History of the Universities of Leuven
The history of the Universities of Leuven goes back to the year 1425, when Pope Martin V in his bull " Sapientiae immarcescibilis " gave his approval for the establishment of a " studium generale " in the Brabant city of Leuven . Until then, you had studied at the old University of Cologne , which was then also involved in founding your daughter. The old University of Leuven is the first university in what is now the Benelux countries. The university quickly developed into one of the largest and most prestigious in Europe and was the cultural and scientific center of the southern Netherlands. It experienced its heyday in the first half of the 16th century, as one of the capitals of humanism . During the French Revolution , after the Peace of Campo Formio , with which the Austrian Netherlands was formally ceded to France in 1797 , the University of Leuven , like all universities in France, was dissolved after the non-theological faculties had been relocated to Brussels in 1788, including the archives and the library of the Old University (some of the books also went to Paris).
In 1817 a neutral imperial university without theological faculty was opened in Leuven, but it was dissolved in 1835 as part of the reorganization of higher education in the Kingdom of Belgium.
The Belgian Bishops' Conference founded a Catholic university back in 1834 . This had been opened in Mechelen and was then moved to Leuven in 1835 after the imperial university was closed in 1835. The Catholic University of Leuven quickly developed into the most important university in the country. It was badly damaged in both world wars . The book collection of the university library, which had been rebuilt since the book collections of the Old University had moved away, fell into flames on the night of August 25-26, 1914, when German troops at the beginning of the First World Warburned down the city of Leuven occupied by them as reprisal for the alleged occurrence of irregular snipers. About a dozen manuscripts, 800 incunabula and 300,000 books fell victim to the flames. During the Second World War , on May 16, 1940, the library, which had been rebuilt after the First World War, burned down again completely and 900,000 books were destroyed. After the Second World War, tensions arose between the French- and Dutch-speaking students, which led to the division of the university into the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and the Université Catholique de Louvain in autumn 1968 .
The old university (1425–1797)
The University of Leuven was founded in 1425 as the studium generale and the first university on the Brabant-Dutch territory. In the context of a wave of new universities being founded in the Holy Roman Empire , which began in the 14th century , the voices in Leuven who advocated the establishment of a university increased. At this time Leuven was in a desperate economic situation and increasingly lost its influential position to Brussels in the political field . The establishment of a university offered both the possibility of economic growth and the creation of an intellectual center for the region. The city could count on the support of the dukeJohn IV of Brabant , for whom the university meant a gain in prestige, and sent representatives to Rome to present the matter to Pope Martin V. On December 9, 1425, he signed the foundation bull " Sapientiae immarcescibilis " and granted the Löwener studium generale " the same rights, privileges and immunities as the universities of Cologne, Vienna and Leipzig have ". The bull approved the establishment of four faculties : an arts faculty , a civil law faculty , a canon law faculty , and a medical oneFaculty. All power lay with the Rector Magnicifus and the Academic Senate. Soon thereafter, the desire arose to found a theological faculty to relieve the three Löwener monasteries from the task of education. In response to a corresponding request from 1431, supported by the then Duke of Brabant, Philip the Good , Pope Eugene IV approved the establishment of the new faculty on March 7, 1432, and the Löwener studium generale became a university. A characteristic of the university was its subdivision into colleges, as they are called " colleges " in the English universities of Oxford and Cambridgestill exist today. This resulted in both residential and teaching colleges and mixed facilities.
