St. Gereon (Cologne)

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Cologne, St. Gereon, east side
Dekagon, north side from a bird's eye view

St. Gereon is one of twelve large Romanesque churches in Cologne and is located in the Altstadt-Nord district . It is said that Cologne is the only city in the world with so many large Romanesque churches in the old town area. This is due to the fact that Cologne was the most important city in Germany at the time these churches were founded and in terms of size followed Rome and Constantinople . In the core of St. Gereon there are still considerable remains of an oval central building with nine conches from the second half of the 4th century, which is one of the most important testimonies of ancient representative architecture north of the Alps. The oval building is one of the oldest sacred buildings still in existence on German soil, alongside the somewhat older Trier Cathedral and the Trier Constantine Basilica, which has only been used as a church since 1856 (around 311) . He is mentioned for the first time in a poem by Venantius Fortunatus ( carm. III 14, between 565 and 573), in which construction work by Bishop Carentinus is mentioned, and around 590 by Gregory of Tours ( Libri miraculorum I 61). To 1220, the early Christian Ovalbau became a decagon transformed (decagon) and increases as well as vaulted with a dome; This Hohenstaufen building is still the largest freely vaulted central building of the Middle Ages north of the Alps.

historical development

Late antiquity

Jacob de Heusch: Temple of Minerva in Rome, status around 1670, Musée des beaux-arts de Bordeaux
Reshaped late antique central building, still preserved up to 16.50 meters high.
Late antique oval building with vestibule and atrium. Model Atelier Dieter Cöllen GmbH (2010)
Late antique apse and walled-up windows, south side
Last visible, in situ preserved remnant of the floor mosaic belonging to the late antique central building

Northwest in front of the city wall of the Roman Colonia Agrippina , a huge late antique central building was built in the 4th century on the oldest burial ground ( necropolis ) of the city above a rectangular grave building ( memoria ), whose original function could not be clearly classified until today ( mausoleum / memorial building / church (Building) ). The building was slightly raised at the intersection of two streets. The inaccurate dating is based in part on the discovery of a fragmented Isis - consecration stone along with a coin from the period after the 345th

The peculiarity is based on the construction of the oval, which is made up of individual circular segments, which were constructed from four cross-shaped centers around the middle of the room. The builder has thus succeeded in creating a variant that mediates between the longitudinal building and the central building, which can be seen as an ingenious anticipation of the perfection in baroque architecture. The domed oval building was surrounded by four windowed cones to the north and south and had a semicircular apse in the east . Between the horseshoe-shaped cones and possibly also in the double-shelled and windowed zone of the drum above there was a rich column structure. The diameter of the late antique oval dome was 23.70 m by 19.80 m.

To the west was a rectangular two-storey vestibule ( narthex ), flanked to the north and south by small apses. A large rectangular atrium with surrounding porticos lay to the west of the vestibule. Research by Gertie Gretz and Otto Koch had already proven the late antique character of the building in 1939 , which was deepened by studies by Armin von Gerkan after the war damage and Otmar Schwab (1965–2002) as well as Johannes G. Deckers and Ute Verstegen. In terms of floor plan and ground floor, the building is comparable to the so-called Temple of Minerva Medica , a decagonal domed central building in Rome that was built around 320 and served as a nymphaeum . The system of a niche wreath in the outer walls of ancient buildings can also be observed in Rome in central buildings such as the Pantheon (around 125), the Tor de 'Schiavi mausoleum on Via Praenestina (around 315), Helena's mausoleum (around 326) and the Santa Costanza mausoleum (around 350 ) and in Split near the mausoleum in Diocletian's Palace (early 4th century). But there were also niche constructions in Roman hall buildings (with flat ceilings) such as B. Santi Quirico e Giulitta (4th century) and Santa Balbina all'Aventino (after 350).

The vault above the oval building weighed on the masonry between the conches and the apse. In order to reduce the pressure of the vault and to accelerate the setting process in the concrete mass ( Opus caementicium ), empty amphorae jugs were installed, which refers to a construction method otherwise only used in Roman domed buildings of the 4th century (cf. the dome construction of the Helenamausoleum in Rome).

