Federal agency for work

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Federal Employment Agency
- BA -

Logo of the Federal Employment Agency
State level Federation
position self-governing higher federal authority
legal form Public corporation with self-administration
Supervisory authority Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs ( legal supervision )
founding July 16, 1927 as the Reichsanstalt for job placement and unemployment insurance, rebuilt on 10th March 1952 as the federal institute for job placement and unemployment insurance
Headquarters Nuremberg , Bavaria
Authority management Detlef Scheele ( CEO )
Servants 96,100 ( full-time equivalents , 2018)
Budget volume EUR 35.16 billion (2015)
Web presence Arbeitsagentur.de
The administrative center of the BA in Nuremberg  - the headquarters, the IT system house and the service house

The Federal Employment Agency (short BA or Employment Agency ; former Federal Labor Office ; colloquially employment office or employment agency ), established in Nuremberg provides a federal agency services for the labor market , in particular the employment services and employment promotion and governs as an administrative wearer of the German unemployment the financial compensation payments , e.g. B. the unemployment benefit . The BA is a federal corporation under public law with self-administration that is subject to legal supervision by the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs ( Section 393 (1) SGB III). In a few areas, the ministry also has the right to issue instructions and carry out technical supervision, e.g. B. in the case of unemployment statistics ( Section 283 (2) SGB III) and the employment of foreigners ( Section 288 (2) SGB III).

As special departments of the Federal Employment Agency, the so-called family funds are responsible for the implementation of the tax family allowance equalization (e.g. child benefit ) and for the calculation and payment of the child allowance according to § 6a according to the BKGG .

With around 96,100 (as of 2018) employees (including around 3,900 junior staff), the Federal Employment Agency is one of the largest authorities in Germany and one of the largest employers in the federal government.

The BA's services at regional level are known as regional directorates and at local level as employment agencies .

Northwest view of the headquarters in Nuremberg

Tasks and responsibilities

The tasks of the BA include a. laid down in the Third Book of the Social Security Code (SGB III). The main tasks are:

People who do not receive any benefits from Alg-I or Alg-II are also entitled to support from the Employment Agency. These so-called non-benefit recipients are assigned to three groups by the BA:

  1. Unemployed non-benefit recipients meet the same requirements in terms of their current number of hours per week, active job search, etc. as unemployed beneficiaries.
  2. Job seekers who do not receive benefits are looking for a (new) job, but are not registered as unemployed.
  3. Non-service recipients seeking advice do not use mediation.

Depending on the status, there are various rights and obligations. In 2014, the DGB emphasized that non-benefit recipients often receive subordinate funding compared to benefit recipients.

Payment of compensation payments

Active employment promotion benefits

Promotion of vocational training

Other tasks

The Federal Employment Agency abroad also acts as a partner in international job placement and administration.


When implementing SGB ​​II, the Federal Employment Agency is responsible for the benefits to secure livelihoods ( unemployment benefit II and social benefits with the exception of the cost of accommodation) as well as for benefits for integration into work (e.g. advice and placement, qualifications, job opportunities ) responsible, provided that the tasks are carried out in a joint facility with the local authority. Both the joint institutions and the so-called "approved municipal bodies" (municipal authorities that implement SGB II without the BA) are called job centers .

Inner structure

Employment agency in Dortmund



The headquarters are in Nuremberg. Until December 31, 2003 it was called “Hauptstelle”. Head of the head office is the Chairman of the Board of Directors (VV) of the BA. The head office is divided into seven so-called business areas:

  • Labor market (AM)
  • Cash benefits and rehabilitation (GR)
  • International (INT)
  • Controlling and Finance (CF)
  • Personnel / Organizational Development (POE)
  • Information technology and digital processes (ITDP)
  • Quality assurance, implementation, consulting (QUB)

The BA's board of directors monitors the work at the head office .

