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The Hindu deity Shiva in bisexual form as Ardhanarishvara

Hijra or Hijra is a term used in South Asia for transgender or intersex people in India , Pakistan and Bangladesh , some of whom are eunuchs of their own choosing . Hijras are officially recognized as the third gender in several South Asian countries , where they are viewed as neither entirely male nor female .

The term "hijra" is a Hindi - Urdu word, derived from the Semitic-Arabic root hjr * , meaning "break with something, leave, let down, cast out, emigrate, flee". The Indian use of the word hijra has traditionally been translated into English as eunuch (eunuch) or hermaphrodite ( hermaphrodite ), with "the irregularity of the male genitalia being at the center of the definition."

Hijra are also known as Aravani , Aruvani or Jagappa . In many languages ​​of India, especially outside of Northwest India, other terms such as " chhakka " are used. Hijras have been historically documented on the Indian subcontinent since antiquity, for example in the Kama Sutra (from 200 AD).

Many hijras live in well-defined and organized living and economic communities, led by a guru mother. The most important relationship in the hijra community is that of guru (master, teacher) and chela (student). A guru-mother has to take care of the material and spiritual needs of her students and has a right to loyalty and a part of her income.

These communities have been sustained over generations through the " adoption " of biologically male adolescents or children who have been rejected by their family of origin and others because of their feminine behavior and who flee to the hijras in order to be able to fully live their feminine gender identity or who living in dire poverty, sometimes after a period of homosexual prostitution . Many hijra work as sex workers for their survival.

However, only a few hijras are intersex from birth. Most were born physically male, but many have a female gender identity in the sense of transsexuality or other transgender forms. It is not uncommon for them to undergo a total castration called nirvana , often at a young age, in order to prevent further masculinization of their bodies. They live as women and some hijras gain a distinct feminization through such an intervention.

Linguistically, Hijras usually describe themselves as female, transsexual or transgender and dress accordingly. The conservative outside world often calls them eunuchs or "castrated men".

Since the late 20th century, some hijra activists and western non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have lobbied for the official recognition of the hijra as a kind of third gender or third gender identity, as neither male nor female.

In India, the Hijras were recognized as the third gender in 2009, and in 2011 also in Pakistan, where they were regionally known as Khusra . This made the Hijras the only officially recognized third gender in the world that year. In Bangladesh, Hijras were recognized in 2013 and have enjoyed preferential training since then. In India, all hijra, as well as transgender people, eunuchs and intersex people, were recognized as third sex by the Supreme Court in April 2014. In 2015, Nepal recognized the legal existence of a third gender and, like India, enables a corresponding gender entry in official documents; In addition to some Hijras, there are also Meti and Kothi (see also Divers and countries with a third gender entry ).


Hijras from Panscheel Park in New Delhi , 1994

The Urdu and Hindi word hijra ([ˈɦɪdʒɽaː]; also hijira , hijda , hijada , hijara , hijrah ) is generally understood in Urdu as derogatory, contemptuous, contemptuous, instead the term Khwaja Sara is used . Another term is khasuaa (खसुआ) or khusaraa (खुसरा). The synonym for hijra in Bengali is হিজড়া, hijra , hijla , hijre , hizra , or hizre . A whole series of names on the culturally and linguistically very diverse Indian subcontinent denote similar gender categories that can basically be considered synonyms, depending on regional cultural differences. In Odia , a hijra is called hinjida , hinjda or napunsaka , in Telugu as napunsakudu (నపుంసకుడు), kojja (కొజ్జ) or maada (మాడ), in Tamil Nadu as Thiru nangai ("mister woman"), Ali , aravanni , aravani , or aruvani , in Punjabi as khusra and jankha , in Sindhi as khadra , in Gujarati as pavaiyaa (પાવૈયા). In northern India, the goddess Bahuchara Mata is worshiped by Pavaiyaa (પાવૈયા). In southern India, the goddess Renuka is believed to have the power to change a person's gender. Followers born male in female clothing are known as Jogappa . They fulfill similar social roles as Hijra, such as B. Dancing and singing at birth ceremonies and weddings. The word kothi (or koti ) is also common in India, similar to the Kathoey of Thailand , although kothis are often differentiated from hijras . Kothis are viewed as feminine men or boys who take on the feminine role in sex with men, but they do not live in the kind of communities that the hijras do. Additionally, not all Kothis have taken initiation rites or gender- changing steps to become a hijra. Local equivalents are: durani ( Kolkata ), menaka ( Cochin ), meti (Nepal), and zenana (Pakistan).

