Universitas Studii Coloniensis

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Seal of the University of Cologne

The Universitas Studii (sancte civitatis) Coloniensis was the Old University of Cologne , which was founded in 1388 by the patricians in the Cologne City Council . It existed until 1798 when it was dissolved during the French era . Today's University of Cologne , founded in 1919, sees itself in the tradition of this medieval university.

Predecessor institutions

In the Middle Ages, Cologne was the second largest city in the Holy Roman Empire with around 40,000 inhabitants. It was also the most important pilgrimage town since Rainald von Dassel brought the relics of the three kings to Cologne in 1164 . In Holy Cologne there had been a cathedral school since at least 850 and from the 13th century general studies with the spiritual mendicant orders of the Franciscans (since 1260), Carmelites in the Cologne Carmel (since 1294) and Augustinians (since 1290). The best known studium generale was that of the Dominicans , founded in 1248 by Albertus Magnus . Was when the University established, they took no teachers from these religious educational institutions, other than the master Konrad von Brydschede (Breidscheid), canon at the pen St. Gereon and later one of the first names are known professors at the Montanerburse who enrolled at the day of the foundation. These ecclesiastical studies continued and there was cooperation. The rector elections took place quarterly in turn in the general studies, and the Regentes were later appointed professors at the university.


Special stamp "600 years of Cologne University" of the German Federal Post Office from 1988

The University of Cologne was founded on May 21, 1388 as the fourth university in the Holy Roman Empire after the University of Prague (1348), the University of Vienna (1365) and the University of Heidelberg (1386). The initiative for this did not come from the emperor or a prince, as usual, but from the council of the Free Imperial City of Cologne, which also took over the costs. On the part of the city was in the founding negotiations with Pope Urban VI. the master of theology, professor in the Dominican general studies, Alexander von Kempen, and the legal advisor of the city and provost of St. Georg , Hermann Stakkelwege , who also entered the law faculty in 1389 and was rector in the summer of 1392. The founding charter was made by Pope Urban VI. signed in Perugia . On January 6, 1389, Epiphany , the day of Cologne's patron saint , the lectures were started by the initially 20 professors. The founding rector was Hartlevus de Marca , who opened the teaching with a disputation based on the model of the Sorbonne with the theology professor Gerhard Kikpot von Kalkar on Isaiah 60.1 (“the glory of the Lord shone upon you”). On the following day (probably because the cathedral was not available on Epiphany) a mass was read in the cathedral. The university was based on the most respected role model, the University of Paris , from which about three-quarters of the professors came because their university at the instigation of the French King Charles VI. had decided for the antipope Clement VII. Another part had fled from Heidelberg because of the plague to Cologne. It differed from Paris, Vienna and Heidelberg in that it was the first university in the empire to teach imperial law ( Roman law ) in addition to canon law . From the beginning it was one of the largest universities in Europe with 700 enrolled (later around 1000). The lingua franca at universities was Latin, or rather church Latin , which is why the scholars came from all over Europe. In 1389, 35 people came to the new university from Charles University in Prague alone, mainly baccalaureates and magistrates . The city initially financed nine and later twelve professores publici et ordinarii : four theologians, three canonists , three doctors and two lawyers (who taught Roman law / imperial law). Further professorships were financed through benefices . In the first year, no fewer than seven professors of imperial law taught at the university, two of whom were professors of both law. A total of four taught canon law. At ten of the large collegiate churches in Cologne and at Cologne Cathedral , a canonical was reserved to finance these additional professorships for the university . In 1437 another 11 were added to each of these churches. In addition to the financing, this also ensured the spiritual connection to the church. In addition, the right to take exams and doctorate candidates was granted to the Archbishop and Elector of Cologne (when Friedrich III. Of Saar Werden was founded , who was quite distant from the city), who commissioned the provost of the cathedral, who thus became the university's chancellor . The vice-chancellor, who in turn was a professor at the university appointed by him, ran the business; a largely identical construct still exists today in the traditional universities of the former British Commonwealth. Shortly after its start, the university had all four faculties that were customary at the time: theology, law ( utrumque jus all two rights'), medicine and the younger seven " Artes ", which in the trivium (grammar, logic, rhetoric) together with the quadrivium (arithmetic , Astronomy, Geometry, Music) and were later collectively referred to as the Faculty of Philosophy. Founding members were 21 Magistri in 1388/89 ; Of the 609 students in the higher faculties, 108 were theologians, 166 were lawyers and eight were medical students.