The late antique building was richly furnished. The wall cladding with marble slabs and gold background mosaics, the gold dome mosaic and the floor lined with mosaic stones must have been a splendid sight, probably unique north of the Alps alongside the imperial buildings in Trier. An exposed, ornamental fragment of the floor mosaic was preserved in the first conche on the south side. In the cones you can still see the walled-up arched windows (three in each case ) and the brick-plate vaulting of the cones of the foundation building from the 4th century (originally covered with mosaics ). The fragment of a granite column to the left of the entrance could have been one of the supporting pillars of the foundation building, which were placed on the pillar front of the conches; the inscription above refers to the legend associated with this "column of blood". Nothing is known about the whereabouts of the numerous other columns from the 4th century.

Judging by the finds in the ground, the central building must have been built in the second half of the 4th century, probably between 350 and 365. It is not known who built the building and what purpose it served. Presumably it was a mausoleum that was supposed to serve as a burial place for members of the Franconian royal family or persons close to the imperial court. The sarcophagi of the deceased were probably placed in the conches.

Christian communities existed in Cologne from the beginning of the 4th century; the first bishop of Cologne (Civitas Agrippinensium) was Maternus, who died around 328 (before that, the third bishop of Trier). It is believed that the oval structure of the mausoleum was rededicated as a church in the 5th or 6th century. Because around 590, Bishop Gregory of Tours named the church Ad Sanctos Aureos ("To the Golden Saints") and mentioned the Theban martyrs who were presumably buried there . In the Merovingian period (5th century to 751) St. Gereon was the most important Franconian royal church in the eastern part of the empire. It is possible that the church also served as the burial place of Frankish kings in the Frankish times . In 612 the Merovingian king Theodoric received the Franks' homage in the church.

The patronage of Saint Gereon can be traced back to around 800; but one does not know when it was founded.

Recent research has shown that both the late antique building and significant parts of the high-quality interior furnishings have been preserved until the 13th century. The central eastern conche was probably replaced by a rectangular choir in the 9th century; probably at the beginning of the 11th century, the outer crypt was added to this place.

During the renovation in the 13th century, the late antique oval building was encased in supporting masonry in the form of a decagon, so that up to 16.50 meters of wall height of the oval foundation building has been preserved today. This can still be seen above all on the north side of the Dekagon.

middle Ages

Cologne, St. Gereon, floor plan
St. Gereon around 1900
Choir around 1925

Cologne's first Archbishop Hildebold (approx. 787–818) had a rectangular choir and an outer crypt built in place of the semicircular east apse of the oval building. Hildebold was buried in St. Gereon in 818. St. Gereon has been attested as a collegiate church since 839 ; the atrium and the annexes were used as a monastery building. Since 866 the collegiate church of St. Gereon has been the highest-ranking church in the Cologne diocese after Cologne Cathedral . In 1067/69, under Archbishop Anno II , a new, elongated choir was added for the members of the monastery, noble canons or canons, and a crypt was set up below it. Since 1121, the remains of St. Gereon venerated as relics . The choir received wall paintings and a mosaic floor. In 1151/56 Archbishop Arnold von Wied had the choir part extended to the east by a choir square flanked by towers with a semicircular apse while at the same time extending the crypt below. In 1190 relics of the Theban martyrs were transferred from the niches of the oval building to the crypt, namely in the confessio under the Gereon altar. In the years 1219–1227, the early Christian oval building was reinforced and sheathed on the outside, redesigned to a decagon and at the same time raised; Above the retained ground floor, new galleries were built on three floors, a walkway with fan-shaped windows and one floor with lancet windows, the whole vaulted with a ribbed dome; In addition, the decagon received buttresses , a dwarf gallery and a tent roof . At the time of its creation, the decagon was the largest self-supporting, vaulted central building north of the Alps. To 1242/43 was built on the south side of the decagon the late Romanesque baptistery ( baptistery ) [9] and in 1315 the sacristy was built in the style of the Cologne Opera del Duomo. In the late 14th century, the vaults of the long choir had to be renewed.

Modern times

Around 1550 the organ was built into the decagon. The church was then redesigned in the Baroque style in 1766/1767, but this was taken back in the 19th century. In 1876 the roof of the decagon had to be rebuilt after storm damage. August Carl Lange carried out the construction work without making any significant changes to the previous building.