Plague epidemics as well as political and economic problems caused the number of enrollments at the university to fall several times in the course of the 15th century. In 1446 a philosophical-theological conflict over the question of the reliability of statements about future and random things (de futuris contingentibus) aroused the minds between the Löwen university teacher Petrus de Rivo (also van der Beken) - he doubted the possibility of reliable forecasts - and His colleague Heinrich von Zomere was carried out and ended in Rome before Pope Sixtus IV with the condemnation of the former and the forced withdrawal of his theses. The University of Löwen experienced its heyday in the first half of the 16th century, as one of the capitals of humanism . Erasmus von Rotterdam worked in Leuven from 1517 to 1521 and founded the " Drei-Sprachen-Kolleg " ( Collegium Trilingue ) for Latin, Greek and Hebrew philology - the only institution of its kind in Europe at the time, which Francis I of France established in 1530 inspired the establishment of a “ Collège des trois langues ”, today's “ Collège de France ”. Leuven had become one of the outstanding intellectual centers in Europe. The Loewen theological faculty became one of the main players in the early Counter-Reformationand at the request of her former pupil Karl V wrote the " Loewen Creed ", which became binding for all professors in the Habsburg Empire . Hadrian VI. - former professor and rector of the university - was elected Pope in 1522. Numerous members of the University of Löwen took part in the Council of Trento . The ideas of bayanism emanating from Professor Michael Bajus from Löwen were condemned by Pope Pius V on October 1, 1567. In 1587 there was a conflict between the theological faculty and the Jesuit Leonhardus Lessius over his doctrine of gracehit by faculty censorship. From 1592 until his death in 1606, the humanist Justus Lipsius , who had returned to the Catholic denomination, taught in Leuven as a professor of history. In 1630, Cornelius Jansen became professor of exegesis in Löwen, which means that Löwen was drawn into the disputes about Jansenism , which was based on Augustine , and was based on extreme grace and predestination with an anti- scholastic and anti-Jesuit tip. It was not until 1713 that the bull Unigenitus Dei filius came aboutto a temporary end of the conflict after the Löwener, with a few exceptions, with her by Pope Clement XI. had subjected them to outspoken condemnation of Jansenism. In 1679, theologians from Löwen, led by Christianus Lupus, campaigned against the 65 theses put forward by Jesuits on the moral theological position of laxism and were condemned by Pope Innocent XI. The validity of the sacrament of penance concerned debates about so-called attritionism, the doctrine that no complete repentance (contritio) is necessary to attain absolution . Against the state church tendencies of the fourThe Gallican article of 1682 and the episcopalist Febronianism that has appeared since 1763, as well as the Josephinism based on it, defended the Pope's claim to leadership over the Church as a whole.
Under Philip II , the dioceses in what was then the Habsburg Netherlands were reorganized in the middle of the 16th century , and Leuven, which had previously belonged to the diocese of Liège , fell to the newly founded diocese of Mechelen . The second half of the 16th century saw the founding of two more universities in what was then the Netherlands: a university was established in Douai in 1562 , and William of Orange founded the university in Leiden in 1575 as a bulwark against Catholic Spain. Due to the ongoing wars of Philip II, during which Lions were besiegedand looted , ravaged by floods and a plague epidemic, the university went through a period of decline in the late sixteenth century and university life and work nearly came to a standstill.
Under the rule of Albrecht VII of Austria and his wife Isabella Clara Eugenia of Spain as governors of the Spanish crown, the university experienced a new boom, which lasted until Isabella's death in 1633.
Under the Austrian rule of Maria Theresa and Joseph II , who paid a visit to the university in 1781, the university experienced a slow decline. The enlightened-absolutist Habsburgs carried out numerous reforms to modernize the university, against which there was strong resistance in Leuven. It was about traditional privileges and autonomyfeared at the university, in particular the protest was directed against the abolition of the right to appoint ecclesiastical offices in 1783 and against the general seminary that Joseph II founded in Leuven as a replacement for the theological faculty and which was to carry out priestly education across the country. The reforms culminated in an imperial decree of July 17, 1788, which ordered the transfer of the legal, medical and artistic faculties to Brussels. The move took place in September 1788, after the Brabant RevolutionHowever, the university facilities were moved back to Leuven, and on March 1, 1790 the solemn reopening of the university in Leuven was celebrated. As a result, Austrian and French troops alternated in Leuven. On June 24, 1793, under Austrian rule, the university received its last charter , in which its privileges and legal personality were confirmed. In 1794 Brabant fell back to France and was formally ceded by Austria to France in the Peace of Campo Formio in 1797. Due to the politically uneasy situation, the number of students at the university fell.
Since the university opposed the alignment of French university policy, it was closed by decree on October 25, 1797 after 372 years of existence. The extensive library was moved to the new École Centrale in Brussels, the rest of the property went to the state, and the archives were incorporated into the state archive. The last rector of the old university, Jean-Joseph Havelange , was deported to Cayenne , where he died.
The Reich University (1817–1835)
In the period that followed, the city campaigned in vain for one of the new universities to be located in Leuven. The preference was given to Brussels. From 1815, Leuven belonged to the United Kingdom of the Netherlands , and steps were taken to restructure the higher education system. In particular, the former professors of the old Loewen University advocated the reopening of this institution and solicited support from Wilhelm I , Pope Pius VII and Emperor Franz II. They received the support of the church, whereas the city of Leuven advocated a modern university in the French sense. When Brussels subsequently came into play as a future university location, there was a fierce dispute between the two cities, which intensified when Ghent began in November 1814 against the monopoly of a central university and for the establishment of several universities and in this advance from Bruges , Liège and Tournaiwas supported. A six-member commission subsequently worked out ways of restructuring the higher education system, with the number and location of the new universities playing an important role. Five out of six commissioners finally came out in favor of the establishment of a single university, either in Leuven or in Brussels, as this was the only way to ensure the necessary specialization. A commissioner advocated the establishment of three Catholic universities in Leuven, Liège and Ghent as a counterpoint to the three Protestant universities in Leiden , Groningen and Utrechtone. On September 25, 1816, the royal decree was passed to found three imperial universities in Leuven, Liège and Ghent. Four faculties for law , medicine , natural sciences and humanities were established in Löwen . The establishment of a theological faculty failed, as did that of a faculty for politics, business and finance. The Imperial University in Leuven opened on October 6, 1817, but it took more than two years for the university to be fully established. Many professors from the University of Leuven had already taught at the old university. The language of instruction was Latin .