Study and teaching

The Kronenburse, former law school, around 1840

Most of the students came from the Rhenish, Westphalian and Dutch territories, but also from Scandinavia and Scotland. Between 1419 and 1523 alone, 434 Scots came to Cologne. A third were considered poor and were supported by foundations and additional income. Between 1441 and 1500 around 450 students were enrolled each year. The university had its teaching buildings and bursa distributed throughout the city in an area around the cathedral and around today's street An der Rechtschule (see there). A large part of the lessons took place in buildings of the four mendicant orders . Many students also lived in these bursas, to which the preparatory lessons of the artistic faculty , which were mandatory for all, were transferred in the 15th century . Smaller bursa did not last long. In 1524 there was still the Kronenburse (Tricoronatum) named after the Cologne coat of arms on the then municipal building, which mainly served the lawyers, the Laurentiana , located first on today's Komödienstraße and later at the law school, as well as the Montanerburse on the streets Unter Sachsenhausen , Enggasse and Stolkgasse, both named after their founders or main sponsors. Student life took place in the bursa. The doctoral excursion after graduation, for example, was an expensive party, but at the same time it earned a lot of reputation. In addition to the Burses, there were also colleges of other orders, such as the Collegium Norbertinum of the Premonstratensians founded in 1615 in their Steinfeld court at St. Gereon .

Enrollment fees

There was no uniform start of studies. Traveling scholars were registered by the rector on their arrival, often some time afterwards. There were 6 Albus due and one Albus for the pedel . Magisters and doctors also had to register. The rector was able to waive the fee for poor and particularly famous people to be registered. So that many of the professors had access to this income, the rectorate changed every quarter. A rector could of course also be re-elected.

Artist faculty

All students had to go through the artist faculty first before they could possibly be admitted to higher studies. The faculty used the Versėlenkonvent on Stolkgasse opposite the Dominican monastery, which the city had acquired from the Beguines in 1398 . It had been rebuilt and expanded several times for the purposes of the artist faculty. From 1411 to 1416 the faculty also owned the Riehl farm on Marzellenstrasse.

Faculty of Theology

Cologne Cathedral and Aula theologica around 1665

The theological faculty was one of the most prestigious of the faculties. She used the chapter house of the cathedral chapter . Later, the cathedral chapter made rooms behind the cathedral ambulatory available to the faculty as a theological school. In 1523, with the approval of the council, a new building was built next to the south tower of the cathedral at the cathedral monastery, which replaced the previous rooms. According to the drawing by Justus Finkenbaum, it was a two-storey crenellated building, which in turn had to give way to a new building in 1748/50. This new building was adorned with a wide volute gable into which a relief had been worked that was supposed to symbolize the victory of the Catholic Church over the heresies . In 1785 the relief was knocked off for fear of protestant troops entering. As recently as 1779, the “Aula theologorum” was still referred to as the “high school” in the Cologne address book. After the French occupation of the city, the building became the seat of the Republican club. It then served as a "Lyversbergisches" warehouse and was demolished as such in 1844. However, the faculty is said to never have owned the building.

Law Faculty

Seal of the Law Faculty from 1393

The law faculty originally used a teaching facility on Waidmarkt. It was then obtained in 1433 as a result of a college foundation by a Dr. Johann Vorburg came into the possession of the house "Vrechen", which was then called the law school after the faculty . After this, the Vogelstrasse, which runs behind the monastery of the Friars Minor , the "platea vogelonis", was given the name An der Rechtschule , which is still used today . The law faculty was expanded in 1477 through the legacy of a Dr. “Loppo von Zieriksen”, who bequeathed the “Spänheim” house to the faculty on the nearby Burgmauer street.

The front of the backyard building was rebuilt around 1621 as a three-axis gable structure and received an eight-sided stair tower . In this building the college “D (T) werch”, the so-called “Kronenburse” found its place, which got its name from the city ​​coat of arms affixed above the door . In 1681, with the rain of the Burse Mappipius , the city agreed to renovate the building and in 1686 four windows of the building were to be glazed with the city's coat of arms incorporated.