In 1920 St. Gereon was made by Pope Benedict XV. raised to the minor basilica .

The destruction of the Second World War mainly affected the decagon; until 1952 it was in acute danger of collapsing. The rescue work is mainly due to the structural engineers Wilhelm Schorn (until 1968) and Otmar Schwab as well as the "Bauhütte" (Schorn company). The reconstruction lasted until 1984. The long choir and crypt served as worship rooms until then; the decagon was separated. In 1949 the high altar was completed; In 1954 a small organ was installed in the long choir, in 1956 the crypt followed, in 1964 the baptistery. Until 1982 the Aachen cathedral master builder Leo Hugot and, after his death, his daughter Irene Rothweiler and Herbert Queck from Aachen, headed the architectural and design expansion and furnishing. The interior of the decagon and the eastern apse are primarily characterized by the color window cycles by Georg Meistermann and Wilhelm Buschulte ; the iconological specifications come from the theologian Wilhelm Nyssen .

In 1980 the baroque altar was built by Franz von Helmont in the church of St. Kolumba, which had not been rebuilt, behind the altar zone in the high choir. This is a reconstruction of a twenty percent preserved baroque altar. Almost all the pillars, the canopy, the golden crown held by angels were made anew. An integrated exposure altar with angels (original) and an integrated staircase (new) should help revive the Corpus Christi festival in Cologne. In the Middle Ages, the first Corpus Christi procession in Cologne started from Saint Gereon. After 2000, under the diocesan curator Martin Seidler, the Columba altar was moved to the chapel of the Archbishop's Ursuline School at Machabäerstrasse 47.


There are various legends and assumptions about the origin of the Basilica of St. Gereon .

According to legend, St. Helena built St. Gereon on the graves of St. Gereon and his companions. It is said to be members of the Theban Legion who refused to persecute Christians to Emperor Maximian and who then suffered martyrdom themselves .

This story is spread from the 5th century and was verifiably written down by the Lyon bishop Eucherius in the middle of the 5th century . When the legend was spread, it also came to Cologne and evidently legitimized the building of the church at a later date. Allegedly there was a (archaeologically undetectable) well in the church, into which the murderers are said to have thrown the bodies of the martyrs. According to a report by Gregory of Tours , Bishop Everigisil was cured of headaches by dust from this well . Similar to the Basilica of St. Ursula , the finds in Roman burial grounds seemed to confirm the legend. Excavations in the 11th century uncovered 360 skeletons. In 1121 St. Norbert , founder of the Premonstratensian Order, believed to have found the skeleton of Gereon. Even the clothes were still preserved. Since then, people have been convinced that they have the graves and relics of the saints.

In the 13th century, contemporaries finally seemed to know about 318 (symbol number!) Bones of members of the Theban Legion, who, led by St. Gereon, were martyred. However, excavations in the 20th century did not reveal any evidence that could confirm this legend.


Look into the decagon

St. Gereon is an outstanding example of late antique and high medieval architecture. The defining element of the building is a vaulted, late antique oval building, which in the early 13th century was "converted" into the shape of a decagon (decagon) with four ancient conches in the north and south; This late Romanesque central building obtained in this way is unique of its kind north of the Alps. The centralized rib vault, which closes the room, which is divided into four floors, can be referred to as the largest dome construction of its time (1227). It reaches a height of 34.55 meters at the apex and measures 21 meters in diameter and 16.90 meters in width. The tracery-like grouped windows of the uppermost wall zone follow early Gothic models from France .

To the west of the central room is the Gothic-style vestibule, in which the late antique narthex lives on. To the east of the decagon, above the crypt, follows the two-bay long choir with the choir square, to which the two east towers and the apse adjoin. The Staufer floor choir, richly designed from the outside, has seven blind arcades with three windows.

The three lower floors of the towers end with the apse apse, followed by two more with false windows and a fifth floor with two spacious double arcade windows. The tower roofs are richly folded. The towers themselves are in a close optical relationship to the decagon, which emphasizes the singular character of the basilica, even from a distance.