"Hijra" has been and is in English as "eunuch" ( eunuch ) or "hermaphrodite" ( hermaphrodite translated), LGBT - historians and human rights activists , however, have already tried them as transgender classified. However, in a series of meetings of the Transgender Expert Committee of India's Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment between October 2013 and January 2014, Hijra and other trans activists demanded that the term “eunuch” (eng . eunuch ) is deleted from use in government documents because the Hijra community does not identify with this term.

Gender identity and sexuality

Hijra from Panscheel Park, New Delhi , 1994

The identities of the Hijra have no exact counterpart in the modern Western understanding of gender identity and sexual orientation , and represent a challenge to Western ideas. The connection to a Hijra community is almost inevitable for many transsexual women and girls as well as intersexually born, but it also has strongly religious traits. The hijra are not always to be equated with western trans women. More modern developments influenced by the West also mean that gender reassignment measures such as hormone therapies and operations are desired even for transsexual hijras who feel like women , although they are often difficult or impossible to access due to poverty; Transsexual Indian women from richer castes no longer necessarily join the Hijra community today, but instead, despite social rejection, have gender reassignments carried out according to Western models and live a normal life as women.

Transsexual Hijra (or Kothi?) At Chhath Festival, Strand Road, Kolkata, November 9, 2013

In India, some hijras are not defined by a particular sexual orientation, but rather by their general rejection of sexuality. Sexual energy is transformed into sacral ( holy ) forces. However, these notions can conflict with the practice that hijras often work as prostitutes. In addition, feminine men who take on the “receptive” role in sex with a man are often referred to as kothi (or a local equivalent). Kothis are usually distinguished from Hijras as having their own gender identity, they often dress as women and act in a feminine manner in public and use a feminine language in relation to themselves and each other.

The ordinary partner of hijras and Kothis are men who themselves as heterosexual consider as they take on the male role during sex. These male partners are often married, and any relationship or sex with Kothis or Hijras is usually kept secret from society. Some hijras enter into steadfast relationships with men and even marry, although these marriages are usually not recognized by law and religion. Hijras and Kothis often have a special name for male romantic or sexual partners, e.g. B. panthi in Bangladesh, giriya in Delhi or sridhar in Cochin . [28]

Castration (nirvana)

Although it is very often assumed that hijra mostly undergo ritual castration and penectomy or at least strive to do so in order to be fully accepted by their patron goddess Bahuchara Mata and thereby to be considered capable of an effective blessing or cursing of others, there were no actually performed ones genital operations have long been reliable sources. According to a health organization in Mumbai , The Humsafar Trust ( HST ), only 8 percent of the hijra who went to the organization's own clinic were ritually castrated ( nirwaan ). According to a 1983 study by the University of Delhi, however, the hijras still generally perform castrations frequently. Long-term research showed that 76 out of 100 interviewed Hijras were castrated.

Indian media reported several times on cases of children who allegedly by hijras kidnapped were to be subjected to later forced to undergo skastration, but this was in 2001 by the hijras themselves and according to the International Association of Lesbian and Gay ( International Lesbian and Gay Association official) denied .

P. Chattopadhayay-Dutt (1995) mentioned an investigation by the Delhi police that found nearly 20 percent of the hijras in the state capital were neutered in their childhood or adolescence. According to a study cited in The Times of India 2005, the 30,000-strong Hijra community in Delhi receives annually around 1,000 young people who are neutered in sometimes risky operations. Both Chattopadhayay-Dutt and the Times of India claimed that forced castration had also occurred.


Indian hijras around 1865

Religions and cults in which biologically male-born priests lived as women and underwent voluntary total castration are already known from antiquity , e . B. the so-called Galloi in the cult of Cybele . These ancient cults originally came from the region of the Middle East , Babylon , Sumer, etc.

In India the old Kama Sutra mentions female people of a third sex (" tritiya prakriti ")

In the 1650s, traveling Franciscans noticed the presence of "men and boys who dress like women" on the streets of Thatta , in modern day Pakistan. The presence of these people was seen as a sign of the city's depravity.

During the era of the British Raj ( British India , 1858-1947), authorities attempted to eradicate hijras, which they viewed as "offending public decency ." Anti-Hijra laws were later repealed; but a law forbidding castration, a central part of the hijra community, remained in place, though rarely enforced. The Hijra were referred to as "criminal tribes " in the Criminal Tribes Act of 1871, so they were required to be registered, closely monitored and stigmatized for a long time .