Repeal and private use

Its use as a faculty building came to an end with the French occupation of the city. In the 19th century an institution for the deaf and dumb was established in it (possibly the first school of Johann Joseph Gronewald ). In 1888 the building served as an arts and crafts museum ; it was demolished in 1902 because a school was to be built on the site.


The round seal has a diameter of 52 mm and, because of its technical and artistic design, is described as outstanding among the seals of Cologne University. Its center is accentuated by a raised edge and in this by a Gothic quatrefoil . The seal from 1393 contains a teaching scene in which a professor is sitting on a raised Gothic armchair decorated with four pinnacles , which is located behind a reading desk resting on a column . The scholar is dressed in a wide robe , but does not wear a biretta and his posture is directed forward. Two students sitting opposite one another at his feet have an open book on their knees each. On the inner edge of the quatrefoil, two keys for canonical symbols are shown on the left and the double-headed eagle for imperial law on the right. The transcription in German minuscule , interrupted by tendrils, reads: sigillum facultatum utriusq [ue] iuris studii colon [iensis] .

Medical school

For the time being, the small medical faculty was only able to share the rooms of the artist school. After the university was founded, the physician Wolbero de Kaldenhoyven from Geseke , who was also called Schultetinck, appears as professor and canon at St. Gereon Abbey . He was enrolled in Cologne in 1389 and was dean of the medical faculty in 1398 and rector four times (34th 1379, 50th 1401 and 74th / 75th to December 24th, 1407). In 1408 the exequies were held for him . There was a garden for medicinal herbs in 1555, but a Theatrum anatomicum was not established until 1715.


The medical faculty of the old university is said to have carried out the first anatomy to deepen medical teaching as early as 1480 , but without giving any local information about such an institution. The difficulties faced by the professors in being able to teach this subject undisturbed were manifold and, over a long period of time, manifested themselves primarily in the lack of adequate space. After various provisional arrangements in the small hospitals, the city council under the mayor Andreas von Weidenfeld took up this problem and decided at the beginning of the 18th century to build a building suitable for this purpose. In 1715 he commissioned the Wednesday rent chamber at the Kornhaus near the Heiligkreuzkapelle to build a Theatrum anatomicum . The facility started operating as an anatomy school in 1722 and in 1737, after two years of no anatomy, it was placed under the supervision of Professor Johann Peter Engels, who also resumed lectures there. From 1754 training for the profession of midwife took place in anatomy .

During the Seven Years' War and the related occupation of the city by the French, new difficulties arose. The Dean Dr. Menn successfully defended himself against the request of the war commissioner Raudin, who had already taken over the rooms of the artist school, to confiscate the anatomy as well.

Twenty years after these events (1774), the institute's surgeons were given permission to set up an instrument cabinet. Shortly afterwards, the city tower masters were commissioned to draft a provisional ordinance for the facility, which was then to be attached in the anatomy house. According to this, for example, independent access was only permitted to students who had already attended five anatomical courses and who also had permission from their professor.

A list from 1787 shows the poorness of the overall furnishings, in which the inventory of the lecture hall and the anatomy room as well as the items of the kitchen and the bedroom of the " Bedell " were recorded. One of the last pieces of news about the anatomy building is a statement sent to the Rentkammer in 1789 by the professor of surgery, Lic. Josef Bracht, who was still in charge of supervision up to this point. In 1790 the building had an estimated value of 1000 to 1500 francs.

Legal relationships

The members of the university were - unlike all other Cologne residents - not subject to any gaff compulsory ( guild compulsory ). They also had their own jurisdiction .

Main seal

The seal dates from 1392. Under a Gothic canopy of three arcades , the adoration of the Magi , the city patron of Cologne, is depicted under the star of Bethlehem in front of Mary with the baby Jesus , which in turn is called Sedes sapientiae , a symbol for the university, is shown. The three crowns (of the three kings) of the Cologne city coat of arms are listed on a shield head below the picture . The inscription is: s [igillum] universitatis studii s [an] c [ta] e civitatis coloniensis.

