Somali (language)

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Spoken in

SomaliaSomalia Somalia Ethiopia Djibouti Kenya
speaker 12 million
Official status
Official language in SomaliaSomalia Somalia Somaliland (internationally not recognized) Somali region , Ethiopia (regional working language)
Somali (region) 
Other official status in DjiboutiDjibouti Djibouti (in Islamic and common law courts; little use as a language of instruction)
Language codes
ISO 639 -1


ISO 639 -2


ISO 639-3


The Somali (proper name Af Soomaali ) is a Lowland East Cushitic languages used by the Somali on the Horn of Africa (in Somalia is spoken in northeastern Kenya, in eastern Ethiopia and Djibouti) and in exile communities all over the world. In Somalia, Somali has been the official language instead of Italian and English since the end of 1972 and is used accordingly in administration, education and the mass media.


Somali is the mother tongue of the Somali , the majority of whom live as nomads in the Horn of Africa . It contains many loan words from Arabic , other oriental languages ​​as well as from the colonial languages ​​English and Italian .

The Islam has taken great influence on the Somali. To this day it is the most widespread religion in Somalia, statistics put up to 99.8% Sunni Muslims . The loanwords from Arabic and Persian therefore appear not only in a religious context, but also in everyday language (e.g. Albab-ka - the door, derived from the Arabic الباب).

The Osmaniya script , one of numerous attempts at writing

Most of Somali was passed on orally, although Somali has been written in Arabic script for centuries (so-called Wadaad script ). In the second half of the 20th century Somali nationalists tried to upgrade Somali against Italian and English and also against Arabic. In particular, they wanted to achieve a nationwide literacy of the Somali in their own language. However, there was a lack of standardization and spelling of the language, and the Arabic alphabet proved to be moderately suitable because of its limited ability to reproduce vowels, while the Latin alphabet, as a legacy of the colonial era and for religious reasons, was initially rejected. Independent writing systems were also developed, of which the Osmaniya writing in particular found widespread use. In 1972, a committee of international linguists under President and Dictator Siad Barre opted for the Latin script for practical reasons, and Somali written in Latin became the national language .

Poem by Mohammed Abdullah Hassan in Somali written in Latin

After Somali was declared the national language of Somalia, it developed by leaps and bounds. The language quickly acquired a number of highly specialized technical terms. In 1976 the Qaamuus kooban ee af Soomaali ah and the Qaamuuska Af-Soomaaliga appeared as the first comprehensive dictionaries . The mass media and education system were switched from English or Italian to Somali. Officials had to take a language test, and in 1974 the Rural Literacy Campaign ( Ololaha Horumarinta Reer Miyiga ) sent around 25,000 students to the countryside to teach their fellow citizens the new script. According to the government, these measures achieved a literacy rate of 60%.

With the collapse of the Somali government and the beginning of the Somali civil war in the early 1990s, the importance of Somali culture and language also waned. Since the breakup of Somalia, the language has experienced stagnation, if not a decline, which was due to both the destruction during the war and the emigration of many Somalis, and thus their dispersion, to all parts of the world. In Somalia, literacy and school attendance rates are probably below 25% (see education system in Somalia ).

Classification and dialects

Somali is one of the lowland East Cushitic languages , which in turn belong to the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asian language family . Within the Lowland East Cushitic, it belongs to the group of Omo-Tana languages .

There are different views in linguistics about the relationship of Somali to the most closely related languages ​​and about its subdivision into dialects. Cerulli (1919) and Moreno (1955) distinguish four groups of dialects:

  • North or Isaaq, spoken by the clan of Isaaq and to you belong Gadabursi and Issa (Ciise).
  • Central or Darod, spoken by the widespread clan family of the Darod in northeast and central Somalia, in the Ethiopian Somali region ( Ogaden ), in southern Somalia and northeast Kenya.
  • Coastal dialects or Hawiye (Cerulli) or Benadir (Moreno) on the coast in southern Somalia.
  • Oberjuba or Sab (Cerulli) or Digil (Moreno) in the area of ​​the former province of Ober- Jubba (today Bay , Bakool and Gedo ).

Andrzejewski (1971) and Saeed (1982) summarize North and Central, which have a lot in common, as Common Somali , which means that there are three dialect groups in their division; they refer to the Oberjuba dialects as Central . The Somali themselves generally make a rough distinction between Maxaad-tiri or Maxaa-tiri dialects (which means Common Somali and coastal dialects ) and Maay (which corresponds to Oberjuba). These terms are derived from the forms for the question “What did you say?” ( Maxaad tiri? ) Or “What?” ( Maay? ) And refer to two extremes among the varieties of Somali.

