Hut burning

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Hut burning on the Prümerburg in Prümzurlay

The hut burning , sometimes also referred to as castle burning or castle fire , is a traditional fire custom in many places in the Eifel . It is celebrated every year on "Sheep Sonntag" ( Mosel Franconian "Schoof-, Schoofs-, Schöf-, Schoaf-, Schaufs-, Scheifsunndich" or "Scheefsunndich" [Scheef = straw Federation]), the first Sunday after Shrove Tuesday , also called " Funkensonntag " , committed.


The winter burn . From: Otto von Reinsberg-Düringsfeld , The festive year in manners, customs and festivals of the Germanic peoples , Leipzig, 1863
Steffeln (Eifel); burning wheel of fire

The exact origin of the custom is unclear. Presumably it is an adaptation of pagan traditions, with the fire at the beginning of spring symbolically "burning winter" and conjuring up a good summer. For Carlshausen (Deanery Neuerburg ) in 1687 the bishop forbade young people to light straw fires in the streets on the first Sunday of Lent and to offer all sorts of superstitious blessings. In the course of Christianization , the pagan custom was finally legalized by introducing the cross. The consumption of eggs and other treats and sometimes beer and hard liquor in sheep Sunday, the first Sunday of Lent, is not contrary to the precepts of Lent , since Sundays are not counted for Lent.

See also:

A historical description of the castle burning can be found in Pastor Michael Bormann from Daleiden in the “Contribution to the History of the Ardennes - Part 2” from 1842. Bormann mentions a document from 1360 in which reports of large fires around which people danced becomes. These fires, also known as hail fires, were lit at the same time as the hut and castle fires on the Krimhildis chair, among other places . They were later banned by the Count Palatine von Zweibrücken on December 12, 1579.

In 1904, the Büllingen pastor Arnold Ortmanns published in his work The Franconian Royal Court of Büllingen a different theory of origin about the origins of the castle fire, which is by no means influenced by Christianity. Ortmann suspects on the one hand the festival of the Ostara and on the other hand the raids of the French king Louis XIV as the beginning. “The castle fire is probably a reminder of the spring and solstice festival of our pagan ancestors and wants to express the hope that light and warmth will soon win over the winter darkness and cold. After the raids of Louis XIV of France, this celebration was associated with the memory of the gruesome murderous burning of the war hordes that burned down all the castles in this area in one night in 1689 ”.

Matthias Paas from Hüttingen an der Kyll found the following in old administrative files: "In the Middle Ages the" three-field economy " prevailed . Artificial fertilizers were not yet known. In order to make the depleted soil full again, a certain field was plowed twice a year, but not built on, that is, the fields were "brought". The other corridors were planted with root crops or sown with spelled. So that everyone knew which corridor was "brought", the owners of the corridor lit a large fire at a certain point at the beginning of the year (Hett = straw and brushwood). "


Video of the Eifel hut fire
Radscheewen in the Eifel

The hut burning is celebrated differently in each Eifel town. What all places have in common is that the village youth - mostly male - collects straw and other combustible materials. In most of the villages the material is only collected on Sundays; But some also collect tied sticks from the nearby spruce forests many weeks in advance. These are then collected in a pile, usually on a raised area, which is ignited after dark. In many places the fuel is also equipped with a wooden cross, which is also decorated with straw, etc. In some places, preparations start on Saturdays.

In some places, such as Gees , Neroth , Steffeln , Rockeskyll , Walsdorf , Pellingen , Franzenheim (Trier-Saarburg), a fire wheel is rolled down the mountain to drive away winter (Moselle Franconian: "Radscheewen, Radscheywen, Radscheiven, Radschiwwele, Raderscheiben"). The wheel symbolizes the life-giving spring sun - also known as the joy wheel.

Depending on the direction in which the smoke moves while the hut is burning down, the wind will also maintain this direction in spring: "Wu den Damp vun der Hett gingät, su de wall de whole Virsumer!" or "How de Wand op Scheefsonndich kent, su knows hen de janze Virsumer!"

Up until the 1950s it was customary in many places in the Eifel for people to sing or dance around the hut with funny sayings. After the fire, the village youth usually go from house to house to collect the reward for the work they have done. This usually consists of eggs, which are eaten together in the form of scrambled eggs after they have been collected. Of course, money is not spurned either. In some places, the fire is traditionally prepared by the volunteer fire brigade , who then move from house to house to be entertained. However, there are also places where the recently moved residents entertain the young people, or where only the bachelors can collect the eggs and eat them.