Seal of the Faculty of Theology from 1393

Cologne and humanism

→ Main article Influence of humanism on the University of Cologne

Current trends always had an impact on conditions in the university; the humanities currents of the early modern period deserve special mention. They eventually led to the university's decline, as, as the faithful daughter of the Church, she often defied the zeitgeist . Professors who were close to Lutheranism also had to leave the university. The law faculty was the first to condemn Luther's writings in 1519, and Pope Leo X's bull threatening excommunication the following year explicitly referred to this judgment.

End of the university

On April 28, 1798, the university was closed by the French who moved to Cologne in 1794, as had the universities in France and the University of Mainz in 1793, when it was converted into a central school for the Département de la Roer , called "Université de Cologne", also because the Cologne professorships (especially their last rector Ferdinand Franz Wallraf ) initially refused to take an oath on the French republic and against the rule of kings, on the grounds that the independence of the university had to be preserved and that professors were not administrative officials. Ferdinand Franz Wallraf became a teacher at the central school in 1799 after taking the oath on January 21 of that year. It is important for Cologne as the savior of many works of art and was also able to hide the university seal from the French. His art collection today belongs to the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum & Fondation Corboud . The legacy of the old university, including the old seal, belongs to the historical archive of the city of Cologne . A part is also kept in the historical collections of the Cologne high school and foundation fund , which, founded under Napoléon , also manages the legacy of the Cologne bursa and the high schools following them. Important pieces are also on loan in the Cologne City Museum . The old university didn't have a library. However, the university and city libraries have in their historical collections the merged libraries of the three Cologne bursa / grammar schools, especially those of the Jesuit college . The extensive library of the last rector Wallraf, which he bequeathed to the city, is also part of these historical collections today.

New university

After the Wars of Liberation , the people of Cologne hoped in vain to be able to reopen their university. The Prussian state preferred the smaller Bonn. It was not until 1901 that the city was able to build the Cologne University of Commerce at Hansaring (today Hansagymnasium ), which was then incorporated into the newly or re-established Cologne University under Konrad Adenauer in 1919 . The university got its first own building (1907–1934) in Claudiusstrasse, which today houses the Cologne University of Applied Sciences . The building is now known as the Old University . The university sees itself in the tradition of the old Universitas, in 1988 the 600th anniversary was celebrated.