In 1978, Bernd Heine classified Somali, Rendille and Boni as Sam languages within the Omo-Tana group, with which he classifies the other two as sister languages ​​of Somali. This results in the following classification:

Christopher Ehret and Mohamed Nuuh Ali, on the other hand, classify Rendille and Boni as Somali dialects. According to them, the Bayso and the Jiiddu - previously regarded as the Upper Juba / Digil dialect - separated first from the rest of the group (the Sam), from which the Rendille split off next.

  • Somali I
    • Genale : Bayso and Jiiddu
    • Somali II ( Dawo , Sam)
      • Rendille
      • Somali III
        • Aweer (Boni) and Garre
        • Juba
          • Tunni
          • Baardheere
        • Somali IV
          • Maay dialects
          • Benadir North
            • Baraawe
            • Benadir
              • Hamar
              • Jamaame, Merka
            • Jowhar
              • Shabelle North
                • Adale
                • Buur Heybe
                • Buloburti North
                  • Buloburti
                  • Degodia
                  • Baali
                  • North Somali.

Marcello Lamberti agreed to incorporate Rendille and Boni as Somali dialects, but criticized Ehret and Ali's methods. According to him, Jiiddu is one of the Sam languages. Within Somali he distinguishes six dialect groups:

  1. Northern or Common Somali
  2. Benadir: These include the individual dialects Af-Abgaal, Af-Gaalja'aal, Af-Ajuran, Af-Xamari and Af-Biimaal. Next to the Digil, this is the most heterogeneous group.
  3. Ashraaf: This is spoken in Mogadishu and in the Merka district by light-skinned Somalis of Arab origin, who consider themselves to be descendants of the Prophet Mohammed , and is divided into a Mogadishu or Shingaani dialect and a Lower Shabelle dialect. Because of the small number of speakers, Ashraaf was not considered in most of the classifications.
  4. Maay dialects spoken from the former Upper Juba area to the Jilib and Jamaame districts . Lamberti distinguishes between five dialects (north, east, lowland, west and south / Niederjuba ), which, however, cannot be clearly delimited and flow into one another.
  5. “Digil Group”: This is the most heterogeneous group that may not form a unit. This includes Tunni , Dabarre , Garre-Boni and Jiiddu . Tunni and Dabarre are closest to the Maay and share many isoglosses and innovations with him . Garre boni includes numerous sub-dialects in Somalia and Kenya. Jiiddu has an isolated position among the Somali dialects and is likely to have split off as one of the first dialects; According to Lamberti's “substratum theory”, the Jiiddu migrated separately from the other Somali from the area of ​​origin of all Omo-Tana languages ​​in the southern Ethiopian highlands to southern Somalia, where they were Somaliized to such an extent that their language now appears as a Somali dialect.
  6. Rendille: The Rendille live in northern Kenya and are separated from the other Somali-speaking groups by the Borana - Oromo . Before the Borana penetrated in the 16th century, the Rendille probably formed a dialect continuum with the dialects spoken in southern Somalia .

Sociology of language

Somali is mainly spoken in Somalia, but also by the ethnic Somali in Ethiopia , Djibouti and Kenya . In Somalia it is used by all ethnic groups, including minorities such as the Oromo , Bantu , Swahili ( Bajuni ) and Boni .

Somali covers all functions in Somalia. It was de jure and remains the de facto national language, is the mother tongue of around 95% of all Somalis, and it is the horizontal medium in Somalia. Somalia is one of the few African countries with a majority language, and Somalia and Tanzania were the only two sub-Saharan African countries that developed away from the use of European colonial languages.

Standard Somali is based on the northern dialect group ( Common Somali ), especially the Darod dialect of the Mudug region . About half of all Somali speak a dialect from this group. Above all, speakers of the Maay dialects complain that their language variety has been discriminated against. The script developed for the standard language is only partially suitable for rendering the Maay. A separate script, the “Maay alphabet”, was therefore worked out for this. Instead of Rahanweyn (Raxanweyn) , for example, Reewing is written in it, which comes closer to the pronunciation of “Rahanweyn”. According to the transitional constitution of Somalia of 2004, Somali is the official language of Somalia with Maay and Maha Tiri.