After independence, they were decriminalized in 1952 (= Denotified tribes (DNTs), also: Vimukta Jati ), but the centuries-old stigmatization persisted.

Social status and economic circumstances

Magical-religious rituals play a role in social cohesion. Kheda district in eastern Gujarat

Most of the hijras live on the fringes of society in a very low social status . The word "hijra" itself is sometimes used in a disparaging, derogatory way. Indian judge and writer Rajesh Talwar has written a book on the human rights violations against the Hijra community entitled: The Third Sex and Human Rights.

Traditionally, hijras earn their living by dancing and blessing at weddings, house initiations and after the birth of sons (so-called toli ceremonies). However, this source of money and recognition is less and less profitable and can hardly feed a Hijra community anymore, but it remains identity-creating. Few other employment opportunities are open to the hijras, and many get their income from extortion (forced payment through disruption of work or life, through demonstration and interference), begging ( dheengna ) or sex work ( raarha ) - some of which are in premodern Times registered employment of "eunuchs".

Violence against hijras, especially hijra sex workers, is often brutal and occurs in public spaces, police stations, prisons and in their own homes. As with transgender people in most of the world, they face extreme discrimination in terms of health, housing, education, employment, immigration, justice, and bureaucracy that they cannot classify into male or female gender categories.

Dancing Hijra (or Kothi?) At Chhath Festival, Strand Road, Kolkata November 9, 2013

In 2008, the prevalence of HIV among hijra sex workers in Larkana , Pakistan was 27.6%. The overall prevalence of HIV among the adult Pakistani population is estimated at 0.1%.

In October 2013, Pakistani Christians and Muslims (Shiites and Sunnis) pressured Imamia Colony landlords to evict transgender residents. " Khwaja Sira (= Hijra) are generally not threatened in Pakistan. But they live in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province because a" new Islam "is underway," said IA Rehman, director of the Pakistani Human Rights Commission.

In a study of the hijras in Bangladesh, participants reported that they were not allowed to seek medical treatment in the private doctor's offices and that they experienced abuse if they went to government hospitals.

Since 2006, hijras have been hired to escort Patna city tax officials to collect unpaid taxes and received a 4 percent stake in return.

Since India's Supreme Court re-criminalized homosexual sex on December 13, 2013, the physical, psychological and sexual violence against the transgender community by Indian police has risen sharply, and they do not investigate when sexual assaults against transgender people are reported.

On April 15, 2014, the Supreme Court of India ruled in a case by the National Legal Services Authority against the Union of India that transgender people should be treated as a third gender category or as a socially and economically "backward" class with a claim to proportional access and representation in education and work.

Hijra languages

There are different types of dialects and languages ​​spoken by the Hijra community in different parts of the country: The so-called " Hijra Farsi " is a transgender dialect - a mixture of Urdu, Hindi and Persian - found in northern India, spoken in Pakistan and Afghanistan ; and " Kothi Baashai " is spoken by the transgender community in Karnataka , Andhra, Orissa and parts of Tamil Nadu . "They even have sign languages ​​and typical mannerisms for communication. The special clapping is such."

In South Asian politics

A group of hijras in Bangladesh.

In 2013, transgender people in Pakistan were given the opportunity to vote for the first time. In Pakistan's general election, the first transsexual independent candidate for Sukkur was a 32-year-old hijra named Sanam Fakir. She said the hijra community was "more than dancers and beggars".

The governments of India (1994) and Pakistan (2009) recognized Hijras as the "third gender" and thus granted them the basic civil rights of every citizen. In India, hijras have since been able to identify themselves as "eunuch" ("E") on passports and certain government documents. However, this does not mean full equality; for example, to vote, citizens must identify as either male or female. There was also further discrimination on the part of the government: In the parliamentary elections of 2009 the Indian electoral committee rejected the candidacies of three hijras insofar as they did not identify as male or female.

In April 2014, Judge KS Radhakrishnan declared transgender to be the third gender in Indian law in a case filed by the National Legal Services Authority (Nalsa) against the Union of India and others. The judge said:

Seldom, our society realises or cares to realize the trauma, agony and pain which the members of Transgender community undergo, nor appreciates the innate feelings of the members of the Transgender community, especially of those whose mind and body disown their biological sex. Our society often ridicules and abuses the Transgender community and in public places like railway stations, bus stands, schools, workplaces, malls, theaters, hospitals, they are sidelined and treated as untouchables, forgetting the fact that the moral failure lies in the society's unwillingness to contain or embrace different gender identities and expressions, a mindset which we have to change.