In some places in the Eifel it is customary to eat eggs and fritters ( donuts ) on sheep Sunday evening with the couple who last married or who moved to the village. In some cases this has also shifted to local bars, etc.

Process in pictures

Verses, sayings, songs

Locality Mendicant / begging songs translation meaning comment
Prümzurlay (Eifel)
Eggs black, eggs black,
Or de Wiesel knows ant Hous,
Een egg, can egg,
Zwä eggs, Ustaeier,
Three eggs, Klabbaeier,
Ver eggs, Hetteneier!
Eggs out, eggs out
or the weasel comes into the house,
an egg, not an egg,
two eggs, easter eggs,
three eggs, rattling eggs,
four eggs, cottage eggs!
The interesting thing about
Prümzurlayener saying
is that when the
Rattling the same
is used; only the
last two lines
are swapped.
This also shows that
Context of customs.
Usually take
in the custom of rattling
younger children participate
(the "rattle boys") who
then from a certain point on
Age to the "hut boys"
switch. This also varies
but from place to place.
Malberg Weich (Eifel)
For the poor fireman
let's hann some eggs.
For the poor fireman
let's have some eggs.
Feuermann = lighter of the hut fire
Utscheid- Russdorf (Eifel)
Tears on the star,
many masters.
Gelen Foden om dat Hous,
Da Fosicht Ajer ous.
Uh uh or uh,
drej should blow there,
gleckseelisch should live there.
Peter as den hellien Man,
deen den Hiemel kaan.
Put the loader and the wall,
hold knife by hand anyway,
nice fat Greev,
dat de Kärchjen iwerlääääft.
Little bouquet on the asterisk,
shines on my lord.
Yellow thread around the house
hands out eggs for Mardi Gras.
An egg or two
you should give three,
you shall live blissfully.
Peter is the holy man
who can close the sky.
Put the ladder against the wall
take a knife in hand
cut a thick, fat semolina,
that the cart overflows.
It is possible that the girls used to go to “heischen” (as in Berk and Frauenkron as well as in the Daun district) in the week before Castle Sunday.

The yellow thread around the house could be understood as exposing a stingy host. The color yellow probably symbolizes stinginess.

In the Middle Ages the color yellow had a negative connotation; Yellow was the color of hell light, stood for hostility to God and sin, for lust, envy, money, splendor, heretics, traitors, diseases and epidemics (jaundice, plague, leprosy). Yellow as the color of the sun and the divine was reserved for the ecclesiastical class only.

Rhine. archive

[Vol. 8, p. 803]

