Japanese spindle bush ( Euonymus japonicus )
The spindle trees (Celastraceae) are a family of plants within the order of the spindle trees (Celastrales). The almost 100 genera with around 1210 species are mainly found in the tropics. Some species provide wood or are ornamental plants in parks and gardens.
Description and ecology
Appearance and leaves
The Celastroideae and Hippocrateoideae are woody plants: shrubs , trees or lianas . The Parnassioideae and Stackhousioideae are perennial herbaceous plants . They are evergreen or deciduous. Many species carry milky juice . A vast number of taxa have tri terpene derivatives in their bark. The simple leaves are opposite, occasionally also alternate, their edges are often serrated. Most taxa have small stipules .
Inflorescences and flowers
The flowers are hermaphroditic or unisexual. If the flowers are unisexual, the species can be single-sexed ( monoecious ) or dioecious ( dioecious ). The radial symmetry flowers are mostly inconspicuous and (rarely two) four to five-fold. Overall, the structure of the flower organs has been greatly simplified and their number has been reduced. The flowers are five, less often four-fold. The perianth is divided into calyx and crown, but the petals are often missing. Usually only one circle with (rarely only two) mostly three to five stamens is fertile ( fertile ), the inner stamen circle are (rarely only two) mostly three to five staminodes or pseudostaminodes for the production of nectar , it is usually a flat, cushion or cup-shaped disc present. Two to five carpels have become a top permanent up from constant ovary grown. In each ovary chamber there are usually one to two or more ovules per compartment . Each flower contains a stylus with a simple to five-part stigma . The pollination is effected by insects ( Entomophilie ).
Fruits and seeds
There are very different fruits in this family. Most taxa produce capsule fruits . Some taxa have winged seeds (Samara), other species have seeds with a seed coat ( Arillus ). There are also berries and stone fruits .
Systematics and distribution
The Celastraceae family was listed by Robert Brown in A Voyage to Terra Australis , 2, p. 554 in 1814 . The type genus is Celastrus L. Molecular genetic studies have led to the extension of the family. Synonyms for Celastraceae R.Br. are: Parnassiaceae Martinov , Lepuropetalaceae Nakai , Brexiaceae Loudon , Canotiaceae Airy Shaw , Chingithamnaceae Hand.-Mazz. , Euonymaceae Bercht. & J. Presl , Hippocrateaceae Juss. , Plagiopteraceae Airy Shaw , Pottingeriaceae Takht. , Salaciaceae Raf. , Siphonodontaceae Tardieu , Stackhousiaceae R.Br.
Most of the species are found in the tropics, but some taxa are also found in the temperate areas.
- Subfamily Cassinoideae Loes. : It contains about 17 genera with about 120 species:
- Acanthothamnus Brandegee (Syn .: Scandivepres Loes. ): It contains only one species:
- Allocassine N.Robson : It contains only one type:
- Cassine L. (Syn .: Hartogia Thunb. Ex Lf , Hartogiella Codd ): It contains only about three species in South Africa.
- Crossopetalum P.Browne (Syn .: Rhacoma P.Browne ex L. , Myginda Jacq. ): The approximately 26 species are common in the Neotropic.
- Elaeodendron Jacq. (Syn .: Crocoxylon Eckl. & Zeyh. , Pseudocassine Bredell , Telemachia Urb. ): The 40 or so species occur on the Caribbean islands , in Africa (four in Zimbabwe , five in Mozambique ), Madagascar, India , Macaronesia and Australia.
- Fraunhofera Mart. : It contains only one type:
- Goniodiscus Kuhlm. : It contains only one type:
- Gyminda coffin. : The four or so species occur in the Neotropic .
Hartogiopsis H.Perrier : It contains only one species:
- Hartogiopsis trilobocarpa (Baker) H.Perrier : It occurs only in Madagascar.
- Lauridia Eckl. & Zeyh. : It contains two species in South Africa:
Maurocenia Mill .: It contains only one species:
- Maurocenia frangula Mill .: It occurs only in South Africa.
- Mortonia A.Gray : The five or so species thrive in desert areas from the southwestern United States to Mexico.