Regional directorates

Regional Directorate Lower Saxony-Bremen in Hanover

At the regional level, the ten regional directorates (formerly: "Landesarbeitsämter") exercise technical supervision over the individual employment agencies (local level). At the same time, they maintain contact with the state governments and coordinate with them on issues of regional labor market and structural policy. The ten regional directorates cover the federal territory as follows:

  • Baden-Württemberg (in Stuttgart)
  • Bavaria (in Nuremberg)
  • Berlin-Brandenburg (in Berlin)
  • Hesse (in Frankfurt am Main)
  • Lower Saxony-Bremen (in Hanover)
  • North Rhine-Westphalia (in Düsseldorf)
  • North (Schleswig-Holstein, Hamburg, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania; in Kiel)
  • Rhineland-Palatinate-Saarland (in Saarbrücken)
  • Saxony (in Chemnitz)
  • Saxony-Anhalt-Thuringia (in Halle (Saale))

156 employment agencies (formerly: "Arbeitsamt"), with around 600 offices and 303 job centers, ensure local accessibility for customers and implement the tasks of the BA. In order to do justice to the special task of promoting vocational training, professional training and the professional integration of people with disabilities, all employment agencies have a so-called career information center (BiZ) with information on choosing a career and course of study, looking for a job and training position, and on the subject of further training set up.

Special departments

In addition, some tasks are performed by so-called "special departments", which are:

Members of the top management

The self-government of the Federal Employment Agency is appointed and not determined in social elections . This is where it differs from the other social insurance carriers in Germany.

Presidents 1952 to 2002

50 years of the Federal Labor Office , German postage stamp 2002

At the head of the Federal Employment Agency (1951–1969 Federal Agency for Employment Services and Unemployment Insurance) was a president from 1952 to 2002. The following persons held this office:

Known Vice Presidents:

Board members from 2002

After the reforms of the BA in 2002, the president was replaced by a three-person board, whose members no longer have civil servant status due to their board activities, but are considered managers and therefore receive significantly higher salaries than the previous presidents.

The members of the board of directors are appointed by the federal government for a five-year term at the suggestion of the administrative board and appointed by the federal president ( Section 382 SGB ​​III).

The members of the Management Board have so far been composed as follows:

April 2012-2014
June 2014–2015
October 2015 – March 2017

In an extraordinary meeting on July 3, 2015, the BA's administrative board decided by secret ballot for Senator Detlef Scheele as the BA's Labor Market Director. This election required the approval of the federal government . He succeeded Heinrich Alt on October 15, 2015 , who retired on June 30, 2015.

April 2017 – February 2019

On October 7, 2016, the administrative board of the Federal Agency decided to propose Detlef Scheele as the successor to Frank-Jürgen Weise in the office of Chairman of the Executive Board. After the approval of the federal government, he took office on April 1, 2017. Frank-Jürgen Weise resigned because he had reached the age limit at the end of March 2017. As a new board member, Valerie Holsboer moved up to the board of the Federal Agency.

March 2019 – September 2019
Since September 2019

Board of Directors

The administrative board is the central body of the self-administration of the Federal Employment Agency. It consists of seven voluntary representatives each from the employees, the employers and the public bodies . Its main tasks are:

  • monitoring the work of the full-time executive board,
  • advising the board of directors on all current issues relating to the labor market,
  • the establishment of the budget of the BA drawn up annually by the board of directors,
  • the approval of the annual business report, which the board submits to the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs.

Chairman of the Board of Directors: Steffen Kampeter

Deputy Chair: Anja Piel


The BA is financed primarily through the contributions of employees and employers to unemployment insurance . The core tasks and insurance benefits (such as job placement, employment advice or unemployment benefits) are borne from the contributions. In contrast to this, the BA received an annual amount from the sales tax revenue of the federal government until 2012, most recently in 2012 in the amount of 7.238 billion euros. This financial participation was introduced on January 1, 2007 as part of the contribution reduction from 6.5 to 4.5 percent (Section 363 (1) SGB III old version), but became effective on January 1, 2013 through Article 2 of the Household Supplementary Act 2013 canceled again.

While the Federal Agency reported a loss of EUR 8.14 billion in 2010, it posted a slight surplus of EUR 39.91 million in the 2011 budget year. For 2012 the employment agency expected a surplus of 2.1 billion euros. For 2013 the BA expected a surplus of 60 million euros. For 2014 the surplus was 978.4 million euros.

The federal government approves the BA's budget and, on the basis of Section 363 of SGB III, reimburses the BA for those costs that arise from the additional tasks assigned (such as child benefit or unemployment benefit II ).