Tears in the face of death
Really easy to enjoy,
E like fodem around et house
Bacon on Aier on Mähl out
Or more check out the wolf at et house.
Little bouquet on the asterisk,
I shine to my Lord.
A yellow thread around the house
Bacon and eggs and flour out
or we will send the wolf into your house.
Bitburg and Wittlich (Eifel)
Streiss-che is om the star,
clear my little one,
gelle Fodem om et house,
get the fosie eggs out,
or check out the wolf at the house!
The little bouquet is on the star,
shines on my lord.
Yellow thread around the house
publishes the carnival eggs.
or we will send the wolf into your house.
According to Adam Wrede from Eifler Volkskunde , p. 298: "Each of the boys brought a bundle of straw with them; girls collected butter, bacon, flour, eggs and milk. The edible gifts were deposited in the house of the youngest husband []."
Between Bitburg and Gerolstein (Eifel)
Put the unfortunately on the wall,
get the knife by hand,
schned deck, schned then!
Göll`ne Foaden om the house,
get out the burner egg!
Put the ladder against the wall
take the knife in hand
cut thick, then cut!
Yellow thread around the house
give eggs to the hut burners.
According to P. Freppert from Höttenbrennen an ancient custom of the Eifel, monthly magazine Die Eifel , 47th vol., No. 2, February 1954, p. 22
Schoden (Trier-Saarburg)
Herchen an e Frächen,
we sang an oak;
he should know us,
long he shall lewe;
Petrus ös de brave man,
who can tear the sky;
owen out at Neckel's house, at Brockenhaus,
throw them out with shovels!
Master and mistress,
we sing for an egg;
you should give us one thing,
long you should live;
Peter is the good man
who can close the sky;
up at Neckel's house, at Brockenhaus,
then they throw out the wake with shovels!
Hüttingen an der Kyll (Eifel)
Hey the boys from Hättingen,
be nice beers and exercises.
Beers and Bungen as got food,
gägisch Noaren be net wise.
Ent, two, three, Hanes come over
cutting cover Greven an dä Koref,
dat en iwa left.
Here come the boys from Hüttingen,
they ask for pears and beans.
Pears and beans are good food,
dandy fools are not wise.
One, two, three, Hanes come over
cut a thick semolina in the basket,
that it overflows.
see also: pears, beans and bacon
Brecht (Eifel)
Hey come de Brecht boys,
sey have beers and exercises.
Beers and Bungen as god food,
Gäken un Nouren gen net white.
Mellich, Mellich, flour, Späk un Aier,
wehn a long throat hot as a Raier.
Here come the boys from Brecht
they ask for pears and beans.
Pears and beans are good food,
Dudes and fools don't get wise.
Milk, milk, flour, bacon and eggs,
whoever has a long neck is a rabble.
see also: pears, beans and bacon
Rittersdorf (Eifel)
Hey the Rickschdorf boys,
the beautiful bears and exercises.
Biaren and Bungen as god food
Gäken and Noaren don't call it white
People geff man oaks
gack, gack, gack, gack geischen.
Here come the boys from Rittersdorf,
the hot pears and beans.
Pears and beans are good food,
Dudes and fools don't get wise.
Little man give me a little egg
gack, gack, gack, gack geischen.
Play on words: geischen = egg-chen ...
Wilsecker (Eifel)
Petrus as en helije Maan,
dan os net granted kaan.
Get os eijer Eia,
se woßen op da Scheia.
Get os eijer Melich,
soß bleif d'r os se schelich.
Get os eijer Mähl,
soß kum d'r an de Hähl.
Get os egg lard,
soß ku ma eich on the neck.
Get os egg baggage,
soß flecht d'r hanner de hack.
Peter is a holy man
who cannot redeem us.
Give us your eggs
they grow on the barn.
Give us your milk
otherwise you owe us that.
Give us your flour
otherwise you will go to hell.
Give us your lard
otherwise we will hit your neck.
Give us your bacon
otherwise you will fly behind the hedge.
... ...
Ehlenz (Eifel)
Hey come the Ehlenz boys,
se heschen Birebungen;
Birebungen as good food,
gekig Noren gen net weis;
Eggs, botter, melich, flour;
who neist get, the as en Scheəl!
Here come the Ehlenz boys
they call for pear beans;
Pear beans are good food,
dandy fools do not become wise;
Eggs, butter, milk, flour,
he who gives nothing is a weirdo.
scheel as an adjective (meaning "crooked", "envious") ...
Lintgen (Luxembourg)
Schedder, Schedder, Schuoder,
Wât mer krěen, dǎt huole mer.
Bongen a Biren as gutt Speis,
Gècken an Nare gin nét weis.
Krěe mer èrer Êer kèng,
Wave mer érer Diêchter kèng.
Mat Hènnen a mat Fèszen,
He should sleep in the sky.
Schedder, Schedder, Schuoder,
what we get we get.
Beans and pears are good food,
Dudes and fools don't get wise.
If we don't get your eggs
we don't want your daughters.
With hands and feet
in heaven you should close.
schlèszen = go in ...
Eisenschmitt (Bernkastel-Wittlich)
Gros, Gros, Grum,
de Hohner eat Blum;
get mer ebbes to my korf;
Fra, burn eggs on bacon
or eich check ech de wolf an't house!
Big, big, crumb,
the chickens eat flowers;
give me something in my basket;
Woman, bring out the eggs and bacon
or I'll send the wolf into your house!
The inside of baked goods is called the grum (crumb). ...
Auw near Prüm (Eifel)
Big big crooked ones,
de Hohner pound dirt.
Jett ma eh jut stuck bacon,
da jomar away from da drought.
Big, big, crumb,
the chickens peck dirt.
Gives me a good piece of bacon
then we walk away from the door.
The inside of baked goods is called Krummen (crumb). ...
Kerschenbach (Eifel)
Here kun mer ever
de Burch`eier ze catch,
and if your oss no eggs,
then woll mer och you girls nice.
Here we come gone
to catch the Burgeier;
and if you don't give us eggs
then we don't want your girl either.
... ...
Niederweiler (Eifel)
Hey come de Nearweiler Hette Jung,
the would have been here Lung.
Wufier mier iers su pounded,
senn duarsch wall un weada yoked.
Here come the Niederweiler hut boys,
they would like to have their wages.
What we plagued ourselves for
are chased by wind and weather.
... ...
Habscheid (Eifel)
Eggs, eggs, eggs black,
if eggs were jetted,
krett de Wolef ont Hous.
Eggs, eggs, eggs out
who doesn't give eggs
gets the wolf into the house.
... ...
Alsdorf (Eifel)
De Hett as ouß,
Eggs black,
Sieven eggs or an eel scorn.
The hut is out
Eggs out,
Seven eggs or an old chicken.
... ...
Schleiden Hellenthal (Eifel)
Fastelovend os em gait;
put the leather on de Wangk,
holl e Metzchen en de Hangk,
snail to the long,
loss de kuərten hang,
snail fat, snail def,
Schneck en schuən Fastelovendgriefe
Carnival time has come;
Put the ladder against the wall
put a knife in your hand
cut in length,
let the shorter hang,
cut fat, cut deep,
cut a nice fastelovend greave
Fastelovend means: "the evening before Lent".