On June 14, 1825, a Collegium Philosophicum was founded in Leuven to prepare for studying theology, and attendance was compulsory for later theology studies. In church circles this institution aroused fierce resistance. This opposition pushed through in 1829 that attendance at the college was only optional and no longer compulsory. In 1830 the college was completely closed.
After the Belgian Revolution , which also found numerous followers among Löwen students, the Provisional Government closed the Löwen Faculties of Law and Natural Sciences on December 16, 1830 in order to curb the decentralization of higher education. The university succeeded in changing this resolution and keeping the law faculty, while continuing the science faculty as a free faculty within the scope of freedom of teaching. Until the reorganization of higher education in 1835, conditions in Belgium were chaotic and the universities had to struggle to survive. A suggestion from Charles Rogierto bundle higher education again in a central university in Leuven was rejected by the Chamber of Deputies on August 4, 1835 , and by law of September 27, 1835, the University of Leuven was closed. Most of the professors then moved to the imperial universities in Liège and Ghent.
The Catholic University of Leuven (1834–1968)
The new Belgian Constitution of 1831 constitutionally guaranteed freedom of instruction in Belgium. This gave the Belgian Bishops' Conference under the leadership of Cardinal Engelbert Sterckx the opportunity to found a Catholic university. Pope Gregory XVI gave his consent to this project on December 13, 1833. The Catholic University, called the Catholic University of Mechelen , was opened in Mechelen . As rector was with the as liberal, almost thirty-year-old historian, philosopher and theologian Pierre François Xavier de Ram(1804–1865) - archiepiscopal secretary and archivist in Mechelen since 1826, priest since 1827 and professor of church history in Mechelen (hagiographer and specialist in Belgian church history and the history of the University of Leuven) - a scientist of rank and confidante of Cardinal Sterckx who had made a name for himself in the years 1824–1830 under the influence of the Catholic philosopher Félicité de Lamennais as an opponent of the state's religious policy and whose commitment is due, among other things, to the resumption of the Acta Sanctorum by the new Bollandists . After the closure of the Reich University in Leuven, the Catholic University of Mechelen was relocated on October 13, 1835after Leo decided. The city made seven buildings of the old university, the botanical garden and the St. Pieter Hospital available to the university. In return, the Bishops' Conference undertook to build a university in Leuven, “like the famous academy, which existed for about four centuries to revive. "
On December 1, 1835, the second academic year of the Catholic University was opened in Leuven. Rector De Ram, who was an advocate of the idea of continuity, organized the Catholic university on the basis of the old university. The theological faculty regained its primacy over the other faculties, the rector the title rector magnificus , and until 1849 the first year of study of the philosophical and natural science faculties were carried out together in recollection of the old artist faculty. The collegiate system was maintained. At the same time, the university, which the Belgian bishops wanted to train the Catholic intelligentsia of tomorrow, was shaped by a strictly Catholic spirit.
The number of students at the university increased steadily, and it was soon again considered the most important university in the country. Every fifth professor at the university came from abroad. The Catholic University in Leuven was committed to promoting Flemish culture and was the only university in Belgium to offer classes in the Dutch language . The breaking up of the union of Liberals and Catholics at the political level proved to be detrimental to the university. A request to give the university legal personality was unsuccessful, and in 1849 a new law regulated that state scholarships could only be awarded to students at the imperial universities.
In spring 1848 there was a student revolt in Löwen after a letter of congratulations from Löwen students to German students who had participated in the German Revolution of 1848/49 had been punished with sanctions by the university. The students turned against the university's regulations, which they found too strict, and were sent home for an early Easter break. They refused to comply and instead organized courses on their own. Although the university's regulations were subsequently relaxed to a minor extent, this could no longer prevent large numbers of students from moving to the University of Brussels.
Quarrels within the church also slowed down the development of the university, and after the death of Rector De Ram in 1865, the question of his successor sparked off. The conservative candidate Mgr. Alexandre-Joseph Namèche was unable to prevail against the philosophy professor Mgr. Nicolas-Joseph Laforêt , who was favored by Cardinal Engelbert Sterckx . In return, the rector's power was curtailed as a concession to the more conservative voices.