According to Section 364 of the Third Book of the Social Code, the federal government is obliged to provide the liquidity assistance required to maintain proper cash management in the form of interest-free loans if the BA's funds are insufficient to meet its payment obligations. These loans are to be repaid as soon as and to the extent that the income of one month exceeds the expenditure and this surplus is not expected to be required to cover the expenditure in the next month of the current financial year. If federal loans cannot be repaid from the BA's income and reserves at the end of the budget year, the loan in excess of the reserve becomes a grant.

Household development

year Budget
in EUR billion
Contribution rate
in percent
2005/2006 43.70 6.5
2007 43.70 4.2
2008 43.26 3.3
2009 45.60 3.0
2010 54.08 2.8
2011 42.00 3.0
2012 47.80 3.0
2013 52.60 3.0

Labor administration reform

Internal reform projects

As early as 1997, the BA began various reform projects, which are still running parallel to the statutory reform projects and have been and are closely coordinated with them, since some reforms are not possible without changes to the law.

  • Internal structural reforms:
    • Better customer orientation through the abolition of the separation of benefits and job placement (service from a single source), the "Employment Office 2000" project was discontinued in the introductory phase as not being practical
    • Introduction of the "employer service" and thus separation of customer service from employers and employees.
    • Accelerated benefit delivery through decentralization
    • Increase in efficiency through:
      • Flatten the internal hierarchies
      • Team-oriented organization
      • Outsourcing of real estate management to an external GmbH
      • Outsourcing / consolidation of individual departments of the main office and the central office into the " BA Service House "
      • Introduction of cost and performance accounting
      • Modernization of the IT infrastructure by outsourcing IT from the central office and the main office as a " BA IT system house "
    • Reduction of redundant data stocks through centralization of data management
    • Introduction of the "virtual labor market" (VAM)
      • Simplified access to job offers and job offers for employers and employees
      • Better integration of private job boards.
    • Improvement of the service quality through the introduction of a customer reaction management.
    • Introduction of the “service center” (call center) that can be reached by telephone in order to enable operators to concentrate better on customer care with scheduled access.
    • Introduction of the SAP Business Suite (full connection from January 1, 2011)
    • Introduction of the electronic file (eFile)

Reform of the BA by law

By the in 2002 the Federal Government used Hartz Commission presented numerous concepts prior to the modernization of services in the labor market. The first and second laws on the modernization of services on the labor market dealt with strengthening the self-responsibility of the unemployed. The social security system should be relieved by supporting private employment agencies and tightening the conditions under which wage replacement benefits are paid by the BA. Since private employment agencies work exclusively on a fee basis, additional help could be established in the labor market in this way. The remuneration of private employment agencies is covered by the BA through placement vouchers under certain conditions .

The “Third Law for Modern Services on the Labor Market” (Hartz-III), which came into force on January 1, 2004, brought some structural changes within the BA, which it is supposed to convert from a conventional authority into an effective and customer-oriented agency.

  • Contents of the Hartz III law that affect the structure of the BA:
    • The BA is renamed the Federal Employment Agency
    • Renaming of the services to Headquarters, Regional Directorates and Employment Agencies
    • Self-administration:
      • Dissolution of the management committees of the regional directorates
      • Self-governing bodies remained only in the headquarters (board of directors) and in the employment agencies (management committees).
      • The self-governing bodies can grant themselves a reservation of consent to certain decisions of the management by statute.
  • BA budget:
    • The administrative committees of the employment agencies are no longer allowed to make suggestions about the budget of the BA; this is drawn up by the board of directors on its own responsibility.
    • Any remaining expenditure generated by an employment agency will benefit this agency again in the coming year.
    • Budget balances between the employment agencies are no longer possible.
  • Contract management :
    • Replacement of the previous instruction relationship between the federal government and the BA by one based on the principal-agent theory .
    • Control takes place through target agreements and no longer through instructions.
    • The same control model is to be used consistently at all levels of the BA.
  • The BA may use a non-public third party (e.g. a call center) to collect and process social data.
  • The BA's preliminary examination offices will be dissolved on January 1, 2004.

Furthermore, the “Third Act for Modern Services on the Labor Market” contains a number of legal simplifications in SGB III, which, among other things, are expected to accelerate and simplify the administrative procedure.

