in: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Supplement Series 18 (1974) 463-489 (I. ); ibid. 18, No. 1974 491ff (II); 22 (1975) 327-402 (III); 27 (1977) 295ff (IV); 31 (1978) 15ff (V); 34 (1978) 285ff (VI); 39 (1980) 173ff (VII); 43 (1981) 307ff (VIII); 46 (1981) 311ff (IX) ( bibcode : 1974A & AS ... 18..463H ).
  20. ^ William Herschel's catalog of Deep Sky objects
  21. ^ History of the Discovery of the Deep Sky objects