In 1865 a school for engineers was founded in Leuven . While the imperial universities in Ghent and Liège had been training engineers for a long time, Leuven had been reluctant to accept such an institution due to the high cost and technical nature of the subject, which was seen as out of place in a university. In 1871, the science faculty reformed its program and, following an initiative by Louis Henry and based on the German model, founded the first laboratories for teaching purposes.
Under Rector Namèche, who succeeded Laforêt after his death in 1872, an Agronomic Institute was founded in 1878 in response to the agricultural crisis. Student numbers increased from 1,045 to 1,512, making it more difficult to maintain strict supervision. Numerous student associations emerged that were involved in the Flemish movement . The growth and the increased use of laboratories for practical teaching meant that the university had to buy and build new buildings, which plunged it into financial difficulties. Therefore, in March 1881, Rector Namèche submitted his resignation. He was followed by Mgr. Constant Pieraerts (1881–1887) and Mgr. Jan Baptist Abbeloos(1887-1898) after. The latter was vicar general in the Archdiocese of Mechelen and was the first rector not to be a professor at the university.
Abbeloos campaigned for the university to be transformed from a pure teaching facility into a scientific research facility. He promoted the Flemish language and culture and had official documents published in both national languages for the first time in 1889. In addition, Dutch-language courses in German and criminal law were set up.
Under the sixth rector, Mgr. Adolphe Hebbelynck (1898–1909), the university's economic situation recovered. A bacteriological institute was founded in 1894 and a pathological institute in 1906 . Henry de Dorlodot set up a geological institute at his own expense . An electrotechnical institute was opened in 1901 for engineering training and for the agronomic oneInstitute a zootechnical institute. There were more voices among the students who advocated a division of the courses into courses held in Dutch and courses held in French. They could not prevail with their demand due to economic impracticability and the fact that Dutch was seen as a language of instruction not suitable for higher education. In 1909 the situation escalated when students disrupted the 75th anniversary of the Catholic university with rallies.
With Mgr. Paulin Ladeuze (1870-1940) a rector was appointed in 1909, who headed the university for more than 30 years and is considered one of its greatest personalities. He was committed to better equipping the institutes and laboratories, had the chemical laboratories completely renovated and a physical institute built. A new building was built for the law and theological faculties in order to be able to expand the university library in the cloth hall . In addition to research, teaching was also promoted, especially through new courses in art history , dentistry and neurology, among others. In addition, from 1911 onwards, on the initiative of Ladeuze, some courses were offered bilingual in each faculty, whereby the students were free to choose whether they would attend the course in Dutch or French and in which language they would take their exams. In 1911 the university, like the Free University in Brussels, was given legal personality by law.
The university suffered severe damage during the First World War . In August 1914, German soldiers looted the city in retaliation and burned down some neighborhoods (see Destruction of Löwens in the First World War ). The cloth hall that housed the university library was also set on fire and burned down completely. About a dozen manuscripts, 800 incunabula and 300,000 books, as well as the papal foundation bull " Sapientiae immarcescibilis " from 1425, fell victim to the flames. In total, a third of the buildings in the city were destroyed, including buildings of the old university and numerous apartments of professors, reducing their libraries and manuscriptsgot lost. In October 1914, Cambridge made an offer to temporarily relocate the University of Löwen there, which was rejected due to the lack of exit permits for the students and the fact that numerous professors went to foreign universities or were active in the army. During the war, no courses were offered at the university.
The resumption of university operations was celebrated on January 21, 1919. The international fame of the university had increased through the events during the war. The initiative “ Oeuvre internationale de Louvain ” campaigned for the restoration of the university library, and enrollment numbers of 3,180 students in 1919 were higher than before the war. The consequences were lack of space and financial tensions at the university, which was already in debt due to the war and which also suffered from inflation . Aid came from a collection carried out by the Belgian bishops across the country for the benefit of the university and funds from the Commission for the Belgian Aid Organization. In addition, the state awarded the university annual funding in 1922.
As an important innovation, the university allowed women to study for the first time in 1920, but the number of enrollments was low. In the post-war period, students 'demands for lessons in Dutch became louder again, but this raised concerns at the Belgian Bishops' Conference, which feared the creation of a gap between the language groups and the establishment of a Dutch-speaking Catholic university in Antwerp insteadpondered. As a compromise, the range of Dutch-language courses has been expanded. Since there was no financial means for a double occupation of each subject with a Dutch-speaking and a French-speaking professor, bilingual professors held lectures in both languages for a salary increase, but many professors did not want to spend their time on them. The relationship between the Flemish students and the university administration did not relax as a result, and so did the two large student associations “ Fédération wallonne ” and “ Katholiek Vlaamsch Hoogstudenten Verbond”“Were in open dispute. Accordingly, the Flemish student associations did not take part in the university's 500th anniversary in July 1927.