Outside Somalia, Somali is also spoken in the neighboring areas of Djibouti, Kenya ( northeast region ) and Ethiopia ( Somali region or Ogaden ), each by the Somalis living there. Beyond this ancestral area in the Horn of Africa , the Somali spread throughout the world at an early stage through their traditional, trading role in the Orient, and more recently through their flight from the dictatorship of Siad Barres and the civil war in Somalia . There is a large diaspora in the USA , Canada , Great Britain , Scandinavia , Italy , the Netherlands and other countries. To date, there are no studies on the number of emigrants to individual countries, but estimates assume up to 3 million refugees and emigrants.

In Djibouti, the official education and language policy pursues the goal of holding school lessons in the official language French as well as in Somali and Afar - the mother tongues of most Djiboutians - as well as in Arabic; In fact, French is almost the only language of education. It also influenced the Somali spoken in Djibouti. The national radio broadcasts in all four languages. In Islamic ( Sharia ) and common law courts, which exist alongside the judiciary based on the French model, Arabic, Somali and Afar are mainly used. In the Ethiopian Somali region, Somali is the regional working language.

Writing and phonetic system

The Latin alphabet, which has been in use since 1972, has been adapted for Somali and is strictly phonetic, but apart from the apostrophe does not contain any special characters. The order of the letters is based on that of the Arabic alphabet:

', B, T, J, X, KH, D, R, S, SH, DH, C, G, F, Q, K, L, M, N, W, H, Y, A, E, I, O, U.

The following letters or letter combinations are pronounced differently than in German:

  • '- / ʔ / - corresponds to the German voting paragraph (" glottis closure loud ") between the e and the a in note (cf. the first name Bea without the voting paragraph)
  • J - / dʒ / - dt. Dsch
  • X - / H / - as dt. H , but deeper from the throat corresponds arab.ح
  • KH - / χ / - like German ch , but deeper from the throat, corresponds to the Swiss German ch
  • SH - / ʃ / - like German sch
  • DH - / ɖ / - like German d , but the tip of the tongue touches the roof of the mouth instead of the teeth
  • C - / ʕ / - corresponds to the arab.ع (ʕain)
  • Q - / ɢ / - like German k , but deeper from the throat, arab.ق
  • W - / w / - like the English w , after a vowel like German u
  • Y - / j / - like German j

As in French or Italian, the letters P, T, K are also pronounced without the usual German accent. The R is always a tip of the tongue, as in Bavaria. Vowels written twice are very common in Somali and are simply spoken a little longer - for example, Soomaaliya is written ; the same applies to double consonants.

The consonant system can be summarized as follows:

Consonants bilabial labio-
alveolar post-
retroflex palatal velar uvular phase-
stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth. stl. sth.
Plosives   b     t d       ɖ (dh)     k G   ɢ (q)     ʔ (')  
Nasals   m       n                            
Vibrants           r                            
Fricatives     f   s   ʃ (sh)               χ (kh)   ħ (x) ʕ (c) H  
Approximants                       j (y)   w            
lateral approximants           l                            
Affricates               (j)                        

Somali has a ten-vowel system with the vowels a , e , i , o , u and their long equivalents aa , ee , ii , oo , uu . All vowels are stretched in standard Somali (like long vowels in German).


As a Cushitic language, Somali is an inflectional language . Special features compared to European languages ​​are two first person plural, one inclusive, the other exclusive. In addition, Somali has focus markers that enable a certain part of a sentence to be focused, and there are linguists who consider Somali to be a tonal language .



The noun in Somali is - as in related languages ​​- inflected after genera (male and female), number (singular and plural) and case (absolute, nominative, genitive and vocative) . It can also be identified with an article. Most of the affixes that appear after a noun are changed by relatively complex rules of assimilation .

Article / Determination

The lexical form of the noun is in the singular, except for collectives or uncountable things. In order to determine ( determine ) a noun , the article is suffixed:

buug (M. Sg.) "(a) book" buug-ga (instead of * buug-ka ) "the book" gacan (F. Sg.) "(a) hand" gacanta "the hand"

The article for masculine nouns is ka / ki and that for feminine nouns is ta / ti . The k and t are the actual determination markers depending on the gender, with the following vowel changing depending on the case of the noun. The articles are the same in singular and plural.


The basic form of the noun is the absolute. If the noun is determined with an article (or a demonstrative), this article has the final vowel a (see examples for determination).

