Ethnic group leader
In the time of National Socialism, ethnic group leaders were the recognized political leaders of people of German ethnicity with foreign citizenship living outside the borders of the German Reich (1933 to 1945) : including Romanian Germans (550,000 " Volksdeutsche " in 1944), Yugoslav Germans (500,000 in 1931 ), Hungarian Germans (465,000 in 1941), Carpathian Germans (126,000 in 1930), in South Tyrol (200,000 in 1939) and Denmark (30,000 after 1920).
Organization and status
The Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle (VoMi), headed by SS-Obergruppenführer Werner Lorenz , was originally launched in 1936 as an instrument of National Socialist foreign policy . The aim of the organization was to support the “ethnic Germans” abroad financially and politically and at the same time to instrumentalise them for the Nazi ethnicity policy , together with the appointment of National Socialist-oriented “ethnic group leaders”, who were often trained in the spirit of National Socialism and the SS in Germany . The “ethnic group tours” were also responsible for youth work. The aim of the VoMi was to build and enforce such "ethnic group leaders" on the basis of the " Führer principle " and the " Volksgemeinschaft " by " harmonizing " the institutions of the German ethnic group in the respective host country, who on the one hand were compliant with the orders of the VoMi and the Foreign Office , but on the other hand, in their minority " völkisch " politics, they did not snub or anger their home states, which were often allied with the German Reich. In this sense, all aid organizations that had previously worked with Germans abroad were brought into line. By 1942, Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler , now also Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Volkstum , expanded the VoMi into an SS main office , which from September onwards in addition to Volkstumsarbeit , looking after the German People's List , resettling, transporting and caring for resettlers now also officially the "leadership of the German ethnic groups with foreign citizenship" fell. The German ethnic groups lost their independence and came under the command of Reich German National Socialist officials .
The governments of the countries that had allied themselves with the German Reich or found themselves in a special relationship of dependency saw themselves forced to collaborate extensively for reasons of self-preservation. The VoMi secured the existence of the ethnic groups by creating their own legal personalities in the state life of these nations for the ethnic groups and their leadership. “There”, so the border and foreign office of the Hitler Youth leadership , “German people can only develop their strengths and abilities under German leadership”, and “everything that is German in people is only protected and safe the German Reich could come to full development ”, the“ leadership of the Reich took him [the ethnic Germans] into their care ”and put“ every effort ”into“ consolidating the strongest and most beautiful characteristics of German people in every possible way to promote". This was successful because "today"  "Volksdeutschism in Europe has six tightly aligned ethnic groups under the leadership of their ethnic group leaders".
- Wolfram Bruckner succeeded Fritz Fabritius from the "German National Community in Romania" from November 1939 to September 1940 ad interim as regional chairman. In December 1939 he was employed by the VoMi as the “ethnic group leader” of the newly named “German ethnic group in Romania” (DViR).
- Andreas Schmidt , ethnic group leader of the "German ethnic group in Romania" from September 27, 1940 to autumn 1944, SS-Hauptsturmführer
- The head of VoMi Werner Lorenz appointed Schmidt on September 27, 1940 in Brașov as "ethnic group leader". The NSDAP of the German Ethnic Group in Romania (NSDAP of the DViR) was recognized by the Romanian fascist government under Ion Antonescu as a legal person under public law on November 20, 1940 under pressure from the German Reich by decree law No. 830 and the "sole will-bearer of the German ethnic group in Romania ”. She worked within the framework of the Romanian national legionary state . The somewhat independent policy of his predecessors now turned into a radical militarization of all areas of life for the German minority. Schmidt turned out to be a pure careerist and was ready to carry out any orders from the higher authorities in the German Reich, even if these were associated with risks and disadvantages for the German minority. Although Schmidt identified himself more with the German Reich and the SS than any other "ethnic group leader" in Southeast Europe, he did not formally join as SS-Hauptsturmführer until early 1945. Schmidt was arrested in 1945 and died in the spring of 1948 as a Soviet prisoner of war under unexplained circumstances in the “1 Kapitalnaia” camp in Vorkuta , Komi Republic .
- Josef Janko , ethnic group leader of the German ethnic group in the Banat (Vojvodina) and Serbia from April 1941 to 1944, SS-Obersturmführer
- Janko was elected chairman of the Swabian-German Cultural Association in May 1939 under pressure from VoMi and the Association for German Cultural Relations Abroad (VDA) , and after a short time he called himself “ethnic group leader”. After the collapse of Yugoslavia in April 1941, Janko was officially appointed by the VoMi as the “ethnic group leader of the German ethnic group in the Banat and Serbia ” and the “ethnic group” was declared a legal person under public law by government ordinance under Prime Minister Milan Nedić of July 19, 1941 . In this function, Janko ordered all “ethnic German” men from 17 to 50 years of age to serve in the 7th SS Volunteer Mountain Division “Prinz Eugen” under brigade leader Artur Phleps and refused to do so this order under "severest punishment".