The Second World War had even more serious consequences for the university than the first. On the night of May 16-17, 1940, the university library was completely destroyed for the second time and only 15,000 of its 900,000 volumes could be saved. Numerous university buildings were damaged or occupied, and many professors and students fled abroad. Rector Mgr. Honoré Van Waeyenbergh, who had succeeded Ladeuze on March 19, 1940, nevertheless advocated maintaining university operations. He forbade the professors from Löwen to accept invitations to Germany and did not allow any German visiting professors to attend the university. He also resisted any interference from the German side with regard to the appointment of professors. When the University of Brussels was closed at the end of 1941, 583 students moved from there to the University of Leuven. In addition, more and more students were enrolling for forced laborto escape. The number of Löwen students rose to 7,770 in 1943, which again led to a lack of space. When the German occupation forces wanted to oblige the first year students to do forced labor in German factories for six months in 1943, the university refused to publish the enrollment lists. Van Waeyenbergh was subsequently arrested on June 5 and sentenced to 18 months in prison on June 30 . Following criticism from Belgium and the Holy See , the sentence was reduced on September 23. In the spring of 1944, Löwen was heavily bombed again, this time by the Allies. Numerous university buildings were completely destroyed, and a professor and nine students were killed. Further damage occurred when the withdrawing German troops blew up the Dijlebrücken .
The reconstruction then began quickly, and in the academic year 1945 all courses could already be held again. The following years saw both the expansion and modernization of the existing university facilities and the establishment of numerous new ones. The Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences was founded in 1949, and in 1961 the former engineering school was converted into a Faculty of Applied Science .
Tensions between French-speaking and Dutch-speaking students, which had subsided in the 1930s, increased again in the 1950s. The University of Löwen was still a predominantly French-speaking institution, although the lectures and administration were now bilingual. In 1960 the number of Flemish students exceeded French speakers for the first time. At the political level, the reform of the language legislation has started. The French-speaking professors at the university saw themselves in dire straits and founded the “ Association du corps académique et du personnel scientifique de l'Université de Louvain“(ACAPSUL), as a counterpart to this, an association of Flemish professors was created. Following the enactment of the language laws in 1962/1963, considerations arose to relocate the French-speaking part of the university to Wallonia .
The University of Leuven had become by far the largest university in Belgium, and the high enrollment figures caused a lack of space. On April 9, 1965, a few courses were outsourced to Woluwe-Saint-Lambert / Sint-Lambrechts-Woluwe and Kortrijk . Due to the heated atmosphere in Leuven, a commission began its work in December 1965, which dealt with the restructuring of the university, chaired by Professors Edward Leemans and Xavier Aubert . After three months of work, it came to different results: while the French-speaking members opposed a move to Wallonia, this was supported by the Flemish members.
In a declaration of May 13, 1966, the Belgian Bishops' Conference affirmed the institutional, functional and geographical unity of the university, at the same time advocated strengthening the autonomy of the two language groups and saw a possible solution in decentralization in view of the steadily growing number of students. In Flanders this declaration met with rejection, it was viewed as authoritarian, clerical and anti-Flemish. As a concession, the Bishops' Conference subsequently appointed Pieter De Someras Vice-Rector of the Dutch-speaking part and Professor Edward Leemans as General Commissioner of the University, both lay and Flemish-minded. The student riots continued anyway. In contrast, the French-speaking camp began to see that a division could no longer be avoided, and the number of voices in favor of a move increased. In the autumn of 1968, the Catholic University of Leuven was split into the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and the Université catholique de Louvaindecided. In months of negotiations, the modalities of the separation were discussed, in particular the compensation payments that the Université catholique de Louvain should receive for the buildings and facilities left behind in Leuven. For the Université catholique de Louvain, a new city south of the language border, Louvain-la-Neuve ("New Leuven"), was built in 1971 , the first Belgian city to be founded since Charleroi in 1666 May 1970 Legal personality.
Controversy over the question of continuity
Because the university was closed twice and opened in a new form and orientation, some historians took the view that the old university, the imperial university and the Catholic university were three different institutions between which there was no historical continuity. Today's Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and the Université catholique de Louvain could therefore not refer to a foundation in 1425, but only in 1834. Most of the time, however, the historical continuity is affirmed. There is hardly a continental European university that was founded in the Middle Ages that has retained its original structure in the course of its history and can look back on seamless continuity.toLions, which are also expressed in the spatial conditions that have remained unchanged over the centuries. As part of the relocation of the Catholic University from Mechelen to Leuven in 1835, the city of Leuven and the Belgian Bishops' Conference explicitly spoke of a quasi-reopening of the old university. Ultimately, the dispute is about the legitimacy of a continuity claim of today's university institutions subject to denominational influence, which is viewed by critics as an inadmissible appropriation of a completely different tradition. Due to the fact that religious and ideological attitudes, about which naturally no agreement can be reached and which cannot be settled by majority decisions, shape the discussion, there has been a hardening of positions and a lack of objectivity in the argumentation. In the background there are obviously more general questions such as the raison d'être of universities in church sponsorship, the relationship between the state and the churches and the social and political influence of the Catholic Church in Belgium and beyond.