Mystroxylon Eckl. & Zeyh. : It contains only one type:
- Mystroxylon aethiopicum (Thunb.) Loes. : It occurs in Africa and Madagascar.
Orthosphenia Standl. : It contains only one type:
- Orthosphenia mexicana Standl. : It occurs only in Mexican desert areas.
- Pleurostylia Wight & Arn. (Syn .: Cathastrum Turcz. , Herya Cordem. ): The eight or so species are common in the Paleotropic .
- Schaefferia Jacq. : The approximately 23 species are common in the Neotropic.
- Tetrasiphon Urb. : It contains only one type:
- Subfamily Celastroideae Burnett : Since 2012 it contains only about 50 genera:
- Apatophyllum McGill. : The five or so species occur in Australia .
- Brassiantha A.C.Sm. : It contains only one type:
Brexia Noronha ex Thouars (Syn .: Thomassetia Hemsl. , Venana Lam. ): The four or so species occur only in Madagascar .
- Brexia madagascariensis (Lam.) Ker Gawl. : Middle East Africa and Madagascar.
- Brexiella H.Perrier : There are about two species only in Madagascar.
- Canotia Torr. : There are about two species in California or Mexico.
Catha Forssk. ex Scop. (Syn .: Dillonia Sacleux ): It contains only one species:
- Khat ( Catha edulis (Vahl) Forssk. Ex Endl. )
- Celastrus L. (including Monocelastrus F.T.Wang & Tang ): The approximately 30 species are widespread in tropical, subtropical and temperate areas of Asia, Australia, Madagascar and the New World. Thereare 25 species in China , 16 of them only there.
- Denhamia Meisn. : The seven or so species occur in eastern and northern Australia.
- Dicarpellum (Loes.) ACSm. : It contains four types.
Empleuridium Sond. & Harv. : It contains only one type:
- Empleuridium juniperinum Sond. & Harv. : It occurs in South Africa.
- Spindle bushes ( Euonymus L. , Syn .: Evonymus L. orth. Var., Kalonymus (Beck) Prokh. , Pragmotessara Pierre , Pragmotropa Pierre , Quadripterygium Tardieu , Sphaerodiscus Nakai ): It is divided into two subgenus and contains about 130 species. It is widespread in Eurasia , North Africa (a species), Australasia , Madagascar, and North America. About 90 species occur in China, 50 of them only there. The species Euonymus s. st. are common in the northern hemisphere and the center of biodiversity is Asia.
- Evonymopsis H.Perrier , sometimes with notation according to ICBN 60.5. Euonymopsis H.Perrier orth.var .: It contains about five species.
Gloveria Jordaan : It contains only one species:
- Gloveria integrifolia (Lf) Jordaan : It occurs in South Africa.
- Glyptopetalum Thwaites : The 20 or so species are widespread in tropical and subtropical Asia. There are nine species in China. seven of them only there.
Gymnosporia (Wight & Arn.) Benth. & Hook.f. : The approximately 80 species are in the tropics to subtropics of the Old World. The three Neotropical species were spun off in 2011.
- Gymnosporia senegalensis (Lam.) Loes. : Africa and the Arabian Peninsula to southern Spain.
- Haydenoxylon M.P.Simmons : The genus Haydenia M.P.Simmons was established in 2011, the name Haydenoxylon M.P.Simmons replacesthe name Haydenia in 2014 because it is already the genus Haydenia Seward , a genus of fossil species from the family Cyatheaceae. The three Neotropical species were from the genus Gymnosporia (Wight & Arn.) Benth. & Hook.f. outsourced.
- Hedraianthera F. Muell. : It occurs in Australia.
- Hexaspora C.T.White : It contains only one species:
- Hypsophila F. Muell. : The roughly three species occur in northeastern Australia.
- Kokoona Thwaites : Of the eight or so species, one occurs in Sri Lanka and southern India, one in Myanmar and six in Sumatra , the Malay Peninsula , Borneo and the Philippines .
- Lophopetalum Wight ex Arn. (Syn .: Solenospermum inch. ): The approximately 18 species arewidespreadin Southeast Asia and Malesia .