Madonna (soft style)
Crescent Madonna

In the choir there is a depiction of Christ at the Last Judgment and, as an iconographic component, saints of the Theban Legion. Impressive frescoes have also been preserved in the apse. The tapestries originally hung in the choir must have been of particular quality, including a carpet from the early 11th century with medallions as a repeating pattern depicting a griffin attacking a bull; it is one of the oldest European tapestries, the four parts of which are now kept in European museums. Today the long choir is still decorated with tapestries from 1765 ( Aubusson ) with scenes from the Old Testament story of Joseph . It is about half of the original tapestry inventory. The lost part originally hung opposite the Joseph scenes. The altarpiece in the high choir, preserved from the earlier Sebastianus altar, impressively depicts earthly Cologne, protected by the saints, especially St. Sebastian and the Holy Trinity (Johann Hulsmann and Johann Toussy, approx. 1635).

Next to the Gereon's altar, a staircase leads from the long choir into the crypt with windows by Alfred Manessier (from 1964). A fresco depicting the crucifixion from the late 13th century has been preserved above the double arcades of the entrance to the burial chamber . The newly laid Staufer floor mosaic comes from the choir . The crucifixion altar in the crypt from around 1540 depicts saints from the environment of St. Gereon and is an example of the early Cologne Renaissance .

To the right of the long choir is the sacristy with precious double doors from the beginning of the 16th century. As a treasure chamber, it is equipped with liturgical implements and reliquaries from the Middle Ages, as well as excavation finds. The treasury inventory includes a. a Holy Cross reliquary (around 1250), two precious arm reliquaries (1220–1225) and several bust reliquaries.

In the central building, the Dekagon, are located in the restoration of the basilica after the Second World War glazing incurred for the lancet windows (windows wreath of prophets and apostles), the palmettos window (four evangelists and four Apocalyptic horsemen), arched windows Holy men and women (Cologne and Mary and Joseph) and the conical windows (purely ornamental). They were created based on the designs submitted by Georg Meistermann and Wilhelm Buschulte between 1979 and 1986 . The overall iconographic program of the decagon with dome, windows and floor (bronze inlay with quotations from the Secret Revelation of John), the Christian martyrdom, was designed by Wilhelm Nyssen. Georg Meistermann and Wilhelm Buschulte designed the victory of Christ in his saints and the unity of heavenly and earthly Jerusalem (apocalyptic beings, apocalyptic lamb, four prophetic figures, twelve apostles and saints) in four superimposed circles. The redesigned dome with its red and golden tongues is overwhelming. This design is based on the early Christian name "sanctos aureos", the church "to the golden saints", which Wilhelm Nyssen , architect Leo Hugot and artists put together in an iconographically new concept (cf. W. Nyssen, Verborgenes Licht, Cologne 1985, P. 129ff).

The also redesigned floor in the decagon by Elmar Hillebrand and Andreas Diltey is relief-like and depicts the martyrdom of Saint Gereon. The crescent moon Madonna erected in the central building on the second eastern pillar on the south side is a work of the Soft Style between 1380 and 1430 and originally comes from the Church of St. Maria ad Gradus . Stylistically, it resembles the most likely to Konrad Kuene van der Hallen declining Annunciation Group in St. Kunibert . The new installation on a painted console on the southeastern decagon pillar goes back to Irene Rothweiler . She also designed the decorative floor of the altar zone based on the original decorative floor of the Middle Ages.

Frescoes from the 12th century can still be seen above the west entrance.


Fresco painting in the baptistery in the Rhenish zigzag style around 1250
Detail of the baptismal font
Lid with dove on the baptismal font

The baptistery with its eight-pointed vault extends from the central building. There are also well-preserved frescoes in the zigzag style from the 13th century with an extensive range of images. The main focus of the interior design is on figures of saints in the niches, including Constantine the Great and probably Gereon and Mauritius . In the vaulted spandrels above the altar, Jesus is depicted as the judge of the world , while the upper vault of the chapel is decorated as a blue sky with gold stars. The paintings that were painted over in the 19th century were removed again in the 20th century. The octagonal baptismal font , dated to the late Romanesque period, was provided with a brass lid with a crowning dove in 1931. The windows were made in 1985 based on designs by Irene Rothweiler . The east wall altar was designed by Vincenz Statz in 1864 and, as part of the new window design, provided with a historical altarpiece and a new predella by Irene Rothweiler. The triptych was created in 1515 by an unknown artist. The saints George and Christophorus are depicted on the wings. The central panel shows the crucifixion of Christ. In addition to Mary, in the Golgotha ​​scene , unhistorically so to speak, Paul, John the Evangelist and Margaret are depicted.