- After Romania switched to the side of the Soviet Union on August 23, 1944, the Red Army now also advanced on Serbia. Janko's plan to evacuate the German ethnic group of September 2, 1944 (evacuation from the likely battle area) was prohibited by the SS group leader and lieutenant general of the police, Hermann Behrends , citing a secret Führer order ; Behrends only gave his approval on October 1. Janko was able to withdraw with military units over a bridge over the Tisza near Aradac into the Batschka . The part of the German population remaining in Vojvodina after the invasion of the Red Army and the advancing partisan units was subsequently exposed to mass shootings, arrests, mistreatment, looting, rape and forced labor. At the end of the war, Janko went to Upper Styria . He was arrested and interned in the Wolfsberg camp in the British zone of occupation (Carinthia) . He was able to flee to Argentina with a passport from the Red Cross . He worked as a lawyer in Villa General Belgrano , on the side he published books; but did not hold any offices after the war.
- Branimir Altgayer , ethnic group leader of the German ethnic group in Croatia from 1941, SS-Sturmbannführer
- After the German occupation and division of Yugoslavia, Josef Janko sent Branimir Altgayer to Croatia as a representative for the German ethnic groups , Josef Meier to Slavonia and Sepp Redinger to Syrmia and Bosnia . All three had informed the provisional governments of their respective areas of their ethnic group leadership and met in Osijek in April 1941 .
- Ante Pavelić was from April 17, 1941 "State Leader" of the newly founded Independent State of Croatia . On April 15, he had promised the German minority privileged rights by law. On April 21, Pavelić received Meier and Redinger in Zagreb, where the two stood out due to internal disputes over powers and jurisdiction, in which Pavelić could only refer to the VoMi. During his visit to Berlin, VoMi informed Altgayer that Meier and Redinger would be called back to the Reich and appointed Altgayer as the “ethnic group leader” of all Germans within the Croatian state. Equipped with the legal position and powers of a State Commissioner or State Director (1941, State Secretary from 1943), he represented the interests of the German ethnic group that was now under his control before the Croatian government. His business circle was defined as comprehensively as possible, just as generously was the right to ordinance within the framework of the laws that he was entitled to for the internal affairs of the ethnic group.
- Following the example of the German Reich, a tightly organized political unity of the German ethnic group was soon achieved, which slowly took the form of a centralized paramilitary organization with tight hierarchies and was politically consolidated in the National Socialist German Followers in Croatia (NSDGK). The German team originally developed out of the vigilante groups in the individual places, following the example of the SS. The VoMi had its problems with Altgayer, as, thanks to his reputation in the Croatian leadership and the German minority, he increasingly disregarded the instructions of the VoMi, especially when he believed that the demands of the Reich were not in the best interests of “his” ethnic Germans. On May 19 Altgayer moved into the Waffen-SS and handed over the business to his deputy, large team Jacob Ellicker . On June 13th he was retired with the rank of SS-Sturmbannführer for deployment as an observer on the Eastern Front and returned on August 20 "on higher orders" to take the position of "ethnic group leader" again. Here he ordered the general mobilization of the German ethnic group. After the Second World War, Altgayer was interned in the Wolfsberg camp (British occupation zone of Carinthia) and extradited to Yugoslavia, sentenced to death in Zagreb in January 1950 for "crimes against people and state" and executed on May 15, 1950. Altgayer's deputy was Anton Lehmann from 1941 to 1945 .
- Hauptsturmführer of the Waffen-SS Jakob Lichtenberger was appointed by the SS Personnel Office during a front-line deployment in Altgayer for the period from November 11, 1944 to February 1, 1945 as the "ethnic group leader in Croatia".
- In 1945 Lichtenberger fled from Croatia to Pforzheim in Germany and worked as a teacher and at the “Südostdeutsche Kulturwerk” in Munich. In 1974 he left Germany for Brazil . Lichtenberger died in Germany in 2005.