If a noun is in the nominative (or also subjective), it is the subject of the sentence. When it carries an article, the article's vowel changes from a to u . If the subject consists of a whole noun phrase rather than a single noun, only the last word is in the nominative:

nin (mann.SG.M.ABS) "(a) man" nin-ka (mann.SG.M-DET: ABS) "the man" nin-ku (mann.SG.M-DET: NOM) "the Man " nin-ka iyo wiil-ku (mann.SG.M-DET: ABS and boy-DET: NOM)

Male, indefinite nouns are put into the nominative by changing the tone. However, this tone is not expressed in the standardized spelling - it is only occasionally, mainly in scientific publications, marked by accents over vowels. This change in tone depends on the syllable structure. Here is just one example:

nín (mann.SG.M.ABS) "(a) man (absolute)" nin (mann.SG.M.NOM) "(a) man (nominative)" (Saeed 1993: 143) (The rising accent stands for a rising tone)

Feminine, indefinite nouns are determined by a change in tone and sometimes also by a suffixed -i : náag (frau.SG.F.ABS) "(a) woman (absolute)" naag-i (frau.SG.F-NOM) "(a) woman (nominative)" (Saeed 1993: 142)

Nouns are placed in the genitive by changing the tone. For some female nouns there is also a genitive suffix, -eed / -aad / -od , (depending on the final vowel):

libàax (löwe.SG.M.ABS) "(a) lion (absolute)" libáax (löwe.SG.M.GEN) "(a) lion (genitive)" áf Carabeed "Language of the Arabs, Arabic" (Saeed 1993 : 148f)

The vocative of a noun is formed in Somali either with a tone change or with suffixes:

  Male Female
singular Plural singular Plural
-òw -yohow -èey / -àay / -òoy -yahay


Hassanòw "Hassan!" Ayaanèey "Ayaan!"

Gender / gender

Nouns can be either masculine or feminine in Somali. In the indeterminate form, the gender of nouns is not marked: buug "a book" (m), on the other hand gacan "hand" (f).

The grammatical gender ( gender ) of nouns is usually not externally recognizable. It usually has no relation to the natural gender, but is rather variable (see below).


Nouns form the plural in three ways (including partial reduplication ), although the plural formation is complicated by many assimilation processes. Plurals are determined with the same suffixes as singulars. Nouns often change gender when they are moved from the singular to the plural. This phenomenon is known as gender polarity or gender polarity . Masculine nouns in the plural are feminine and vice versa, such as E.g .: buug-ga (m.) "The book" - buugag-ta (f.) "The books".


The most important pronouns in Somali are the personal pronouns, of which there are two series, the subject pronoun and the object pronoun, and each series has an emphatic and a short form. In the case of the object pronouns, there are two rows, a shorter one and one derived with the suffix - u, which has often been made illegible by sound changes . There are two forms of the 1st person plural: one inclusive ("we with you") and one exclusive ("we without you"):

  Subject pronouns Object pronouns
person Empathic Short Empathic Short
1st Sing. anigu aan aniga i (i)
2nd Sing. adigu aad adiga ku (u)
3rd Sing. M. isagu uu isaga (u)
3rd Sing. F. iyadu ay iyada (u)
1st pl. (Inclusive) innagu aynu innaga ina / inoo
1st pl. (Exclusive) annagu aannu annaga na / noo
2nd pl. idinku aad idinka idin / idiin
3rd pl. iyagu ay iyaga (u)


In addition to some compound tenses in the indicative, the verb in Somali has four synthetic tenses, two aspect forms for present and past tense, and a subjunctive mode for present and future tense . As in other East Cushitic languages ​​such as Oromo, common verbs are conjugated with person- and tempo-specific suffixes ; only a small number of common verbs have retained the prefix conjugation . Verbs can also form verbal derivatives through stem extensions, such as B. a reflexive .

Prefix conjugation

The conjugation with prefixes (and suffixes) that is common in Afro-Asian has been lost except for 4 (5) verbs. These four verbs are (here in simple past):

verb translation
yidhi "say"
yimi "come"
yiil "to be (local)"
yiqiin "knowledge"

There is also the verb yahay "to be", which is conjugated with prefixes and suffixes in only a few forms (present tense).