After its establishment in 1834, the self-image of the Catholic University of Leuven was not free of contradictions to this question. While there was an express wish to build on the old university, and the first rector, Pierre De Ram, leaned the organization of the Catholic university heavily on the old alma mater, the university celebrated its 50th anniversary in 1884 and its 75th anniversary in 1909 Consist. On the other hand, their self-image as an institution with medieval roots was shown in the solemn presentation of the papal foundation bull of 1425 in 1909. The change in awareness took place due to the First World War, in which lions were assigned the role of victim as a centuries-old institution to German barbarism. In 1927 the 500. The anniversary of the founding of the university was celebrated and the anniversary of 1934 merely commemorated the reopening of the old university. In the academic year 1975/1976 the university celebrated its 550th anniversary. The comprehensive chronicle was also published on this occasionDe universiteit te Leuven 1425–1975 , a joint effort of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven and the Université catholique de Louvain. The universities today undoubtedly regard themselves as successor institutions to the old university. Both universities have the founding date 1425 in their seal , but only since 1968.
The archives and manuscripts of the ancient University of Louvain 1425-1797 have remained completely untouched and in "the Memory of the World Register" (since 2013 World Soundtrack Awards enrolled).
- De Universiteit te Leuven. Universitaire Pers Leuven, Leuven 1976, ISBN 90-6186-034-2 .
- Jo Tollebeek, Liesbet Nys: De stad op de berg: een geschiedenis van de Leuvense Universiteit are 1968. Universitaire Pers Leuven, Leuven 2005, ISBN 90-5867-479-7 .
- Chris Coppens, Mark Derez, Leuven University Library 1425–2000. Universitaire Pers Leuven, Leuven 2005, ISBN 90-5867-466-5 .
- R. Mathes, Leuven and Rome. On the foundation of the Catholic University of Leuven with special consideration of the church and educational policy of Pope Gregory XVI. , Essen, 1975.
- Denis Valentin, The Catholic University of Leuven: 1425–1958. Lions 1958.
- André Tihon: Art. Lions . In: Lexicon for Theology and Church , Vol. 6. Herder, Freiburg-Basel-Vienna. 3rd edition 2006, col. 1070-1073.
- Herman Todts, Willy Jonckeere, Leuven Vlaams: Splitsingsgeschiedenis van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven . Davidsfonds, Löwen 1979, ISBN 90-6152-305-2 .
- Nicolaus Vernulaeus, Academia Lovaniensis. Ejus origo, incrementum, viri illustres, res gestae , Löwen, 1627.
- Valerius Andreas , Fasti academici Lovanienses , Leuven, 1635.
- Freiherr Friedrich von Reiffenberg, Mémoires sur les deux premiers siècles de l'Université de Louvain , Brussels, 1829–35.
- Pierre De Ram, Laforêt et Namêche, Analectes pour servir à l'histoire de l'Université de Louvain , in: Annuaire de l'Université de Louvain , 1838–65.
- F. Nève. Mémoire historique et littéraire sur le collège des Trois-langues à l'Université de Louvain , Brussels, 1856.
- E. Reusens, Documents relatifs à l'histoire de l'Université de Louvain (1425-1797) , in: Analectes pour servir à l'histoire ecclésiastique , t. XVII et seq., 1881-92.
- Pierre De Ram, Codex veterum statutorum Academiae Lovaniensis , Brussels, 1881.
- Arthur Verhaeghen, Les cinquante dernières années de l'ancienne Université de Louvain , Liège, 1884.
- Edmond Henri Joseph Reusens, Matricule de l'Université de Louvain. Kiessling, Bruxelles 1903. Digitized
- Léon van der Essen, L'université de Louvain , Brussels, 1945.
- F. Claeys Boúúaert, L'Ancienne Université de Louvain, Études et Documents , Leuven, 1956.
- F. Claeys Boúúaert, Contribution à l'histoire économique de l'Ancienne Université de Louvain , 1959.
- Claude Bruneel, Répertoire des thèses de l'Ancienne Université , Leuven, 1977.
- Emiel Lamberts and Jan Roegiers, Leuven University , 1425-1985, Leuven, University Press, 1990.