bold = generous

Beckingen , Merzig (Saarland)
Elo come the Beckinger Beiwercher,
se pretty Fasentsbredercher,
cut ib, cut off,
cut mer en thick stuck en de sack!
Here come the Beckinger boys
they demand carnival rolls,
cut up, cut off,
cut a big piece in my sack!
Beiwercher = boys ...
Berk , Frauenkron (Eifel)
Here tredde mr in his courtyard,
dr Scholzen and r Meier,
dr emperor and dr bishop,
jet os mock eggs,
jet os e stöck bacon.
Put de Leeder on the wall
takes et Metz in de reeschte hand,
no de Lange snows,
loot the Kuete hang.
Snows wide, snows deef,
that would have Jott em Hemmel leef.
Sankt Pitter os en johde Mann,
because os waal can bedene,
the hell closed the os,
dr Hemmel stands wek oofen.
Jett os jett and loot os john,
I still love the drought, mie zo bejohn.
Here we step into the courtyard
the Scholzen and the Meier,
the emperor and the bishop.
Give us chicken eggs
give us a piece of bacon.
Put the ladder against the wall
Take the knife in your right hand
cut to length,
let the short hang.
cut wide, cut deep,
that things are going well in heaven.
St. Peter is a good man
who can serve our choice.
Hell is closed
the sky is wide open.
Give us something and let's go
we have to commit even more of the doors.
... In the past, the girls went to “heischen” in the week before Castle Sunday.
Locality Sayings while collecting straw translation meaning comment
District of Daun (Eifel)
Strih, strih, Schan-zen,
d Nowend gamer drum dan-zen.
Strih, strih, little,
d Nowend gi mer drum screeching.
Straw, straw, jumps,
tonight we're dancing around it.
Straw, straw, mix,
tonight we're going around screaming.
... ...
Baustert (Eifel)
En Bäht Strieh fier't Hett ze burn,
de al as verbraant,
no land.
To burn a bale of straw for the hut
the old one is burned,
the new one comes into the country.
... ...
Niersbach (Eifel)
De Hett as burned,
it doesn’t affect the country.
Ma come ophewen,
fier et strieh to pay.
The hut is burned
a new one comes into the country.
We come pick up
to pay for the straw.
... ...
Kerschenbach (Eifel)
Strah, Strah,
to the new Burch,
the ahl jitt burned,
the new kütt ent land.
Jitt oss eh jot shy,
su deck like en Perdslief,
then jit uhr kohr called too all too often.
Straw, straw,
to the new castle.
The old one is burned
the new one comes into the country.
Gives us a good bunch
as fat as a horse's body,
then your grain will be ripe first of all.
... ...
Berk , Frauenkron (Eifel)
Strah, Strah to the new castle,
the awl it burned
the new, that kött in et land.
Jett os en Büedel Strüh,
esu deck like en Perdsliev,
then os ür Koren et next Johret
all called out.
Straw, straw to the new castle,
the old one is burned
the new one that comes to the country.
Give us a bundle of straw
as thick as a horse's body,
then your grain is next year
ripe first of all.
... ...
Habscheid (Eifel)
Strieh, Strieh to the neijer Burisch,
die aal die oss consumes,
die neij knows ont Laand.
we kee Strieh jet, krett de Lepp verbraant.
Straw, straw to the new castle,
the old one is burned
the new one coming into the country.
If you don't give straw, you get burned.
... ...
Prüm (Eifel)
Strih, Strih, Strih,
mer ho ken Burisch mih.
De al it burned
erumme en nei en et country.
Dirre dirre Löwche,
get it e little sheep,
su döck as e pearl loop,
then ir Kuər dat Johr is ripe.
Straw, straw, straw,
we no longer have a castle.
The old one is burned
there is another new one in the country.
Dear, dear love (?),
give us a little straw bundle,
as fat as a horse's body,
then your grain will be this year too
first ripe.
... ...
St. Vith (Belgium / Eifel)
Strüj, Strüj, to the new castle,
de ahl, de oß burned,
de new de küt an 't land.
Jet os en Bausch like e Perdslejf,
Now Koren is at the right rejf. -
Mer han e Kond vo Strüj jemaht.
What should it deufen?
D 'Häre mot de Kneufen.
Wä should et loven?
Stiwelspitter honner the Owen.
Straw, straw, to the new castle,
the old one is burned
the new one coming into the country.
Gives us a bundle of straw like a horse's body,
then your grain will be ripe first.
We made a child out of straw.
Who should baptize it?
The gentlemen with the buttons
Who should praise it?
Boot splinter behind the stove.
The gentlemen (pastors) with the buttons (of their robes )