So, for example. yimi conjugated "to come" in the simple past as follows:

person shape translation
1st Sing. (n) imid "I came"
2nd Sing. timid "you came"
3rd Sing. M. yimid "he came"
3rd Sing. F. timid "she came"
1st pl. nimid "we came"
2nd pl. timaaddeen "you came"
3rd pl. yimaaddeen "they came"

and in general present tense:

person shape translation
1st Sing. imaaddaa "I'm coming"
2nd Sing. timaaddaa "you come"
3rd Sing. M. yimaaddaa "he comes"
3rd Sing. F. timaaddaa "she comes"
1st pl. nimaadnaa "we come"
2nd pl. timaaddaan "you all come"
3rd pl. yimaaddaan "they are coming"
Indicative forms
General present tense

The general present tense expresses a present action which, unlike the current present tense, does not take place immediately now. The general present tense is used to express a habitus, i.e. things that are usually, habitually or regularly performed. The general present tense of keen "bring" is:

person shape translation
1st Sing. keenaa "I bring"
2nd Sing. keentaa "you bring"
3rd Sing. M. keenaa "he brings"
3rd Sing. F. keentaa "she brings"
1st pl. keennaa "we bring"
2nd pl. keentaan "you bring"
3rd pl. keenaan "They bring"
General past tense

The common past tense, like the common present tense, is used for habitual acts, but in the past. In contrast to the current past tense, the action is punctual or limited in time. The forms of keen "bring" are:

person shape translation
1st Sing. keenay "I brought"
2nd Sing. keentay "you brought"
3rd Sing. M. keenay "he brought"
3rd Sing. F. keentay "she brought"
1st pl. keennay "we brought"
2nd pl. keenteen "you brought"
3rd pl. keeneen "they brought"

Note: The final -ay is also spoken and written -ey .

Current present tense

The current present tense is formed with the infix -ay- / -na- (usage depends on the dialect) and (essentially) the personal endings of the general present tense. The current present tense of keenid "bring" is:

person shape translation
1st Sing. keenayaa "I'm bringing"
2nd Sing. keenaysaa "you bring"
3rd Sing. M. keenayaa "he just brings"
3rd Sing. F. keenaysaa "she just brings"
1st pl. keenaynaa "we're bringing"
2nd pl. keenaysaan "you just bring"
3rd pl. keenayaan "they just bring"
Current past tense

The current past tense is formed with the infix -na / -ay and the endings of the general past tense: keen + ay + ey = keenayey "I brought it up . It is used for past actions that were limited to a certain period of time or in the past repeated or continued: Intuu akhrinayey wargeyska wuu quracanayey . "He was having breakfast while reading the paper.

Future tense

The future tense is formed with the infinitive of the corresponding verb and the general present tense of doonid "to want":

person shape translation
1st Sing. keeni doonaa "I will bring"
2nd Sing. keeni doontaa "you will bring"
3rd Sing. M. keeni doonaa "he will bring"
3rd Sing. F. keeni doontaa "she will bring"
1st pl. keeni doonaa "we will bring"
2nd pl. keeni doontaan "you will bring"
3rd pl. keeni doonaan "they will bring"

In contrast to the indicative, the subjunctive mode is only used in subordinate clauses, namely after subordinate conjunctions, in some relative clauses and in the connection waa + in + personal suffix meaning "must".


The subjunctive of the present tense differs from the corresponding indicative forms in that the final vowel -a of the indicative becomes -o in the subjunctive .

Future tense

The subjunctive future tense is formed with the subjunctive of the general present tense of doonid and the infinitive of the corresponding verb: keeni doono "I will / would bring; he will bring"; keeni doontaan "you will / would bring".

Infinitive and verbal nouns

The infinitive is formed - depending on the verbal class - either with a suffix - i or - n : keen-i "bring", next to sii-n "give". The infinitive is used independently only with the modal verb karid " kann ", otherwise it is used in the compound tenses (see above).

Another nominal form of the verb is the so-called verbal noun, which is formed with the suffixes - id , - n and - sho : keen-id "bringing"; sii-n "bringing"; bara-sho "learning". It is used as a subject or an object and is determined like a normal noun.


Focus in Somali

To focus certain parts of a sentence, Somali has the three sentence particles waa , baa and ayaa . These particles are obligatory in the affirmative propositional sentence (sic! This led to a relatively large interest especially in the syntax of Somali), while they are absent in the relative clause.