The political interest group of the 12,000 strong German ethnic group the Gottscheer in the German language island Gottscheer Land was formed in the 1920s and was not a public institution that came about through elections or appointments, but was created by the lawyer Hans Arko and the pastor Josef Eppich , to whom one “generally listened” due to their personality and who temporarily also performed official functions. In November 1938, Arko received a message from the “Gottschee Laboratory in the VDA, Berlin” that he had been deposed as “ethnic group leader”. As a result, a three-person committee was formed, consisting of Josef Schober , Wilhelm Lampeter and Martin Sturm , who had joined the National Socialist idea. Schober took over the chairmanship and was referred to in future as the "ethnic group leader". In the second half of May 1941, Schober, Lampeter and Sturm met with SS Brigade Leader Ulrich Greifelt and head of the "Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Ethnicity" in Berlin, where they pointed out that an ethnic group leadership staff had already been set up on their own initiative. With the agreement between Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini , which came into force on October 1, 1941 , it was decided to relocate the Gottscheers to the " Ranner Triangle " in the historical region of Lower Styria in the German Reich, which was "ethnically cleansed" after 37,000 Slovenes had resettled . The "Gottscheer Team" with their organization reaching into every village under SS-Sturmbannführer Lampeter took on the task of implementing the resettlement across the board.
In the literature available, Lampeter is described as the real “strong man” in the leadership of the ethnic group, but gives little information about Josef Schober's whereabouts. After his complaint to Himmler about the catastrophic conditions found at the resettlement destination, Lampeter was demoted in February 1942 and the leadership of the ethnic group was deposed. Lampeter names Heinrich Hönigmann, Petsche and Maurin who were put in their place. From June 30, 1942, he served in the Waffen-SS at various theaters of war and was finally assigned at the beginning of 1945 by the head of the SS main office Gottlob Berger to set up the Volkssturm in the Gottscheer settlement area in Rann . At the end of the war he ended up in the Soviet occupation zone in Hainichen . In the German Democratic Republic he received professorships at various universities.
- Franz Anton Basch , ethnic group leader of the German ethnic group in Hungary from 1940 to the end of 1944
- Under the Christian-nationalist Jakob Bleyer , the Hungarian Minister for National Minorities from 1919 to 1920, Basch soon developed into one of the leading figures of the Hungarian Germans . In contrast to the conciliatory and cultural objectives pursued policies pursued Bleyers Basch with the political and financial support of the German Reich, the complete political autonomy of Germans in Hungary, the Pangermanism . The first Vienna arbitration in 1938 enforced this autonomy.
- After the Second Vienna Arbitration Award in 1940, Hitler appointed him “People's Group Leader”, making him subordinate to the VoMi. Basch had already founded the Volksbund der Deutschen in Hungary in November 1938 , in which he organized the German minority as an autonomous state within the Kingdom of Hungary on the model of the NSDAP , but his relationship with Berlin was considered difficult. Since Hungary entered the war in 1941 , when the Hungarian government approved the recruitment of “volunteers” to the Waffen SS among the “ethnic Germans” (Basch had resisted in 1940), the Hungarian government endeavored until the occupation of Hungary by German troops in March 1944 to restrict the rights of the German minority. The Wehrmacht used the “German Team”, a paramilitary organization for “homeland security” subordinate to the “Volksgruppenführer”, as a provincial aid instrument for the occupation of Hungary.
- Basch's policy provoked bitterness among Hungarians and contributed to the forced resettlement of ethnic Germans after 1945. In the final phase of the war he refused a safe refuge in Austria and was extradited as a war criminal on Hungarian request. Basch was sentenced to death for his political activities and executed in April 1946.
- Peter Hofer , ethnic group leader of the German-speaking South Tyroleans from September 1943 to December 2, 1943
- Under Hofer's direction, the successor organization of the Völkischer Kampfrings Südtirols , the Working Group of Optanten für Deutschland (AdO) organized the resettlement of the South Tyrolean “Volkdeutsche” “ home to the Reich ” in the option in South Tyrol . Opposite the Reich leadership in Berlin, Hofer appeared as an "ethnic group leader" and was also viewed as such by wide circles of the optants.
- After the Wehrmacht occupied South Tyrol in September 1943 and established the operational zone for the foothills of the Alps , the AdO was dissolved and renamed the "German Ethnic Group South Tyrol", where it was the only permitted political movement for 20 months. Its leader was the now official "Volksgruppenführer" Peter Hofer, who was directly subordinate to the staff main office of the Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Volkstum under the direction of SS Obergruppenführer Ulrich Greifelt. On September 21, 1943, the Chief Commissioner of the Operations Zone, Franz Hofer , appointed him Prefect of Bozen. In December 1943, Peter Hofer died from an aerial bomb. On the same day, his successor Karl Tinzl was appointed prefect in Bozen , but the post of "ethnic group leader" subsequently remained vacant.