- Jan Roegiers, "Was de oude Universiteit Leuven een Rijksuniversiteit?", In Archief-en bibliotheekwezen in België , 1990, p. 545.
Reich University of Leuven
- Annales Academiae Lovaniensis , 1821-1827 (1817-1826).
- Annales Academiae Lovaniensis , 1821: " Discours prononcé le 6 octobre 1817 à l'occasion de l'installation de l'Université par M. le docteur François-Joseph Harbaur, professeur en médecine, nommé recteur magnifique de la même université ".
- JJ Dodt, Repertorium dissertationum belgicarum , Utrecht, 1835.
- A. Ferrier, Description historique et topographique de Louvain , Brussels, Haumann, Cattoir et Cie, 1837.
- E. Van Even, Louvain monumental ..., Leuven, C.-J. Fonteyn, 1860.
- Victor Brants, La faculté de droit de l'Université de Louvain à travers cinq siècles (1426-1906) esquisse historique , Leuven, 1906.
- Hubert Nélis, Inventaire des archives de l'Université de l'État à Louvain , Brussels, Hayez, 1917.
- Albert Bruylants, "Les chimistes louvanistes et leur temps", II, "L'École Centrale de la Dyle (1795-1814) et l'Université d'État (1816-1835)", in: Bulletin trimestriel de l'Association des Amis de l'Université de Louvain , n ° 3, 1955.
- Gisela Wild: "Leopold August Warnkönig 1794 - 1866. A law teacher between natural law and historical school and a mediator of the German spirit in Western Europe", in: Freiburger Rechts- und Staatswissenschaftliche Abhandlungen , Volume 17, Karlsruhe, 1961.
- B. Borghgraef van der Schueren, De Universiteiten in de Zuidelijke Provincies onder Willem I , Brussels, 1973.
- "La faculté de droit de l'Université d'État de Louvain", in: Jura Falconis , XI, 1975 (3).
- Mia De Neef, De Faculteit Wijsbegeerte en Letteren van de Rijksuniversiteit te Leuven (1817-1835) , unedited thesis, Löwen, KUL, 1986.
- Emiel Lamberts et Jan Roegiers, Leuven University, 1425-1985 , Leuven, University Press, 1990.
- Kölner Universitätsgeschichte (Kölner Großraum) ( Memento of the original from September 11, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Marc Nelissen, Leuven, Rom en Brabant . In: Nelissen, Roegiers, van Mingroot, De stichtingsbul van de Leuvense universiteit, 1425-1914 . Universitaire Pers Leuven, Löwen 2000, ISBN 90-5867-070-8 , p. 70: " de universiteit voerde het stadswapen van Leuven, een dwarsbalk van zilver op een veld van keel, maar voegde in de right bovenhoek van het schild een nimbus toe van waaruit een hand een opengeslagen boek aanreikte . "
- See Richard Mathes, Löwen und Rom. On the foundation of the Catholic University of Leuven with special consideration of the church and educational policy of Pope Gregory XVI. Ludgerus, Essen 1975, pp. 243–246, here p. 245.
- Article Peter de Rivo of the English Wikipedia
- Hubert Nélis, Inventaire des archives de l'Université de l'État à Louvain , Brussels, Hayez, 1917, p. 8: "tous les professeurs, à l'exception de ceux de littératures hollandaise et française, de la pratique du droit et des sciences économiques, devaient aux termes de la loi, se servir dans leurs leçons de la langue latine. "
- Richard Mathes, Leuven and Rome. On the foundation of the Catholic University of Leuven with special consideration of the church and educational policy of Pope Gregory XVI. Ludgerus, Essen 1975, p. 177.
- On de Ram cf. Article Pierre François Xavier de Ram in the Engl. Wikipedia
- De Universiteit te Leuven . Universitaire Pers Leuven, Leuven 1976, ISBN 90-6186-034-2 , p. 223.
- De Universiteit te Leuven . Universitaire Pers Leuven, Leuven 1976, ISBN 90-6186-034-2 , p. 225.
- Erik Van Mingroot, Sapientiae immarcessibilis: a diplomatic and comparative study of the bull of foundation of the University of Louvain: December 9, 1425 . Leuven University Press, Leuven 1994, ISBN 9061866200 , p. 1.
- Cf. Marc Derez, Leuven . Universitaire Pers Leuven, Löwen 1996, ISBN 90-6186-470-4 , p. 50, which in turn affirms historical continuity. See also itemization 2 above.