The difference between these three focus particles (also focus markers) is difficult to explain. Their use is pragmatic and depends on the speaker's dialect. Basically, the particle waa is more likely to be used in neutral statements where there is an innovation (e.g. new subject). The particle baa, on the other hand, is more likely to be used in advanced sentences without innovations. The particle ayaa is usually used in the same way as the particle baa .

Enclitic personal pronouns can be attached to all particles, which then serve to refer to the focused person (head marking). In principle, any noun that comes before the verbal piece (the final verbal complex) can be focused, with the following rule of thumb: The noun next to the focus particle is the one that is in focus (exception is when the subject is in focus).

Examples: Isagu wuu keenaa buuggan. "He's bringing this book."

Question sentence

Decision-making questions are formed with one of the two question particles ma or miyaa : Adigu ma keenaysaa buug? "Do you bring a book?" or Miyaa d keenaysaa buug? "that."

Factual questions are formed with the interrogative pronoun kee / tee "who / what".


  • David D. Laitin: Politics, Language, and Thought: The Somali Experience. University of Chicago Press, 1977, ISBN 0-226-46791-0 .


  • John Ibrahim Saeed: Somali Reference Grammar. 2nd Edition. Dunwoody Press, Kensington 1993, ISBN 0-931745-97-7 .
  • Jörg Berchem: Reference grammar of Somali. OMIMEE Intercultural Publishers, Cologne 1991, ISBN 3-921008-01-8 .


  • Martin Orwin: Colloquial Somali. A complete language course. Routledge, London 1995, ISBN 0-415-10009-7 .
  • Catherine Griefenow-Mewis: Textbook of Somali. A practical introduction. (= African science textbooks. Volume 16). 2nd Edition. Köppe, Cologne 2004, ISBN 3-89645-571-0 .
  • R. David Zorc, Abdullahi A. Issa: Somali Textbook. Dunwoody Press, Kensington 1990, ISBN 0-931745-48-9 .


  • R. David Zorc, Madina Osman: Somali – English Dictionary with English Index. 3. Edition. Dunwoody Press, Kensington 1993, ISBN 0-931745-94-2 .
  • Mohamed Ali Farah, Dieter Heck: Somali Dictionary German – Somali / Somali – English – German. 4th edition. Buske, Hamburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-87548-055-9 .
  • Francesco Agostini (ed.): Dizionario Somalo-Italiano. Gangemi, Roma 1985, ISBN 88-7448-001-6 .
  • Annarita Puglielli (Ed.): Dizionario Italiano-Somalo. Carocci, Università degli Studi de Roma Tre - Dipartimento di Linguistica, Roma 1998, ISBN 88-430-1115-4 .

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Basic information from the Ethiopian Parliament on the Somali region ( Memento from September 26, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
  2. som
  3. David D. Laitin: Politics, Language, and Thought: The Somali experience. University of Chicago Press, 1977, ISBN 0-226-46791-0 .
  4. Mohamed Haji Mukhtar : Historical Dictionary of Somalia. New Edition. Scarecrow Press, 2003, ISBN 0-8108-4344-7 , pp. 176f.
  5. a b c d Marcello Lamberti: The Northern Somali dialects. A synchronic description. (= Studia linguarum Africae orientalis. 1). 1988, ISBN 3-533-04008-9 .
  6. Bernd Heine : The Sam Languages. A History of Rendille, Boni and Somali. In: Afroasiatic Linguistics. 6 (2), 1978, pp. 1-92.
  7. Christopher Ehret, Mohamed Nuuh Ali: Soomaali Classification. In: Thomas Labahn (Ed.): Proceedings of the Second International Congress of Somali Studies. Volume 1, Buske Verlag, Hamburg 1983, pp. 201-269.
  8. Christopher Ehret: The Eastern Horn of Africa, 1000 BC to 1400 AD: The Historical Roots. In: Ali Jimale Ahmed (Ed.): The Invention of Somalia. Red Sea Press, 1995, ISBN 0-932415-99-7 , pp. 233-256.
  9. Marcello Lamberti: The Somali dialects. A comparative study. (= Cushitic language studies. 5). Buske Verlag, 1986, ISBN 3-87118-775-5 .
  10. ^ Marcello Lamberti: The Origin of the Jiiddu of Somalia. In: Proceedings of the Third Congress of Somali Studies. 1988.
  11. ^ The Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic. ( Memento from June 25, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  12. Jacques Leclerc, Trésor de la langue française au Québec (TLFQ): Politique linguistique en Djibouti