- Franz Karmasin , since March 1940 ethnic group leader of the German ethnic group in Slovakia , SS-Sturmbannführer
- In 1937 Karmasin was the deputy of the Sudeten German Party led by Konrad Henlein . In 1938 Slovakia legally recognized its German ethnic group. Karmasin was also the chairman of the German party . The captain of the Slovak Army held the position of State Secretary in the Slovak administration, to whom Jozef Tiso , who soon after came into office as President of the Slovak State , appointed him. Karmasin was organizationally involved in the deportations of Slovak Jews , as well as in the cleansing of the German minority of "racially inferior and anti-social elements". On September 1, 1943, Karmasin was appointed Hauptsturmführer of the Waffen-SS - at Tiso's request from Himmler - and campaigned among the "Volksdeutsche" for entry into the Waffen-SS.
- After the end of the war he fled via Austria to Germany, where he was managing director of the Witikobund and a member of the Sudeten German Council and the Federal Assembly of the Sudeten German Landsmannschaft . As early as 1947, Franz Karmasin was sentenced to death in absentia in Czechoslovakia ; however, the German government refused to extradite him, as requested by the Prague government. He died in 1970 in Steinebach am Wörthsee .
- In July 1937, the superior VoMi established Jens Möller from the "National Socialist German Workers' Party North Schleswig" (NSDAP-N) founded in 1935 as the main contact of the Reich for the national work there. From 1938 Jens Möller emerged as the undisputed "ethnic group leader" with the support of Berlin. Möller hoped for a border revision with the aim of reuniting North Schleswig with Schleswig-Holstein , but the German authorities placed very narrow limits on his freedom of maneuver. In December 1940 Jens Möller was instructed in Berlin to “consolidate the Germanness in the homeland”, after which the “leadership of the ethnic groups” focused on strengthening the political organization and the cultural life of the ethnic group. In 1943 the Danish Ministry of State set up an administrative office for the German ethnic group.
- Jens Möller was interned in the camp in Fårhus after the war ended in 1945 . The " legal accounting " of the post-war period accused Möller of spying on Danes for the German police authorities in Denmark during the German occupation and of actively recruiting young members of the minority as recruits for military service from formations such as the "Zeitfreiwilligen-Korps" or the For having been involved in "self-defense" and sentenced him to 12 years in prison. In 1951 he was killed in a traffic accident.
- Immo Eberl , Konrad G. Gündisch: The Donauschwaben. Chapter 6: The statistics of the German settlement in Southeast Europe. Ministry of the Interior of Baden-Württemberg, Jan Thorbecke Verlag, 1987.
- Hans Harmsen : Social services for repatriates. Konrad Adenauer Foundation for Political Education and Student Support. Eichholz-Verlag, 1976, ISBN 3-87198-074-9 , p. 18.
- Ernst Hochberger: Introduction to the history of the Carpathian Germans in Slovakia. Sinn, July 2000.
- Minutes of the discussion on the South Tyrolean question, took place on June 23, 1939 from 16-17.50 in the Secret State Police Office, Berlin SW 11, Prinz-Albrecht-Str. 8. (Text by the German delegation)
- Jørgen Kühl: National minorities in the European Union using the example of the German minority in Denmark. In: Archives for Social History. 44, 2004, p. 571.
The ethnic group leaders of the Cyprus-Greeks or Cyprus- Turks should be taken as an example :
- in Germany
- Overcoming the division of Cyprus. Cypriot ethnic group leaders announce meetings. In: n-tv . April 28, 2015
- Cyprus. Ethnic group leaders agree on a schedule. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine . January 16, 2002
- in Austria
- Hope for Cyprus: Joint address by the ethnic group leaders. ( Memento from December 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) In: Wirtschaftsblatt . December 25, 2015
- Cyprus' ethnic group leaders are seeking historical rapprochement. In: Salzburger Nachrichten . April 23, 2015
- in Switzerland
- Meeting of the Greek and Turkish ethnic group leaders. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . 22nd of November 2013
- Cypriot ethnic group leaders stroll through the divided Nicosia. In: look . May 23, 2015.
- Tammo Luther: Volkstumsppolitik des Deutschen Reiches 1933–1938: The Germans Abroad in the Field of Tension Between Traditionalists and National Socialists . Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-515-08535-1 , p. 156; in turn based on H.-A. Jacobsen: Nazi foreign policy. P. 245, overview 7.
- Hans Buchheim : The SS - the instrument of rule, command and obedience. Munich 1967, p. 192 ff.
- Michael Buddrus : Total education for total war: Hitler Youth and National Socialist youth policy. Walter de Gruyter, 2003, ISBN 3-11-096795-2 , p. 773.