Well-known professors

  • Hartlevus de Marca , professor of canon law and founding rector
  • Gerhard Kikpot von Kalkar , theologian, studied and professor at the Sorbonne, in Prague and Vienna, since the University of Cologne was founded
  • Hermann Stakkelwege , professor of both rights, since 1389 professor in Cologne
  • Simon von Speyer , from 1388 a theologian, previously Regens of the General Studies of the Carmelites in Cologne, later also auxiliary bishop
  • Amplonius Rating de Berka , after studying medicine in Prague, Cologne and Erfurt , there doctorate, professorship and second rector, no later than 1399 to at least 1414 professor in Cologne, rector June to December 1399 (2 quarters), again in Cologne from 1423 to 1435, Founder of the Bibliotheca Amploniana for Erfurt
  • Heinrich von Gorkum (also Henricus de Gorrichem), came in 1419 as Lic. Theol. from the Sorbonne, became rector a year later, founded the later Montanerburse, from 1424 vice chancellor until his death in 1431, was the author of many theol. Fonts
  • Heymericus de Campo , had studied in Paris, then in 1423 in Cologne, where he taught philosophy at the Laurentiana as a follower of Albertus Magnus and studied theology and in 1428 became a master of theology. The theology professor and rector (1432) represented the university at the Council of Basel but then moved to the newly established theological faculty of the University of Leuven , where he was rector six times, a friend of Cusanus.
  • Nikolaus von Kues 1425 professor of canon law
  • Jakob von Soest , professor of theology from 1405 to 1422, dean from 1407 to 17
  • Gottfried de Hegghe , matriculated in 1402, professor in the faculty of artists in 1410, Regens of the Cornelian course until 1420, rector in 1413/14, dean in 1416, participant in the Council of Constance
  • Johannes Bonrade , 1446 to 1448, Professor of Law
  • Heinrich von Rübenach , professor of theology 1455 to 1486, dean 1484, auxiliary bishop of Cologne and Mainz
  • Liborius Meyer , 1476/1477 professor of law, then multiple rector in Rostock
  • Johannes de Berka, canon, vicecancelarius and professor of theology at the University of Cologne. De Berka died in 1482.
  • Peter Rinck (* around 1430 in Cologne; † 1501), in 1484 at the University of Pavia doctorate in law in both rights, then professor in Cologne, rector in 1484, taught in Cologne until his death
  • Arnold von Tongern (around 1470–1540), theologian, 1491 professor at the artist faculty, 1509 professor of theology, rector several times
  • Jakobus Greselius Professor of the Artist Faculty 1506 until probably 1533, Dean in 1511
  • Jakob van Hoogstraten , since 1507 the general studies of the Dominicans and professor of theology at the university, inquisitor
  • Martin von Oedt , 1506 professor of canon law, 1507 vice chancellor, 1509 official
  • Hermann von dem Busche , 1506–16, first Lutheran at the university
  • Bernhard von Hagen , student since October 1503 (Montanerburse), 1504 baccalaureus, 1506 licentiate then Magister Artium, then law studies: 1513 baccalaureus, 1515 licentiate and doctor of both rights (thus professorship), 1518 dean, professor until 1526 then in the service of the archbishopric
  • Henricus de Clivis, Prof. art. et theol. at the University of Cologne, died in 1523.
  • Vitus Bysfetz de Zuchtelen, Dr. decretorum, was rector in 1524 and Petrus de Bellinhusen, Dr. leg., Vice Chancellor of the University in the same year.
  • Matthias Kremer , theologian, since 1533 Regens der Montanerburse
  • Bernhard Goergen, was dean at St. Kunibert, president of the court and rector of the University of Cologne. Goergen died in 1540.
  • Gisbert Longolius after studies in Cologne and Italy (medicine) in Cologne doctor, author and professor of Greek from 1538 to 44
  • Johann Oldendorp (* around 1488–1567) was a professor in Cologne from July 1538 to 1540
  • Justus Velsius (around 1510; † after 1581), Dutch humanist, doctor of medicine, physicist and mathematician, was professor of Greek and Latin at the old university from June 1550 to December 1554
  • Jakob Lichius (* around 1527; † after 1584), German humanist and from 1550 to 1555 professor at the artist faculty of the old university
  • Adam Tirctoris from Kerpen taught at the Laurentianer Burse. He was canon of the second degree to St. Gereon in 1557 and preacher in the high cathedral for 22 years, as well as pastor to St. Laurentius . Tirctoris made several endowments, including one for the university library. In 1572 he was chosen by them to be the spokesman in the fight against the Protestant Geusen .
  • Conrad Orth from Hagen , lawyer until 1589, dean and rector
  • Theobald Craschel , theologian, Bursa Laurentiana, rector 1567/68
  • Martin Snellen (* 1542 in Deventer, † 1601 in Cologne) professor, was Vice Chancellor from 1586 (until his death)
  • Stephan Brölmann (* 1551 in Cologne ; † November 10, 1622 ibid), Professor of Law in Cologne for over 20 years until his death
  • Theodor Riphan theologian and auxiliary bishop, rector 1604/5
  • Johann Friedrich Matenesius (around 1580–1621), German historian and professor of history and the Greek language at the university
  • Peter ter Lahn von Lennep, Licentiate , from November 1622 Professor of Law in Cologne
  • Arnold Gudenau, doctor jur., Elected in 1621 to the banner of the "stonemasons and carpenters". 1624 Professor of Jurisprudence at the University of Cologne, died 1669.
  • Thomas Sergryphius (* before 1600 in Florence ; † October 4, 1630 in Cologne) was a theologian and master's degree
  • Franz von Eick (* 1619 in Cologne ; † 1686 (according to another source 1696) in Cologne) was a canon of the St. Gereon Monastery . He received his doctorate in secular and ecclesiastical law and taught as a professor in the law faculty at the old University of Cologne, where he was elected rector in 1685.
  • Paul von Aussem , * 1616, studied theology in Cologne as early as 1632 according to the Artes Liberales , 1635 Lic. Theol., 1636 professor at the artist faculty (at the Montaner Burse), rector 1675, vicar general and from 1676 auxiliary bishop
  • Adam von dem Broich (* 1632, † 1686) Dr. jur., taught since 1662 as a professor at the law faculty of Cologne University and was elected dean several times. Broich, who was also active in politics, sat on the city council from 1650 to 1679 and in 1681 succeeded Mayor Kreps, who had been convicted of bribery, coercion and blackmail. Broich died in 1686, he only had this first term.
  • Wilhelm Lovius , professor at the artist faculty since 1645, Regens der Montanerburse from 1658, rector 1683
  • Johann Peter Gudenau, also professor of jurisprudence at the University of Cologne as successor to his father in 1669 and lord of the same guild. Died in 1695.
  • Franz Kaspar von Franken-Siersdorf , professor of theology since 1711 and Regens der Laurentiana until 1730, rector from 1720 to 1724, auxiliary bishop in Cologne
  • Theodor Burchard Bartman 1735–1786 professor of both rights, also dean
  • Max Heinrich von Geyr lawyer and canon, rector 1773 to 1776
  • Johann Matthias Carrich , theologian, doctorate in 1769 theol. Professor of theology, rector from 1788 to 1793
  • Ferdinand Franz Wallraf , professor of medicine and botany and natural sciences, last rector