southern lion of the porch
Lion with lamb

In the western vestibule, the entrance area, a modern floor plan illustrates the basilica and the submerged monastery buildings. In the south-west of the vestibule there is an unmounted and fully sculptural relief figure made of sandstone with the Entombment of Christ from the early 16th century. The entrance to the central building is flanked by two Romanesque lions from the 12th and 13th centuries. They were probably not originally created for this location. The left lion has a hole in its back (from a column?), The right lion has a lamb in its claws. Remnants of the original gilding have been preserved here. Furthermore, there are pillars and eaves from Roman, d. H. received from late antique times. You enter the decagon under a brightly colored tympanum , which shows Christ with the saints Gereon and Helena (around 1230) and whose inscription reminds of the martyrs of the Thebaic Legion . The grille is from the 1920s by Hans Hänsen and Heinrich Hecker.

Pietà Chapel

Pietà chapel with reconstructed painting

From the vestibule you go south into a chapel from 1897, which has a Wilhelmine interior. Inside it is a remarkable Pietà , which was created by Anton Josef Reiss , Düsseldorf , based on the model of Michelangelo . The ornamental stained glass windows were moved from the high choir, where Meistermann was supposed to create an annunciation group. These are windows from the post-war period by Wilhelm Teuwen , supplemented and edited for the Pieta Chapel by Irene Rothweiler .

North chapel

Opposite in Helena chapel is a crucifixion scene as a panel in lunette , which dates back to the year 1550th Among the figures shown is the church patron in knight armor and with a cross flag. Other saints on this work are: Silvester, Maria Magdalena, Archbishop Hildebold and Saint Helena with a model of the church. In the chapel next to it is the epitaph of the provost Johannes Krytwyss, who died in 1513. His head rests on books as a sign of his teaching activities at the University of Cologne, founded in 1388.

Upper sacristy

The two-storey Gothic sacristy, completed in 1319, is one of the most beautiful original Gothic interiors in Cologne. The sacristy door with the depiction of Ecce homo and Mater Dolorosa dates from the beginning of the 16th century. The floor mosaic with dragon motifs, which has been added again, is worth seeing. It consists of a total of around 24,000 stones. The Blasius altar dates from 1319, the gothic four-lane windows on the east wall were built around 1315. The church treasures include two Romanesque arm reliquaries, the enamel of which shows Saints Gereon and Helena, a representation of the church and the donor Probst Arnold von Born. It also contains a 70 cm high lecture cross from St. Christoph with the depiction of the evangelists in the round medallions at the ends. On the back there is an engraving with St. Christopher carrying Christ on his shoulders. According to the inscription, it dates from 1650 and is a gift from the married couple Philippus Hobe and Irmgardis Peil.


St. Gereon's crypt
Floor mosaic of the 8th / 12th centuries Century in the crypt: Samson defeats the lion
Depiction of the crucifixion (13th century) on the west wall of the crypt

In the crypt, in the room under the main altar, the Confessio , is the sarcophagus of the martyr Gereon and his companions of the Theban Legion. On the west side in front of the burial chamber there is a lime secco painting over the double arcade depicting the crucifixion of Christ (13th century); to the right and left are the assistant figures of St. Gereon and St. Helena, the legendary founder of the church. The wall painting is dated to the end of the 13th century. On three parts of the crypt vault there are fragmental remains with tendril ornaments and figures from the same period. On the north wall hang some reliquaries in an ornamental arrangement of the relics of various saints.

The choir of the crypt is decorated with floor mosaics from the 12th century; on it, scenes from the Old Testament of David and Samson as forerunners of Christ are depicted in twelve large fields. Smaller mosaic fields show the signs of the zodiac (heavily supplemented). The precious mosaic floor was badly mixed up during restorations up until 1867. In 1869 Tony Avenarius was the first artist to succeed in joining the 400 to 450 mosaic parts of the floor; the architect Heinrich Wiethase laid this mosaic again, coordinated with the space. It is thanks to him that the Romanesque ceiling painting was discovered and preserved. The altar is a high-quality Renaissance limestone work from 1530 to 1540. Between four free-standing pillars with grotesque fillings is the crucifixion scene in the middle, including Saints Mary and John, Saint Bishop Anno on the left, Mauritius on the right, on consoles on the sides a deacon and a canon. At this altar Petrus Canisius celebrated his first Holy Mass in June 1546. The stained glass windows in the crypt, which were designed in 1964 by the French glass painter Alfred Manessier , are well worth seeing .