- How great was the influence of National Socialism on the Danube Swabians? Analysis of the charge of involvement in the "fascist tyranny". Danube Swabia in Upper Austria.
- Günter Kaufmann: The coming Germany: The education of the youth in the empire of Adolf Hitler. Junker & Dünnhaupt, 1940. In: Michael Buddrus : Total education for total war: Hitler Youth and National Socialist youth policy. Walter de Gruyter, 2003, ISBN 3-11-096795-2 , p. 773.
- Situation report of the border and foreign office of the Reich Youth Leadership , December 1941. In: Michael Buddrus : Total education for total war: Hitler Youth and National Socialist youth policy. Walter de Gruyter, 2003, ISBN 3-11-096795-2 , p. 773.
- Johann Böhm : National Socialist Indoctrination of Germans in Romania 1932-1944. Peter Lang, 2008, ISBN 978-3-631-57031-9 , p. 90.
- Paul Milata : Between Hitler, Stalin and Antonescu: Romanian Germans in the Waffen-SS. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne / Weimar 2007, ISBN 978-3-412-13806-6 , p. 333.
- Working group for Transylvania regional studies: Journal for Transylvania regional studies. Edition 27. Böhlau Verlag, 2004.
- Klaus Popa : The aspirations to rule of the ethnic group leader and power man Andreas Schmidt and the German ethnic group in Romania (1940-1944) as a prime example of Nazi fanatization and instrumentalization.
- Decree Law concerning the status of the German minority in Romania. In: Documents of German Politics. Volume 8/1. Berlin 1943, pp. 410-411.
- Johann Böhm: National Socialist Indoctrination of Germans in Romania 1932-1944. Peter Lang, 2008, ISBN 978-3-631-57031-9 , pp. 91f.
- Paul Milata: Between Hitler, Stalin and Antonescu: Romanian Germans in the Waffen-SS. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne / Weimar 2007, ISBN 978-3-412-13806-6 , p. 56.
- Paul Milata: Between Hitler, Stalin and Antonescu: Romanian Germans in the Waffen-SS. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne / Weimar 2007, ISBN 978-3-412-13806-6 , p. 342.
- Ekkehard Völkl , Zsolt K. Lengyel: Westbanat, 1941–1944: the German, the Hungarian and other ethnic groups. Rudolf Trofenik, 1991, p. 49.
- Johann Böhm: The German ethnic group in Yugoslavia 1918-1941: domestic and foreign policy as symptoms of the relationship between the German minority and the Yugoslav government. Verlag Peter Lang, 2009, ISBN 978-3-631-59557-2 , p. 199.
- Arnold Suppan : Hitler - Beneš - Tito: Conflict, War and Genocide in East Central and Southeast Europe. Austrian Academy of Sciences, 2014, ISBN 978-3-7001-7560-5 , p. 1028.
- Hans-Ulrich Wehler : Nationality Policy in Yugoslavia: The German Minority 1918–1978. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1980, ISBN 3-525-01322-1 , pp. 60 f.
- Document 167E: Ordinance Gazette of the German National People's Group Leadership, Volume 8 of March 1, 1942. Document 177E: Convocation order from the Supplementary Office of the German National People's Group of April 3, 1942. In: Federal Ministry for Expellees, Refugees and War Victims (Ed.): Das Schicksal der Deutschen in Yugoslavia. Documentation of the expulsion of Germans from East Central Europe. Volume 5, Bonn 1961.
- File: Evacuation in the Banat.jpg
- Sepp Janko : The way and the end of the German ethnic group in Yugoslavia. Stocker, Graz / Stuttgart 1983, pp. 249-288.
- Zoran Janjetović : The conflicts between Serbs and Danube Swabians. ( Memento of December 9, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) In: Mariana Hausleitner , Harald Roth (Ed.): The influence of National Socialism on minorities in East Central and South Europe. IKS Verlag, Munich 2006, p. 162.
- Oliver Rathkolb: Revisiting the National Socialist Legacy: Coming to Terms With Forced Labor, Expropriation, Compensation, and Restitution. Transaction Publishers, ISBN 1-4128-3323-X , p. 237.
- Klaus Popa: Völkisches Handbuch Südosteuropa. Online encyclopedia of ethnic German Southeast Europe. Letter IJ, p. 11 ff, 16
- Johann Böhm: The German ethnic group in Yugoslavia 1918–1941: Domestic and foreign policy as symptoms of the relationship between the German minority and the Yugoslav government. Verlag Peter Lang, 2009, ISBN 978-3-631-59557-2 , p. 233.