- Lydenburgia N.Robson : There are about two species only in South Africa.
- Maytenus Molina (Syn .: Boaria A.DC. ): Since 2017 only 15 to 24 species thrive in the Paramos in Costa Rica and Panama and in subtropical South America, in the Andes from Venezuela to Argentina .
- Menepetalum Loes. : The six or so species occur only in New Caledonia .
- Microtropis Wall. ex Meisn. (Syn .: Chingithamnus Hand.-Mazz. , Otherodendron Makino , Paracelastrus Miq. ): The approximately 60 species are distributed in the tropics and subtropics in Africa, in the New World, in Eastern Asia and Southeast Asia. In China, 27 species occur before 20 of them only there.
- Monimopetalum Rehder : It contains only one species:
- Monteverdia A. Rich. (Syn .: Moya Griseb. ): The 120 species since 2017 are widespread in the Neotropic.
- Paxistima Raf. (including Pachystima Raf. ): The only two species are common in North America.
- Peripterygia (Baill.) Loes. : It contains only one type:
- Polycardia Juss. : The four or so species occur only in Madagascar.
- Psammomoya Diels & Loes. : The only two species occur only in western Australia.
- Pseudosalacia Codd : it contains only one species:
- Pterocelastrus Meisn. : The four or so species occur in southeastern Africa.
- Putterlickia Endl. : The four or so species occur in South Africa and southern Mozambique .
- Quetzalia Lundell : The eleven or so species occur from Mexico to Central America.
- Robsonodendron R.H.Archer : The only two species occur in southern Africa.
- Salaciopsis Baker f. (Syn .: Lecardia J. Poiss. Ex Guillaumin ): The six or so species occur only in New Caledonia.
Salvadoropsis H.Perrier : It contains only one species:
- Salvadoropsis arenicola H.Perrier : It occurs only in Madagascar.
- Sarawakodendron Ding Hou : It contains only one species:
- Siphonodon handle. (including Capusia Lecomte ): The seven or so species are common in Southeast Asia, Macaronesia and Australia.
- Torralbasia Krug & Urb. : It contains only one type:
- Tricerma Liebm. : The four or five species are distributed from the US states of Texas and Florida , on the Bahamas and Cuba, in Mexico, on the Galapagos Islands and from Ecuador via Bolivia and Peru to north-western Argentina.
Wilczekra M.P.Simmons : It was set up in 2013 and contains only one species:
- Wilczekra congolensis (R.Wilczek) MPSimmons (Syn .: Euonymus congolensis R.Wilczek ): It was separated from the genus Euonymus and was the only species there in sub-Saharan Africa. This endemic occurs only in the Kasai sector of the Kinshasa province ofthe Democratic Republic of the Congo. There, this small tree thrives as the dominant plant species in the damp, semi-evergreen forest.
Xylonymus Kalkman ex Ding Hou : It contains only one species:
- Xylonymus versteghii Kalkman ex Ding Hou : This endemic occurs only in western New Guinea.
- Subfamily Hippocrateoideae (Juss.) Lindl. (Syn .: Hippocrateaceae): It contains about 19 genera with about 100 species in the Paleotropic and Neotropic :
- Anthodon Ruiz & Pav .: The fouror sospecies occur from Panama to southeastern Brazil.
Apodostigma R. Wilczek : It contains only one species:
- Apodostigma pallens (Planch. Ex Oliv.) R. Wilczek (Syn .: Apodostigma pallens f. Capuroniana N. Hallé , Hippocratea pallens Planch. Ex Oliv. ): It thrives at altitudes of 0 to 1500 meters from Senegal to Ethiopia and south to to northern Rhodesia and Angola ; it also occurs from eastern Kenya to Mozambique .
- Arnicratea N.Hallé : The about three species thrive spread in altitudes up to 700 meters in India, Southeast Asia and Macaronesia.
- Bequaertia R. Wilczek : It contains only one species:
- Campylostemon Welw. : It contains at least eight species in Africa.
- Cuervea Triana ex Miers : The five or so species occur in the New World and Africa.
- Elachyptera A.C.Sm. : The approximately seven species occur in Central and South America and in Africa and Madagascar.