Six church bells hang in the two towers. Of the former five bells, which were cast by Martin Legros from Malmedy in 1779 , only the three smaller bells together with the old belfry survived the fire in World War II. The two large bells were re-cast in 1961 by the Mabilon bell foundry from Saarburg in the same tones and with the same names as their predecessors.

The old bronze bell from 1507 from Alt St. Alban was transferred to St. Gereon in September 2008. It blends in with the bells and serves as an angelus bell .

(kg, approx.)
( HT - 1 / 16 )
(St. Helena, consecrated in 1779, destroyed in the war in 1942, resurrected in 1951. I implore world peace. Jakobus Hendrichs and Josepha Auer married 50 years. St. Gereon, Cologne)
St. Gereon and the common martyrs keep the city consecrated with their blood.)
(To the best, greatest gentleman and leader Gregor and his soldiers, his comrades in suffering and honor. I poured the respected chapter. M. Legros poured me in 1779.)
(To the best, greatest gentleman and the blessed Anno II., The Archbishop of the Ubier. I poured the respected chapter. M. Legros poured me in 1779.)
(Peter Kaspar Joseph von Zimmermann from Hildesheim, the oldest clergyman of this church, governor in Wildshausen in the 51st year of the priesthood and belonging to the chapter, added these to the other four bells from his property to the best, greatest gentleman and St. Joseph.)


Organ in the decagon

In 2001 the company Josef Weimbs Orgelbau built a new organ on the small gallery in the decagon . The instrument has 31 registers and five transmissions, divided into 3 manuals and pedal . It has a mechanical action mechanism and electric stop action .

I Rückpositiv C – g 3
1. Principal 08th'
2. Wood-covered 08th'
3. Salicional 08th'
4th Gemshorn 04 ′
5. flute 02 ′
6th Sedez 01'
7th Sesquialter II 0 02 23
8th. Fittings III 01 13
9. Cromorne 08th'
II Hauptwerk C – g 3
10. Principal 16 ′
11. Principal 08th'
12. Reed flute 08th'
13. Viola da gamba 08th'
14th Unda Maris (from c 0 ) 0 08th'
15th octave 04 ′
16. flute 04 ′
17th Fifth 02 23
18th Super octave 02 ′
19th Cornet V (from f 0 )
20th Fittings V. 02 ′
21st Cymbals III 01'
22nd Trumpets 08th'
23. Clairon 04 ′
III echo C-g 3
24. Covered 08th'
25th Slack 04 ′
26th Duplicate 02 ′
27. Sesquialter II 02 23
28. Basson Hautbois 08th'
29 Voix humaine 08th'
Pedal C – f 1
30th Principal (number 10) 16 ′
31. Sub-bass 16 ′
32. Principal (No.11) 08th'
33. Reed flute (No.12) 08th'
34. Bombard 16 ′
35. Trumpet (No.22) 0 08th'
36. Clairon (# 23) 04 ′
  • Coupling : II / I, III / I, I / P, II / P, III / P.

On the north wall of the choir hangs a choir organ in the form of a swallow's nest, which was built in 1954 by Hans Klais (Bonn). The instrument has cone chests, the playing and stop actions are electric.

I Hauptwerk C – g 3
1. Reed flute 8th'
2. Salicional 8th'
3. Principal 4 ′
4th Forest flute 2 ′
5. Sequialtera II
6th Mixture IV 1 13
II upper structure C – g 3
7th Darling Gedack 8th'
8th. recorder 4 ′
9. Principal 2 ′
10. Scharff III-IV 1'
11. Krummhorn 8th'
Pedal C – f 1
12. Sub-bass 16 ′
13. Principal 08th'
14th Gedacktbass (from No. 12) 08th'
15th Choral bass (from No. 13) 04 ′
16. Night horn 02 ′
  • Coupling : II / I, II 16 ′ / I, I / P, II / P,
  • Playing aids : hand register, two free combinations, tutti, shutter release, single holder for tongue,

Associated parish church

St. Gereon and the smaller church of St. Christoph on an engraving by Arnold Mercator , 1571

Next to St. Gereon stood the parish church of St. Christoph , which was demolished as part of the secularization at the beginning of the 19th century.