Criticism of the Federal Employment Agency

Already after the affair of allegedly falsified placement statistics, the call for the abolition of the Federal Employment Agency was loud. Even after the chairman of the board, Florian Gerster , was dismissed , some FDP politicians such as B. Guido Westerwelle , Dirk Niebel the demand to dissolve the Federal Employment Agency.

Essentially, the question was whether a central (such as the Federal Employment Agency) or a decentralized (such as local authority) organizational structure would be better suited to respond to the demands of the labor market. In some cases, the complete privatization of the brokerage company was called for. However, this option initially suffered a dampening due to the limited success of private agencies.

Even under the new name of the employment agency and the ongoing reform in 2004, the placement rate was criticized; the number of applicants successfully placed by the Federal Agency even declined. When this became known, Peter Clever , the representative of the employers on the supervisory board, publicly emphasized the great importance of successful placement of the unemployed for the BA's right to exist and described the still poor placement performance as the BA's Achilles heel, whereupon he was indirectly informed by Economics Minister Wolfgang Clement and was later asked to resign. The BA cannot create jobs itself, but it can accelerate the placement process on the labor market and organize it more precisely.

Furthermore, it is discussed whether a regionalization or a takeover of the tasks by the municipalities could not develop a higher impact.

The fact that direct contact between employers and clerks from looking after job seekers is fundamentally not possible, makes placement more difficult. Often the personal impression of the willingness to learn and the commitment of the job seeker would convince an employer to give him a chance or to train independently even if he has insufficient professional qualifications. However, this is expressly not intended and can only be done informally.

In 2004 the Federal Employment Agency was awarded the data protection negative Big Brother Awards in the category authorities and administration

"Because of a) the inquisitorial questionnaires on ALG2, b) the unwillingness to revise the questionnaires before 2005 in accordance with data protection regulations, and c) the presumed access to the data of job seekers (" customers "is a euphemism) from all employment agencies."

The management consultant, philosopher and philologist Reinhard K. Sprenger claimed in his book Der trained Bürger in 2005 that, according to internal instructions, the employment agency deliberately set appointments for top- ups in order to increase the sanction rate, but without being able to provide evidence of this. She allegedly speculated through the plight of the unemployed created by her on their destitution to assert the claims, which is also criticized by Diakonie and Caritas . Sprenger indirectly raises the question of why the authority is called an agency and recommends its closure.

In its broadcast on August 13, 2009, the ARD television magazine Monitor criticized that an increasing number of job seekers were classified as “permanently mentally disabled” after a written test procedure , in order to then be referred to a workshop for disabled people . You are therefore excluded from the unemployment statistics, and the federal agency is also financially relieved. A medical examination to determine the intellectual disability does not take place. The number of job seekers referred annually to workshops for the disabled rose from 22,678 in 2004 to 27,350 in 2008.

The ARD television magazine Monitor also criticized the inadequate examination of temporary employment companies in the program “Tricked Temporary Workers: The Total Failure of the Federal Employment Agency” on July 4, 2013. There would be 55 examiners from the Federal Employment Agency for 18,500 temporary employment agencies. Sanctions or conditions would not be issued, not even in the case of multiple violations.

Even by the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg exempt employee of the Job Center Hamburg Inge Hannemann criticized the handling of unemployment. In addition to sanctions for negligence on the part of service recipients, sanction quotas would also be enforced per employee in the job center. The advocate of an unconditional basic income states that if people were to lose their money, they would become homeless and could not buy their medication or do nothing. Employment agencies are also advised to view job seekers as abusers of performance.

In his philosophical dissertation “Alienated Help”, social pedagogue Dirk Kratz comes to the conclusion, based on case analyzes, that dealing with the unemployed is fundamentally wrong. Job seekers would be “treated like little boys” and their biographies would not be noticed instead of their needs and potential being determined. For example, the BA pursues a targeted weakening of the job seeker's market position with qualification measures that are adapted to the pattern of a deficient person specified by the BA and that are prescribed for job seekers. Furthermore, attempts are being made to report psychological and medical deficits to the jobseeker, whereupon the BA in turn sees itself entitled to look down on jobseekers in an educational way. Even problems in companies would be blamed on the mediators, and if they left the company, the BA would take measures that are suitable for addicts. The results are subject to a small sample space of only seven case analyzes; The little attention this work has received in scientific circles must also be taken into account.