Helictonema Pierre : It contains only one species:
- Helictonema velutina (Afzel.) R.Wilczek ex N.Hallé : It thrives in the forests of tropical Africa.
- Hippocratea L. (including Hemiangium A.C.Sm. ): It contains 90 to 120 species in the tropics and subtropics worldwide. They are mostly lianas or climbing bushes, rarely trees.
- Hylenaea Miers : The approximately three species occur in Central and South America.
- Loeseneriella A.C.Sm. : The 20 or so species are widespread in tropical Africa and Asia.
- Prionostemma Miers : Of the six or so species, about two come from Central to South America and about four in tropical Africa.
- Pristimera Miers : The 30 or so species are mainly found in the Neotropic, but also in tropical Asia.
- Reissantia N.Hallé : The approximately seven species are distributed in Africa as well as Madagascar, India, Southeast Asia and Macaronesia.
- Semialarium N.Hallé : The only two species are distributed from Mexico to Central and South America.
- Simicratea N.Hallé : It contains only one species:
- Simirestis N.Hallé : The eight species occur in forests of Africa.
- Tristemonanthus Loes. : The only two species occur in tropical Africa.
- Subfamily Parnassioideae (Syn .: Parnassiaceae): It contains only two genera with about 51 species:
- Heart leaf ( Parnassia L. ): It contains 50 species in the Holarctic .
- Lepuropetalon Elliott (Syn .: Cryptopetalum Hook. & Arn. ): It contains only one species:
- Subfamily Salacioideae: It contains about six genera with about 225 species in the Paleotropic and Neotropic:
Cheiloclinium Miers (including Kippistia Miers ): The approximately 13 species are distributed in Central and South America.
- Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers) ACSm. : Central South to Central America.
- Peritassa Miers : The 19 or so species are common in Central and South America.
- Salacia L .: (Syn .: Annulodiscus Tardieu , Calypso Thouars , Johnia Roxb. , Salacicratea Loes. ): The approximately 200 species are common in the Paleotropic and Neotropical.
- Salacighia Loes. : The only two types are common in tropical Africa.
- Thyrsosalacia Loes. : The four or so species are common in tropical Africa.
- Tontelea Miers : The approximately 17 species are distributed in Central and South America.
- Cheiloclinium Miers (including Kippistia Miers ): The approximately 13 species are distributed in Central and South America.
- Subfamily Stackhousioideae (Syn .: Stackhousiaceae): It contains only three genera with about 20 species, almost all of which occur in Australia:
Macgregoria F. Muell. : It contains only one type:
- Macgregoria racemigera F. Muell. : It thrives in arid Australia.
- Stackhousia Sm .: Most of the 14 to 19 species occur in Australia, one also extends to Malesia and Micronesia; one species ( Stackhousia minima ) is native to the mountains of New Zealand.
- Tripterococcus Endl. : The only two species occur only in southwestern Western Australia .
- Macgregoria F. Muell. : It contains only one type:
- Subfamily Tripterygioideae Loes. : It contains about seven genera with about 39 species:
- Platypterocarpus Dunkley & Brenan : It contains only one species:
- Plenckia Reissek (Syn .: Viposia Lundell ): The approximately four species occur in the savannas of Bolivia and Paraguay as well as in central Brazil.
- Ptelidium Thouars : The only two species occur only in Madagascar.
Rzedowskia Medrano : It contains only one species:
- Rzedowskia tolantonguensis Medrano : It thrives at altitudes of 1400 to 2000 meters in Mexico.
- Tripterygium Hook.f. : It contains only one type:
- Wimmeria Schltdl. & Cham. : There are only about twelve species left from Mexico to Panama.
- Zinowiewia Turcz. : The approximately 17 species occur from Mexico through Central America to northern South America.
- Not classified in a subfamily:
- Pottingeria Prain (The position of this genus in the system has been discussed for a long time and it was also placed in its own family Pottingeriaceae. It can be clearly incorporated into the Celastraceae and it occupies a basic position here. It is possibly to be placed in its own subfamily: Subfamily Pottingerioideae Airy Shaw ): It contains only one species:
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