Bootspitter = simple-minded person

St. Vith (Belgium / Eifel)
Money, money for the new castle
The date is, the date is burned,
Dat neut, dat küt on't land.
Jet us e Schein su greet as' t hand.
Since you are not the best deletes a whole country.
Money, money for the new castle.
The old one is burned
the new one that comes into the country.
Give us a bill the size of your hand.
Then you are the best people in the whole country.
... ...
Elsenborn and Bütgenbach (Belgium / Eifel)
Strüe, Strüe zor nöjer Boresch!
De aalt, de aes burned!
De nöj, de könt a land!
Dröm jäet os jett ne schuene Schoof,
wi ne peerdsroof, that's where örr Kooren
on Eeven zeriescht rip sin.
Straw, straw to the new castle!
The old one is burned!
The new one is coming to the country!
So give us a nice straw bundle,
like a horse's trunk, then your grain will be
be ripe as soon as possible.
... ...
Rocherath-Krinkelt of the municipality of Büllingen (Belgium / Eifel)
Strühj, Strüh zom nöje Bau.
The old ones who were burned
The nöj, they can be land.
Wiegen de meste Schoof jett,
Kregt et Koren on de Äwen et ierscht rip.
Töllerlöllerlöttche, jett os jet e Schöfche,
Dat den Hajel net nedderjeet,
Dat den Hajel net nedderschleet.
Straw, straw, to the new building.
The old one is burned
the new one coming into the country.
Whoever gives the most bundles of straw
the grain and ears get ripe first.
Töllerlöllerlöttche, give us a bundle of straw,
that the hail does not come down
that the hail does not come down.
... ...
Niederkorn (Luxembourg)
Stiêreck, Stiêreck!
En aner Joer kri the fill Fluös an Wiêreck
Straw, straw!
The other year you get a lot of flax and tow
Werg : Also known as Werch, Abwerch, Werrig, Hede or Kauder as a working material, is a low fiber quality that is produced as waste when swinging, ribbing and panting (cleaning) of bast fibers such as linen, hemp or jute. ...
Lintgen (Luxembourg)
I will die, I will die dét Haûs!
Gét ons eng Bausch Stré eraûs!
We're storming, we're storming this house!
Give us a bundle of straw!
... ...
Steel (Eifel)
De aahl Hoett as owburned,
de nei Hoett get oagestoch
The old hut burned down
the new hut is infected.
... ...

Similar customs at the same time

Related customs


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  • Scholzen, Reinhard / 1959-: Pushing the wheel together . Monschau 2017 (In: Landkreis Vulkaneifel: Yearbook / Landkreis Vulkaneifel, pages 71–73. - Illustrations. Ed. District administration Daun.).
  • Schröder, Joachim: Straw man, torches and wheels determined the winter outgrowth: Castle fire as a former cult of vegetation and growth magic . Brussels 1995 (In: Between Venn and Schneifel. - 31, pages 53-55. - Ill. Magazine for history, folklore and culture.).
  • Steffens, Reinhard: The fire wheel rolls down to the valley. Old customs maintained in Oberstadtfeld . Daun 1986 (In: Heimat-Jahrbuch Kreis Daun Vulkaneifel, pp. 190–191. 2 figs.).
  • Willems, Anton: The fire wheel . Pellingen 2005 (In: Chronik von Pellingen / [Ed .: Ortsgemeinde Pellingen. Authors: Anton Willems ...], pp. 719–721. - Ill.).
  • Zender, Arnold: Culture, customs, village coexistence: Scheefsunndich and Hüttenbrennen . Idenheim 2011 (In: Idemer Dorfzeitung. - Issue 5, Pages 4–6. - Ill. Idemer Dorfzeitung.).