In 2009, the BA was one of the largest employers in Germany with 108,781 employees. BASF (113,292 as of December 31, 2014) and BMW (116,324 as of December 31, 2014) have a similar number of employees .

The research report 4/2016 of the agency's Institute for Employment Research (IAB) comes to the conclusion that in Germany most jobs are mediated through personal contacts.

Manipulation of the placement statistics

According to an audit report by the Federal Court of Auditors from 2013, the employment agencies concentrated on customers who were easy to find.

In order to achieve the internal placement goals, some employment agencies counted apprentices who were supposed to be taken on by their company as successfully placed.

The executive board of the Federal Agency took countermeasures.

Data trading by criminals on the job exchange

Regardless of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) that came into force in 2018 , the Federal Agency has not adequately protected its portal against misuse and only apparently advertised vacancies. Adverts placed were not checked for plausibility, and data dealers could pass themselves unnoticed as private employment agencies. A data dealer from Berlin offered the undercover reporters of the SWR complete application folders in 2019 , each for three euros. The job seekers concerned had not been informed about the transfer and sale of their data. According to research, the data traders had been active since at least 2009. In response to a request in 2018, the Bundestag believed that it saw no need for action. A misuse of personal data could not be ruled out. The experts questioned even saw this as relevant criminal offenses. After the SWR had researched, bought data as a test and even placed fake job advertisements for the purpose of research, Stern and Spiegel reported, the federal agency responded within 14 days and deleted the 32,000 positions offered by a dozen companies. Because of multiple advertisements, this has affected a total of 120,000 job advertisements since 2009. In accordance with the principle of ensuring an end to unemployment, the agency itself asked some unemployed to enter their application data in the portal. After the scandal, the BA changed the search function of its job exchange. Vacancies from private recruitment agencies are no longer displayed automatically, but only when the job seeker ticks the appropriate box. The change is based on the desire, often expressed by applicants, not to include job offers from intermediaries in the search. Private employment agencies look for applicants on behalf of companies and receive a commission for this.

History of labor administration

See also

Comparable offices in other countries:

Web links

Wiktionary: Arbeitsagentur  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations
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Media reports