See also


  • Gereon Becht-Jördens: Venantius Fortunatus and the renovation of the Church of St. Gereon in Cologne by Bishop Carentinus . In: Kölner Jahrbuch. 43, 2010, ISBN 978-3-7861-2628-7 , pp. 57-69.
  • Anne Behrend-Krebs: The Ottonian and Romanesque wall paintings in St. Gereon, St. Maria in the Capitol and St. Pantaleon in Cologne. (Dissertation Münster 1994). Verlag Tebbert KG, Münster 1994, pp. 22-231.
  • Ralf van Bühren : Art and Church in the 20th Century. The reception of the Second Vatican Council . Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh, Paderborn 2008, ISBN 978-3-506-76388-4 .
  • Paul Clemen : Mosaics in the crypt of St. Gereon in Cologne. In: The Romanesque monumental painting in the Rhineland. Schwann, Düsseldorf 1916, pp. 132-197.
  • Sabine Czymmek: The Cologne Romanesque churches. Treasure art. (Colonia Romanica, yearbook of the Friends of Roman Churches Cologne e.V., Vol. XXII, 2007). Vol. 1, Cologne 2008, ISBN 978-3-7743-0422-2 , pp. 161-227.
  • Gertie Gretz / Otto Koch: St. Gereon in Cologne. Bonn 1939.
  • Martina Junghans: The arm reliquaries in Germany from the 11th to the middle of the 13th century . (Dissertation Bonn 2000). Bonn 2002, DNB 965027031 .
  • Jürgen Kaiser (text) and Florian Monheim (photos): The large Romanesque churches in Cologne . Greven Verlag, Cologne 2013, ISBN 978-3-7743-0615-8 , pp. 74-87.
  • Hiltrud Kier : The Romanesque churches in Cologne: Guide to history and furnishings. Second edition. JP Bachem, Cologne 2014, ISBN 978-3-7616-2842-3 , pp. 86-101.
  • Hiltrud Kier, Ulrich Krings : The Romanesque churches in Cologne. Vista Point Verlag Cologne, 1985, pp. 20-24 and 88ff.
  • Ulrich Krings, Otmar Schwab: Cologne: The Romanesque churches. Destruction and restoration . (Stadtspuren - Monuments in Cologne, Vol. 2). JP Bachem, Cologne 2007, ISBN 978-3-7616-1964-3 .
  • Marion Niemeyer-Tewes: New research results on the late Staufer decagon of St. Gereon Cologne , in: Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch Vol. 60 (1999), pp. 7-23
  • Marion Niemeyer-Tewes: The decagon of St. Gereon in Cologne . (Publications of the Department of Architectural History, 72). Cologne 2000.
  • Wilhelm Nyssen : Hidden Light. Topics Cologne Romanesque, Cologne 1985.
  • Hugo Rahtgens: Catholic parish church to St. Gereon (former collegiate church) . In: Paul Clemen (ed.): The art monuments of the city of Cologne. The church monuments of the city of Cologne. Section 3: St. Gereon - St. Johann Baptist - The Marienkirchen - Gross St. Martin. (The art monuments of the Rhine Province 7, 1). L. Schwann, Düsseldorf 1911, pp. 1–102.
  • Jürgen J. Rasch : The dome in Roman architecture. Development, design, construction. In: Architectura , Vol. 15 (1985), pp. 117-139 (126).
  • Werner Schäfke : Cologne's Romanesque churches. Architecture, furnishings, history. Cologne 1984, ISBN 3-7701-1360-8 .
  • Werner Schäfke: St. Gereon in Cologne (Rheinische Kunststätten, issue 300). Rhenish Association for Monument Preservation and Landscape Protection (ed.), Cologne 1984, ISBN 3-88094-486-5 .
  • Otmar Schwab: St. Gereon in Cologne. Investigations into late antique foundation construction . (Dissertation Aachen 2001), In: Kölner Jahrbücher. 35, 2002 (published 2004), pp. 7-206.
  • Document book of the St. Gereon Abbey in Cologne. Hanstein, Bonn 1893 ( digitized version ).
  • Ute Verstegen : St. Gereon in Cologne in Roman and early medieval times . (Kölner Forschungen, 9), Mainz 2006.
  • Ute Verstegen: Excavations and building research in St. Gereon in Cologne - 1st text, 2nd catalogs and tables, (Cologne research, 9,1 and 2), von Zabern, Mainz 2006.
  • Ute Verstegen: St. Gereon in Cologne in Roman and early medieval times. (Dissertation Cologne 1998), Cologne 2003.
  • Ute Verstegen: The medieval mosaics in the crypt of St. Gereon in Cologne. In: Kölner Jahrbuch, 32, Gebr. Mann Verlag, Cologne 1999, pp. 433–476.
  • Saskia Steil: Cologne St. Gereon, Peda-Kunstführer No. 997/2018, Kunstverlag Peda Gregor eK, Passau 2018. ISBN 978-3-89643-488-3
  • Christian Raabe / Heinz Günter Horn (eds.): Leo Hugot , Is it worth rebuilding the Saint Gereon Church? Pp. 104–113, Aachen-Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-943164-10-7