- Erik Van Mingroot, Sapientiae immarcessibilis: a diplomatic and comparative study of the bull of foundation of the University of Louvain: December 9, 1425 . Leuven University Press, Leuven 1994, ISBN 9061866200 , p. 2; Marc Derez, Leuven . Universitaire Pers Leuven, Löwen 1996, ISBN 90-6186-470-4 , p. 50; De Universiteit te Leuven . Universitaire Pers Leuven, Leuven 1976, ISBN 90-6186-034-2 , p. 13; Willy Jonckeere, Herman Todts, Leuven Vlaams. Splitsingsgeschiedenis van de Katholieke Universiteit Leuven . Davidsfonds, Löwen 1979, ISBN 90-6152-305-2 , p. 15; Marc Nelissen / Albert d'Haenens, Leuven / Louvain, in: Jos. MM Hermans, Charters of foundation and early documents of the universities of the Coimbra Group , Leuven University Press, Löwen 2005, ISBN 90-5867-474-6 , p. 64; Jan Papy in the foreword to Justus Lipsius, Leuven: beschrijving van de stad en hair universiteit , Universitaire Pers Leuven, Löwen 2000, ISBN 9058670554 , p. 11; Kurt De Wit, Universiteiten in Europa in de 21e eeuw: network in een changing seeds . Dissertation, 2007, p. 226; Walter Rüegg , History of the University in Europe. From the 19th century to the Second World War (1800–1945) . Beck, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-406-36954-5 , pp. 48, 106.
- De Universiteit te Leuven . Universitaire Pers Leuven, Leuven 1976, ISBN 90-6186-034-2 , p. 13.
- Marc Derez, Leuven . Universitaire Pers Leuven, Löwen 1996, ISBN 90-6186-470-4 , p. 50; De Universiteit te Leuven . Universitaire Pers Leuven, Leuven 1976, ISBN 90-6186-034-2 , p. 13.
- One should not forget, however, that various judgments forbade the Catholic University to present itself as the continuation of the old University of Leuven: Judgment of the " Cour de Cassation of November 26, 1846:" L'université catholique de Louvain ne peut être considérée comme continuant l'ancienne université de Louvain; et lorsqu'un acte de fondation a désigné pour collateur un professeur de cette ancienne université, il ya lieu d'y pourvoir par le gouvernement ", ( Table générale alphabétique et chronologique de la Pasicrisie Belge contenant la jurisprudence du Royaume de 1814 à 1850 , Bruxelles, 1855, p. 585, column 1, alinea 2. See also: Bulletin Usuel des Lois et Arrêtés, 1861, p.166.). And this judgment of the Cour d'Appel of 1844: La Belgique Judiciaire , 28 July 1844 n ° 69, p. 1: "Cour d'Appel de Bruxelles. Deuxième chambre. L'université libre de Louvain ne représente pas légalement l'antique université de cette ville. Attendu que cette université (l'ancienne Université de Louvain), instituée par une bulle papale, de concert avec l'autorité souveraine, formait un corps reconnu dans l'État, ayant différentes attributions, dont plusieurs même lui évoient déléguées par péléguées ; Attendu que ce corps a été supprimé par les lois de la république française; Attendu que l'université existant actuellement à Louvain ne peut être considérée comme continuant celle qui existait en 1457, ces deux établissemens ayant un caractère bien distinct, puisque l'université actuelle, non reconnue commeétne civile, n'ablissement to'un -à-fait privé, résultat de la liberté d'enseignement,".
- De Universiteit te Leuven . Universitaire Pers Leuven, Leuven 1976, ISBN 90-6186-034-2 , p. 223; Erik Van Mingroot, Sapientiae immarcessibilis: a diplomatic and comparative study of the bull of foundation of the University of Louvain: December 9, 1425 . Leuven University Press, Leuven 1994, ISBN 9061866200 , p. 2.
- also “Discussion: History of the University of Leuven” on this article.
- Erik Van Mingroot, Sapientiae immarcessibilis: a diplomatic and comparative study of the bull of foundation of the University of Louvain: December 9 1425 . Leuven University Press, Leuven 1994, ISBN 9061866200 , p. 2; Jo Tollebeek, Liesbet Nys, De stad op de berg: een geschiedenis van de Leuvense Universiteit sinds 1968. Universitaire Pers Leuven, Löwen 2005, ISBN 90-5867-479-7 , p. 303.
- Jo Tollebeek, Liesbet Nys, De stad op de berg: een geschiedenis van de Leuvense Universiteit sinds 1968. Universitaire Pers Leuven, Löwen 2005, ISBN 90-5867-479-7 , p. 303.
- The Archives of the University of Leuven (1425-1797): University Heritage of Global Significance. UNESCO / Memory of the World - Register, 2013, accessed July 30, 2013 .
- List of famous personalities from the old University of Leuven
- List of well-known personalities from the University of Leuven
- List of alumni of the Catholic University of Leuven
- University website (Dutch, English, abstracts in Chinese and French)