Individual evidence

  1. §367 SGB III
  2. Annual Report 2018. March 22, 2019, accessed on July 15, 2019 .
  3. Annual Report 2015. March 11, 2016, accessed on September 30, 2016 .
  4. Annual Report 2018, page 94, accessed on May 17, 2019
  5. a b Non-benefit recipients: analysis of a group of people who are little known in labor market policy and which has recently increased again. In: Arbeitsmarktaktuell No. 04, July 2014. Accessed on November 10, 2019 .
  6. §6d SGB II
  7. ^ Job information centers BiZ of the employment agencies
  8. Structure and organization
  9. ^ "Because of the closeness to the state, all members of the self-government are appointed. An election will not take place. " , Questions and answers on the social elections , Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, accessed on February 25, 2011
  10. ^ Maximilian Gerl Nuremberg: Nuremberg: The quick starter . In: sueddeutsche.de . ISSN  0174-4917 ( sueddeutsche.de [accessed February 1, 2017]).
  11. Press release of the Federal Employment Agency of July 3, 2015.
  12. Federal Employment Agency - press release: Administrative board sets the course for the future BA board. October 7, 2016, accessed March 8, 2017 .
  13. See Section 382 (1) SGB III .
  14. Süddeutsche Zeitung: Detlef Scheele is the new head of the Federal Employment Agency. October 5, 2016, accessed March 8, 2017 .
  15. ^ Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung: Detlef Scheele becomes the new head of the Federal Employment Agency. October 5, 2016, accessed March 8, 2017 .
  16. Federal Employment Agency: Self- Administration, Arbeitsagentur.de , accessed on July 16, 2019
  17. ^ Members of the Administrative Council of the Federal Employment Agency , accessed on September 5, 2016
  18. Annelie Buntenbach adopted - Change at the top of the Board of Directors - Federal Employment Agency. Retrieved July 3, 2020 .
  19. Household Supplementary Act 2013 of December 20, 2012 ( Federal Law Gazette I p. 2781 )
  20. ^ Annual report 2010 of the Federal Employment Agency (BA). (PDF file, 4985 KB, page 59) Federal Employment Agency, accessed on February 2, 2013 .
  21. Annual report of the Federal Employment Agency 2011, p. 54
  22. Employment Agency: BA expects more surplus than expected. In: Handelsblatt , online edition. October 18, 2012, accessed February 2, 2013 .
  23. Thanks to "more targeted spending": the employment agency generates a surprising surplus. In: Spiegel Online , online edition. December 26, 2013, accessed December 26, 2013 .
  24. Annual Report 2014. April 7, 2015, accessed on June 24, 2015 .
  25. [1]
  26. Statutes ( BAnz AT 02/08/2016 B5 ), adopted on December 17, 2015 with the approval of the Federal Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs of January 12, 2016.
  27. BigBrotherAwards laudation . URL: http://www.bigbrotherawards.de/2004/.gov/
  28. Reinhard K. Sprenger: The trained citizen. 1st edition. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 2005, ISBN 3-593-37759-4 , pp. 86-87.
  29. wdr.de, Monitor, August 13, 2009: Disabled according to the files: How long-term unemployed are disappearing from the statistics ( Memento from February 7, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) February 27, 2011: link tot, post only as a topic in the overview: wdr.de, Monitor, Review, 2009 : broadcast on August 13, 2009 , broadcast on YouTube , accessed on February 2, 2012
  30. Tempted temporary workers: The total failure of the Federal Employment Agency ( Memento from July 7, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Westdeutscher Rundfunk Köln (WDR). Retrieved February 2, 2015.
  31. Rainer Schwochow: "Operating disruption" - An employee of the employment agency fights against Hartz IV in SWR2 Tandem from October 7, 2013
  32. a b c Thomas Koch: "Justice" - the topic of our time with Inge Hannemann, whistleblower in the labor administration ( memento from August 28, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) on YouTube in WDR5 speaking time from August 27, 2013
  33. ^ Daniel Bakir: Hartz IV rebel Inge Hannemann "Hartz IV belongs abolished" , star from February 27, 2014
  34. Sina Rosenkranz: Expert: Job centers look after the long-term unemployed completely wrong , in SWR1 “Workplace” from March 1, 2014
  35. Dirk Kratz: Alienated Help - Biographies of the long-term unemployed between unbounded coping with life and professional employment promotion , Hildesheim, September 8, 2012
  36. Alexandra Endres interviewed Dirk Kratz: LONG-TERM UNEMPLOYED - “The job centers cause great damage” , Die Welt from February 24, 2014
  37. ^ Annual report 2011 of the Federal Employment Agency (BA). (PDF file, 4.9 MB, page 53) Federal Employment Agency, accessed on February 2, 2013 .
  38. IAB Research Report 4/2016 , ISSN 2195-2655, accessed on February 22, 2016
  39. Stephan Lochner: (recording) , SWR1 - workplace from September 20, 2016
  40. Spiegel Online from June 23, 2013
  41. https://www.stern.de/wirtschaft/datenmissusen-von-datenhaendlern-bei-der-jobboerse-der-bundesagentur-fuer-arbeit-8693782.html
  42. Judith Brosel, Jürgen Rose, Nick Schader: https://www.swr.de/swraktuell/baden-wuerttemberg/Bundesagentur-fuer-Arbeit-Wie-Datenhaendler-die-Jobboerse-missbrauchen,jobboerse-arbeitsagentur-datenhaendler-100. html How data dealers abuse the job exchange, SWR television - down to business! Baden-Württemberg , May 2, 2019 (excerpt on YouTube from May 3, 2019)
  43. Jürgen Rose and Alexander Bühler: (YouTube)
  44. https://www.swr.de/swraktuell/baden-wuerttemberg/Nach-Datenmissusen-bei-der-Jobboerse-Bundesagentur-loescht-tausende-Stellen-im-Internet,arbeitsagentur-reagiert-auf-datenmissusen-100.html
  45. tagesschau.de: BA job exchange changed: Employment agencies fear for existence. Retrieved October 17, 2019 .
  46. SWR Aktuell, SWR Aktuell: Employment Agency: Private job offers are now hidden. Retrieved October 30, 2019 .
  47. Pôle emploi website
  48. Answer to a question from Mme Brigitte Gonthier-Maurin in the French Senate (fr.)
  49. Legal text for the creation of Pôle emploi (fr.)

Coordinates: 49 ° 26 '25.8 "  N , 11 ° 6' 23.1"  E