Web links

Commons : Hüttenbrennen  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. "Hüttenbrennen"; an Eifel tradition. Retrieved December 29, 2019 .
  2. Hut Sunday in the Eifel. Retrieved August 10, 2017 .
  3. ↑ Straw man's day in the Eifel. Retrieved May 16, 2016 .
  4. Ph. De Lorenzi, Contributions to the History of All Parishes in the Diocese of Trier 1, 392. Trier 1887.
  5. ^ Pastor Bormann's "Contribution to the History of the Ardennes - Part 2", page 159 ff. Accessed on January 29, 2018 .
  6. a b Castle fire in Elsenborn (Eifel). Retrieved January 29, 2018 .
  7. ^ District administration Bitburg (ed.): Local calendar for the district Bitburg-Prüm (=  contribution by Matthias Paas, Hüttingen ad Kyll ). Paulinus-Druckerei GmbH, Trier 1991, p. 198-200 .
  8. Heischelied in Prümzurlay. Retrieved February 2, 2018 .
  9. malberg (Customs -> Hüttenbrennen)
  10. Color yellow in the Middle Ages. Retrieved February 2, 2020 .
  11. The color yellow in the Middle Ages. Retrieved February 2, 2020 .
  12. Encyclopaedia of German superstition : Freen - lumbago. Editor: Eduard Hoffmann-Krayer. Lyrics p. 583.
  13. Heischelied from "Rhenish Dictionary". Retrieved January 10, 2020 .
  14. ^ Eifler Volkskunde : Editor: Adam Wrede. 3. Edition. Bonn 1960
  15. ^ Eifler customs : editors: Rolf Dettmann and Mathias Weber. 1st edition. Cologne 1981, ISBN 3-7616-0570-6
  16. Heischelied from "Rhenish Dictionary". Retrieved January 10, 2020 .
  17. Heischelied in Hüttingen ad Kyll. Retrieved February 2, 2018 .
  18. Heischelied in Brecht. Retrieved February 2, 2018 .
  19. Hail song in Rittersdorf. Retrieved February 13, 2018 .
  20. Heischelied in Wilsecker. Retrieved February 4, 2018 .
  21. Heischelied from "Rhenish Dictionary". Retrieved January 10, 2020 .
  22. Heischelied from "Rhenish Dictionary". Retrieved January 10, 2020 .
  23. Heischelied in Kerschenbach. (PDF) Retrieved February 2, 2018 .
  24. Heischelied in Niederweiler. Retrieved February 4, 2018 .
  25. Heischelied in Habscheid. (PDF) Retrieved July 25, 2017 .
  26. Heischelied in Schleiden-Hellenthal. (PDF) Retrieved February 2, 2018 .
  27. Heischelied in Beckingen and Merzig. (PDF) Retrieved February 2, 2018 .
  28. Heischelied in Berk and Frauenkron. (PDF) Retrieved February 2, 2018 .
  29. ^ Eifler Volkskunde : Editor: Adam Wrede. 3. Edition. Bonn 1960
  30. ^ Hut burning in Baustert. (PDF) Retrieved February 2, 2018 .
  31. ^ Castle burning in Kerschenbach. (PDF) Retrieved February 2, 2018 .
  32. ^ Castle burning in Berk and Frauenkron. (PDF) Retrieved February 2, 2018 .
  33. Verses in Habscheid. (PDF) Retrieved July 25, 2017 .
  34. Verses in Prüm. Retrieved December 28, 2019 .
  35. Straw collecting verse in St. Vith. (PDF) Retrieved July 25, 2017 .
  36. ↑ Money collecting verse in St. Vith. (PDF) Retrieved July 25, 2017 .
  37. The first Sunday of Lent: Castle burning and fire wheel. Retrieved March 14, 2019 .
  38. Journal f. Rhine. and westf. Folklore 11, 35 (1915).
  39. ^ Castle burning in Luerenzweiler (Luxembourg). Retrieved May 16, 2016 .