- Valentin Oberkersch : The Germans in Syrmia, Slavonia, Croatia and Bosnia. Donauschwäbische Kulturstiftung, Working Group for Donauschwäbische Heimat- und Volksforschung, Stuttgart 1989, ISBN 3-926276-07-X , p. 365 ff.
- Hermann Raschhofer : Development and function of the new national minority law Max Planck Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, 1942/43, p. 439 f.
- Federal Ministry for Expellees, Refugees and War Victims : Documentation of the expulsion of Germans from East Central Europe. Volume V: The Fate of the Germans in Yugoslavia. CHAPTER II: The effects of the war on the situation of Germanness in Yugoslavia, a) Croatia. 1961, pp. 51e / 52e .
- Wilhelm Sattler: The German ethnic group in the independent state of Croatia. Graz 1943, p. 96 ff.
- Valdis O. Lumans, Himmler's Auxiliaries, The Folk German central location and the German Minorities of Europe, 1939-1945. University of North Carolina Press, 2000, ISBN 0-8078-6311-4 , p. 237.
- Darko Stuparić: Tko je tko u NDH: Hrvatska 1941–1945. Minerva, 1997, ISBN 953-6377-03-9 , p. 7.
- Klaus Popa : Völkisches Handbuch Südosteuropa , 2014, p. 16.
- Ingomar Senz : The Danube Swabians. Langen Müller, 1994, ISBN 3-7844-2522-4 , p. 123.
- Johann Böhm: The German ethnic groups in the independent state of Croatia and in the Serbian Banat: their relationship to the Third Reich 1941–1944. Peter Lang Verlag, 2012, ISBN 978-3-631-63323-6 , p. 25.
- Ref .: 21c16 Bro./Le.
- Johann Böhm: The German ethnic groups in the independent state of Croatia and in the Serbian Banat: their relationship to the Third Reich 1941–1944. Peter Lang Verlag, 2012, ISBN 978-3-631-63323-6 , p. 15.
- Obituary. In: Revista de Entre Rios, Guarapuava, March 2005, p. 7.
- Carl Bethke : No common language? LIT Verlag, Münster 2013, ISBN 978-3-643-11754-0 , p. 265.
- Rainer Bendel, Robert Pech, Norbert Spannenberger : Church and group formation processes of German minorities in East Central and Southeast Europe 1918-1933. LIT Verlag, Münster 2015, p. 208.
- Magazine German word (Njmacka Riječ). Journal of Germans and Austrians in Croatia. Issue 56, Osijek, June 2005, p. 35.
- Hans Volz : The fight against the east, 1941. Junker & Dünnhaupt, 1944, p. 730.
- Erich Petschauer: The Gottscheer Century Book. Wilhelm Braumüller Verlag, 1980, p. 98. PDF; 1.7 MB ( memento from November 4, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
- Erich Petschauer: The Gottscheer Century Book. Wilhelm Braumüller Verlag, 1980, p. 103. PDF; 1.7 MB ( memento from November 4, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
- Hans Herrschaft: The Banat: a German settlement area in south-eastern Europe. Verlag Border and Abroad, 1942, p. 12. (Quote: Your [the Germans in the Gottschee] current ethnic group leader is Josef Schober )
- Wilhelm Lampeter : The Gottscheer Volksgruppe 1930–1942. P. 15.
- Erich Petschauer: The Gottscheer Century Book. Wilhelm Braumüller Verlag, 1980, p. 109. PDF; 1.7 MB ( memento from November 4, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
- Hans Hermann Frensing: The resettlement of the Gottscheer Germans. Oldenbourg, Munich 1970.
- Erich Petschauer: The Gottscheer Century Book. Wilhelm Braumüller Verlag, 1980, p. 104 ff. PDF; 1.7 MB ( memento from November 4, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
- Erich Petschauer: The Gottscheer Century Book. Wilhelm Braumüller Verlag, 1980, p. 121 ff. PDF; 1.7 MB ( memento from November 4, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
- Richard Lackner : Copies of original documents from the SS .
- Wilhelm Lampeter: The Gottscheer Volksgruppe 1930–1942. P. 24.
- Gottfried Schuster, E. Kreuz: Prof. Wilhelm Lampeter 50 years old. In: University newspaper. Organ of the SED party leadership at Karl Marx University. 10th year, Leipzig, January 27, 1966, p. 2.
- Margarete Wein, Karin Foerster: A Central German farmer par excellence. Honorary colloquium for Professor Wilhelm Lampeter. January 16, 2001.
- Professor the University of Leipzig: Prof. Dr. agr. habil., Dr. hc Wilhelm Lampeter.
- Hedwig Schwind: Jakob Bleyer, a pioneer and awakening of the Hungarian Germanness. Verlag des Südostdeutschen Kulturwerk, 1960, p. 58.