Well-known graduates

Individual evidence

  1. ^ The European City of the Middle Ages, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1972, p. 201. (4th edition. 1987, ISBN 3-525-01341-8 )
  2. The Cologne Cathedral. Festschrift to celebrate the 50th anniversary of its completion on October 15, 1880 .
  3. ↑ Canon Law Sources p. 301 Google Books .
  4. Keusen, p. 4
  5. ^ Günther Binding (ed.): From the history of the University of Cologne. Cologne 1982, p. 3.
  6. a b charter in: v. den Brincken: city ​​and university. Sources of the city of Cologne, Vol. 1, pp. 308–309.
  7. ^ Arnold Stelzmann, Robert Frohn: Illustrated history of the city of Cologne. 11th edition. Bachem, Cologne 1990, p. 146 f.
  8. Text according to standard translation .
  9. according to NRW2000 ( Memento from May 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed January 2016)
  10. ^ Binding: From the history of the University of Cologne. 1982, p. 4.
  11. Franz Machilek: Church and University in the late Middle Ages: the foundations Prague and Erfurt. In: Peter Wörster (Hrsg.): Universities in Eastern Central Europe. Between church, state and nation - social-historical and political developments. Oldenbourg, Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-486-58494-3 , pp. 165–194, here: p. 180.
  12. ^ Stelzmann, Frohn: Illustrated history of the city of Cologne. 1990, p. 147.
  13. Dean of the rw. Fac. (Ed.): Law at the University of Cologne. Cologne 2002, p. 105.
  14. ^ Willehad Paul Eckert: Brief history of the University of Cologne. Bachem, Cologne 1961, p. 35 f.
  15. ^ Binding: From the history of the University of Cologne. 1982.
  16. ^ Binding: From the history of the University of Cologne. 1982, pp. 4, 6.
  17. Senate Commissioner for the Preparation of the 600th Anniversary Celebration (Ed.): 600 Years of Cologne University. Cologne 1988, p. 9.
  18. ^ Eckert: Brief history of the University of Cologne. P. 50ff.
  19. ^ Keussen: Register of the University of Cologne. Introduction XXII.
  20. ^ Paul Clemen (ed.): The art monuments of the Rhine province. Volume 6, 7: The art monuments of the city of Cologne. Volume 7, section 3, supplementary volume = volume 2, section 3, supplementary volume: Ludwig Arntz, Heinrich Neu, Hans Vogts: The former churches, monasteries, hospitals and school buildings of the city of Cologne. , P. 379 ff
  21. ^ A b Paul Clemen (ed.): The art monuments of the Rhine province. Volume 6, 7: The art monuments of the city of Cologne. Volume 7, Department 3, Supplementary Volume = Volume 2, Department 3, Ludwig Arntz, Heinrich Neu, Hans Vogts: The former churches, monasteries, hospitals and school buildings of the city of Cologne. , P. 381 ff.
  22. ^ Hubert Graven: The rectorate and faculty seals of the old University of Cologne. Yearbook of the Cologne History Association V. Volume 17, Plate I, Cologne 1935.
  23. ^ Johann Christian Nattermann: The golden saints , history of the St. Gereon monastery in Cologne. P. 296
  24. ^ Meuthen: Little Cologne University History . 1998, p. 23.
  25. ^ All location information according to Keussen: Topography of the city of Cologne in the Middle Ages. Vol. I, p. 139.
  26. ^ Hermann Keussen, "The old University of Cologne, basics of its constitution and history". Cologne 1934, p. 290 f
  27. The Cologne Cathedral. Festschrift to celebrate the 50th anniversary ... p. 9.
  28. Cristina Fraenkel-Haeberle: The University in the Multi-Level System Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2014, ISBN 3-16-152578-7 , p. 29
  29. ^ A b Wilhelm Ewald and Hugo Rahtgens, in: Paul Clemen, Volume 6: Die Kunstdenkmäler der Stadt Köln. 1906. St. Cunibert, p. 292 ff
  30. ^ A b c Johann Christian Nattermann: The golden saints , history of the St. Gereon monastery in Cologne. P. 295 f
  31. Werner Schäfke: The paintings in the inventory of the Cologne City Museum including the Porz collection and the Cologne high school and foundation fund. in the inventory catalog of the Cologne City Museum, p. 62.
  32. a b Ulrich S. Soenius, Jürgen Wilhelm (Hrsg.): Kölner Personen-Lexikon. P. 82.
  33. ^ A b Hans Vogts, The Cologne House up to the Beginning of the 19th Century , Volume II, "Bannerherren der" Steinmetzen und Zimmerleutgaffel "", page 698
  34. Werner Schäfke, Kölnischer Bildersaal: The paintings in the holdings of the Cologne City Museum including the Porz Collection and the Cologne High School and Foundation Fund, pp. 326–327
  35. Werner Schäfke, Kölnischer Bildersaal, inventory catalog of the Cologne City Museum, p. 349