Web links

Commons : St. Gereon (Cologne)  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Hiltrud Kier / Ulrich Krings: The Romanesque churches in Cologne. Vista Point Verlag Cologne, 1985, p. 6
  2. Against older attempts at interpretation that assumed the installation of a gallery, cf. on the interpretation of Becht-Jördens, Venantius Fortunatus and the renovation of the Church of St. Gereon in Cologne by Bishop Carentinus (see literature below), who recognizes evidence of a mosaic ceiling .
  3. ^ Werner Schäfke: St. Gereon in Cologne. (= Rheinische Kunststätten, issue 300). Rhenish Association for Monument Preservation and Landscape Protection (Ed.), Cologne 1984, p. 6
  4. Jürgen J. Rasch : The dome in Roman architecture. Development, design, construction. In: Architectura , Vol. 15 (1985), pp. 117-139 (126)
  5. ^ Ute Verstegen: St. Gereon in Cologne in Roman and early medieval times. Cologne 2003, p. 90ff. and 415f
  6. Michael Stettler: St. Gereon in Cologne and the so-called Temple of Minerva Medica in Rome , year book of the Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum, vol. 4, p. 123ff., Mainz 1957
  7. Hans Georg Wehrens: Rome - The Christian sacred buildings from the 4th to the 9th century - A Vademecum. Herder, Freiburg 2016, p. 313; 77; 74; 90; 30; 305; 265
  8. Hugo Brandenburg: The early Christian churches in Rome from the 4th to the 7th century , Schnell & Steiner, Regensburg 2013, p. 56
  9. Saskia Steil: Cologne St. Gereon , Passau 2018, p. 2f.
  10. Lexicon for Theology and Church (LThK), Herder, Freiburg 2006, Vol. 4, Sp. 507f.
  11. ^ Ute Verstegen: St. Gereon in Cologne in Roman and early medieval times. Cologne 2003, p. 417ff.
  12. ^ Aloysius Jakob Zorn: The architect August Carl Lange (1834-1884) . Dissertation, RWTH Aachen, 1980, volume 1, p. 379ff.
  13. ^ Richard W. Gassen: St. Gereon . In: Medieval churches in Cologne. Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8656-8539-1 , p. 86
  14. ^ Richard W. Gassen: St. Gereon . In: Medieval churches in Cologne. Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8656-8539-1 , pp. 86, 87
  15. ^ A b Richard W. Gassen: St. Gereon . In: Medieval churches in Cologne. Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8656-8539-1 , p. 82
  16. ^ Werner Schäfke: St. Gereon in Cologne. , Cologne 1984, p. 30
  17. Deutsche Bauzeitung of July 8, 1869, p. 338 (PDF; 1.9 MB), accessed on September 27, 2013.
  18. Historical book and magazine inventory of the Weimar art and building schools , accessed on September 27, 2013

Coordinates: 50 ° 56 ′ 35.8 "  N , 6 ° 56 ′ 45"  E