- Ladislaus Buzás: Basch, Franz Anton. In: New German Biography. Volume 1, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1953, p. 617.
- Paul Milata: Between Hitler, Stalin and Antonescu. Romanian Germans in the Waffen SS. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne / Weimar 2007, ISBN 978-3-412-13806-6 , p. 332.
- Geza Charles Paikert: The Danube Swabians. German Populations in Hungary, Rumania and Yugoslavia and Hitler′s impact on their Patterns. The Hague 1967, p. 116.
- Norbert Spannenberger: The People's League of Germans in Hungary 1938–1944 under Horthy and Hitler. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-486-57728-X , p. 309.
- Norbert Spannenberger: The People's League of Germans in Hungary 1938–1944 under Horthy and Hitler. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-486-57728-X , p. 263 ff.)
- Rudolf Pencz: For the Homeland: The 31st Waffen-SS Volunteer Grenadier Division in World War II. Stackpole Books, 2009, ISBN 978-0-8117-3582-7 , p. 138 f.)
- Geza Charles Paikert: The Danube Swabians. German Populations in Hungary, Rumania and Yugoslavia and Hitler′s impact on their Patterns. The Hague 1967, p. 220.
- Friedrich Spiegel-Schmidt, Lóránt Tilkovszky, Gerhard Seewann, Norbert Spannenberger: files of the people's court trial against Franz A. Basch, ethnic group leader of the Germans in Hungary Budapest 1945/46. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-486-56485-4 , p. 549.
- South Tyrol in words and pictures. Volumes 25-27. Bergisel-Bund, Südtirol-Verlag Herbert Neuner, 1981, p. 36.
- Margareth Lun: Nazi rule in South Tyrol. Innsbruck 2004, ISBN 3-7065-1830-9 , p. 104 ff.
- Klaus Eisterer, Rolf Steininger : The Option: South Tyrol between Fascism and National Socialism. Haymon, 1989, ISBN 3-85218-059-7 , p. 123.
- Hans Heiss , Gustav Pfeifer: South Tyrol - Zero Hour? Studies Verlag, 2000, ISBN 3-7065-1441-9 , p. 49.
- Tobias Weger : “Volkstumskampf” without end? Sudeten German Organizations, 1945–1955. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 2008, ISBN 978-3-631-57104-0 , p. 605.
- Journal of History . Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften, 2009, p. 819.
- Edmund Glaise-Horstenau : Minister in the corporate state and general in the OKW. Böhlau Verlag, Vienna 1983, ISBN 3-205-08743-7 , p. 341.
- Norbert Spannenberger: The People's League of Germans in Hungary 1938–1944 under Horthy and Hitler. Federal Institute for Culture and History of Germans in Eastern Europe, Oldenbourg Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-486-57728-X , p. 241.
- Igor-Philip Matic: Edmund Veesenmayer. Agent and diplomat of the National Socialist expansion policy. Oldenbourg, 2002, ISBN 3-486-56677-6 , p. 63.
- Jörg K. Hoensch : Slovakia and Hitler's Ostpolitik. Hlinkas Slovak People's Party between Autonomy and Separation 1938/39. Cologne 1965, p. 137.
- Eduard Nižňanský : The deportations of the Jews in the time of the autonomous country Slovakia in November 1938. In: Yearbook for anti-Semitism research. 7, 1998, pp. 20-45.
- Norbert Podewin : Brown book about war and Nazi criminals in high positions in the Federal Republic and in West Berlin . Das Neue Berlin, 2002, ISBN 3-360-01033-7 , p. 399.
- Karmasin, Franz. In: Walther Killy , Rudolf Vierhaus : German biographical encyclopedia . Volume 11: Hitz - Kozub. Verlag KG Saur, 2000, ISBN 3-598-23160-1 , p. 101.
- Documentation of the time. Issues 253-276. German Institute for Contemporary History , 1962, p. 355.
- Peter Witte: The service calendar of Heinrich Himmler 1941/42. Christians, 1999, ISBN 3-7672-1329-X , p. 704.
- Henrik Skov Kristensen: Between Hitler and home. Ethnic group leader Jens Möller. In: Democratic History. Yearbook for Schleswig-Holstein. Advisory Board for History in the Society for Politics and Education Schleswig-Holstein eV, Volume 19, 2008, p. 60.
- Tammo Luther: Volkstumsppolitik des Deutschen Reiches 1933–1938: The Germans Abroad in the Field of Tension Between Traditionalists and National Socialists . Franz Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2004, ISBN 3-515-08535-1 , p. 155.