  • Erich Meuthen : Little Cologne University History . ed. by the rector of the university, 1998. online
  • Willehad Paul Eckert: Small history of the University of Cologne. Bachem, Cologne 1961.
  • Erich Meuthen: Cologne University History , Volume I: The old university . Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 1988, ISBN 3-412-06287-1 .
  • Bernd Heimbüchel, Klaus Pabst: Cologne University History, Volume II: The 19th and 20th centuries . Böhlau, Cologne a. a. 1988, ISBN 3-412-01588-1 .
  • Franz Joseph von Bianco: The old University of Cologne and the later scholarly schools of this city , vol. I / 1, Cologne: JM Heberle / H. Lempertz 1855 ( Google Books )
  • Hermann Keussen : Register of the University of Cologne. 7 volumes. Cologne 1892. (Reprint and continuation: Düsseldorf 1979/81) (Vol. 1 digitized)
  • University of Cologne (ed.): Festschrift in memory of the founding of the old University of Cologne in 1388 , Cologne, Kurt Schröder Verlag, 1938
  • Anna-Dorothee von den Brincken: City and University: Pope Urban IV confirms the founding of Cologne university in 1388. In: Sources on the history of the city of Cologne. Volume I. Bachem, Cologne 1999, pp. 307-312.
  • Ulrich S. Soenius, Jürgen Wilhelm (Ed.): Kölner Personen-Lexikon . Greven, Cologne 2007, ISBN 978-3-7743-0400-0 .
  • Wilhelm Ewald and Hugo Rahtgens, in: Paul Clemen , Volume 6: Die Kunstdenkmäler der Stadt Köln. 1906. First Volume IV Dept .: The church monuments of the city of Cologne: St. Alban, St. Andreas, Antoniterkirche, St. Aposteln, St. Cäcilia, St. Columba, St. Cunibert, Elendskirche, St. Georg. Printing and publishing house Schwann, Düsseldorf 1906
  • Hans Vogts : The Cologne house until the beginning of the 19th century. Cologne, 1966 (extended new edition of the 1914 edition)