- Henrik Skov Kristensen: Between Hitler and Home. Ethnic group leader Jens Möller. In: Democratic History. Yearbook for Schleswig-Holstein. Advisory Board for History in the Society for Politics and Education Schleswig-Holstein eV, Volume 19, 2008, p. 45.
- Henrik Skov Kristensen: Between Hitler and Home. Ethnic group leader Jens Möller. In: Democratic History. Yearbook for Schleswig-Holstein. Advisory Board for History in the Society for Politics and Education Schleswig-Holstein eV, Volume 19, 2008, p. 46.
- Henrik Skov Kristensen: Between Hitler and Home. Ethnic group leader Jens Möller. In: Democratic History. Yearbook for Schleswig-Holstein. Advisory Board for History in the Society for Politics and Education Schleswig-Holstein eV, Volume 19, 2008, p. 38.
- Henrik Skov Kristensen: Between Hitler and Home. Ethnic group leader Jens Möller. In: Democratic History. Yearbook for Schleswig-Holstein. Advisory Board for History in the Society for Politics and Education Schleswig-Holstein eV, Volume 19, 2008, p. 59.
- The virtual museum : biography Jens Møller .
- Hanns C. Jessen: Faarhus 1945-1949. Husum Druck, 1987, ISBN 3-88042-365-2 , p. 33.
- Schmidt married Christa Berger, the daughter of Gottlob Berger , the head of the SS main office (cf. Dieter Schlesak : Capesius, der Auschwitzapotheker. Dietz, Bonn 2006, ISBN 3-8012-0369-7 ).
- Milata believes it is most likely that some prisoners, on the instructions of the camp administration, killed Schmidt with axes. (See Paul Milata: Between Hitler, Stalin and Antonescu: Romanian Germans in the Waffen-SS. Böhlau Verlag, Cologne / Weimar 2007, ISBN 978-3-412-13806-6 , p. 342.)
- State Directorates for Special Tasks in the Independent State of Croatia were directly subordinate to the Prime Minister; the State Director could participate in the discussion of questions affecting him in the Council of Ministers. By order of January 24, 1942 (cf. Ordinance Gazette of the German Ethnic Group in the Independent State of Croatia of February 28, 1942) the ethnic group was granted two seats in the Croatian Parliament , which were taken by Altgayer and Ferdinand Gasteiger . (see documentation, footnote 4, p. 51E and p. 39E, note 36).
Petschauer writes on p. 103: “The facts should soon prove that the still young Lampeter (born 1919) only used the much older man as a figurehead. The numerous followers of Lampeter felt that their views, intentions and achievements were confirmed by the new development. ”
Frensing reads:“ SCHOBER [whose function was only decorative] ”. (see Chapters Option and "Locking" )
- Basch did not correspond to the image of the "unconditional fighter" used by the SS. Himmler's antipathy towards Basch was an open secret. (cf. Norbert Spannenberger : The People's League of Germans in Hungary 1938–1944 under Horthy and Hitler. Oldenbourg Verlag, 2005, ISBN 3-486-57728-X , p. 252.)
- Hofer reported to the official German immigration and return office (ADERSt) that his Völkischer Kampfring Südtirols (VKS) claimed political and organizational leadership , but this was not in the interests of the German office. On January 30, 1940, the successor organization of the ring, the "Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Optanten für Deutschland" (AdO), was founded by an instruction from the head of ADERSt, Wilhelm Luig , and was under their direct leadership. Peter Hofer achieved a partial revision of Luig's service instructions from Himmler, which recognized his role as a leading political force, but the AdO remained directly subordinate to the ADERSt without independent powers of representation. In April, despite Peter Hofer's efforts to ensure that the AdO also represented the resettled South Tyroleans in the Reich, the working group was limited to Italy in its area of work at an organizational meeting (cf.Andreas Titton: Archive VKS / AdO (Völkischer Kampfring Südtirol / Working Group of Optanten for Germany). South Tyrolean State Archives, Provincial Administration Autonomous Province Bozen - South Tyrol , Bozen 2007. S. V)
- Peter Hofer was protégé of the head of the VoMi, SS-Obergruppenführer Werner Lorenz . (cf. Gerald Steinacher : Alto Adige nel Terzo Reich: l'occupazione nazista nell'Italia settentrionale. Studienverlag GmbH, 2003, ISBN 3-7065-1914-3 , p. 35. and Michael Wedekind: National Socialist Occupation and Annexation Policy in Northern Italy 1943 to 1945: The operational zones "Alpine Foreland" and "Adriatic Coastal Land ". Walter de Gruyter Verlag, 2003, ISBN 3-486-83334-0 , p. 13)