Rarely does our society realize or care about the trauma, agony, and pain faced by members of the transgender community, nor does it acknowledge the innate feelings of members of the transgender community, especially those, their minds and bodies (sic!) reject their biological gender. Our society often mocks and abuses the transgender community and in public places such as train stations, bus stops, schools, workplaces, shopping malls, theaters, hospitals they are marginalized and treated as untouchables, forgetting the fact that the moral failure is that society is unwilling to embrace or include different gender identities and expressions, an attitude that we need to change.

Judge Radhakrishnan stressed that transgender people should be treated just like other minorities under the law by giving them access to jobs, health care and education. Interpreting the problem as one of human rights , he said, "These TGs, although numerically insignificant, are still human and therefore have every right to enjoy their human rights," and concluded:


  1. Hijras, Eunuchs , apart from binary gender, be treated as "third gender" for the purpose of safeguarding their rights under Part III of our Constitution and the laws made by the Parliament and the State Legislature.
  2. Transgender persons' right to decide their self-identified gender is also upheld and the Center and State Governments are directed to grant legal recognition of their gender identity such as male, female or as third gender.
  1. Hijras, eunuchs, beyond a binary gender order, are to be treated as "third gender" in order to protect their rights enacted by parliament and the state legislature, in accordance with Part III of our constitution.
  2. The right of transgender people to choose their self-identified gender is also confirmed, and the governments of the Center and member states are instructed to grant legal recognition of their gender identity as male, female or third gender. "
- Judge Radhakrishnan

A bill, which was supported by all political parties, was tabled in the Indian Parliament in August 2015 to give transgender people legal advantages to similarly protected communities as SC / STs (?) And to give them access to, in addition to protection from sexual harassment Schools and to get jobs in government (administration).


Many hijras practice some form of syncretism based on multiple religions; since they are neither clearly men nor women, they practice rituals for men and women. Hijras are usually followers of the mother goddess Bahuchara Mata , Shiva , or both.

Bahuchara Mata

Bahuchara Mata is a Hindu goddess about whom two stories exist, both of which are associated with transgender behavior. One story goes that she appeared in the avatar of a princess who castrated her husband for wanting to run into the woods and act like a woman instead of having sex with her. Another story tells that a man tried to rape her so she cursed him with impotence . When the man asked her forgiveness in order to break the curse , she only gave in after he agreed to go into the woods and act like a woman. The main temple of this goddess is in Gujarat ; it is therefore a place of pilgrimage for Hijras, who see Bahuchara Mata as their patroness.

Lord Shiva

One of the forms of Lord Shiva is an amalgamation with Parvati , where together they are Ardhanari , a god who is half Shiva and half Parvati. Ardhanari has a special meaning as the patron saint of those hijras who identify with gender ambiguity.

In the Ramayana

In some versions of the Ramayana , when Rama leaves Ayodhya to go into a 14-year exile, a multitude of his subjects follow him into the forest because of their worship of him. Rama soon notices this and gathers them around him to tell them not to mourn and that all "men and women" of his kingdom should return to their places in Ayodhya. Then Rama goes and has 14 years of adventure. When he returns to Ayodhya, he finds that the hijras, who are neither men nor women, have not moved from the place where he gave his speech. Impressed by their devotion, Rama granted the hijras the blessing of blessing people during auspicious occasions such as births and weddings. This blessing is the origin of the so-called " Badhai ", where Hijras sing, dance and bless.

In the Mahabharata

Indian transgender hijras or aravanis at the 18 day festival in Kuvagam , India.

The Mahabharata contains an episode in which Arjuna , a hero of the epic, is exiled. There he assumes the identity of a eunuch transvestite and performs rituals at weddings and births, which are performed today by Hijras.

In the Mahabharata, before the Kurukshetra War, Irevan (Irewan) sacrifices his lifeblood to the goddess Kali to ensure the victory of the Pandavas , and Kali agrees to grant him power. The night before the battle, Irevan expresses a desire to marry before he dies. No woman was willing to marry a man who would die in a few hours, so Arjuna marries him as "Brihinala". In South India the Hijras claim Iravan as their ancestor and call themselves "aravanis".

Every year in April and May, transgender Hijras or Aravanis celebrate a religious festival in and around the Aravani Temple for eighteen days. This temple is located in the village of Kuvagam in Taluk Ulundurpettai in the district of Viluppuram , Tamil Nadu . It is dedicated to the Hindu deity Koothandavar , who is identified with Prince Aravan. According to the Mahabharata , the prince was to be sacrificed by his family in order to avert impending defeat. He agreed, but wanted to spend the night before the sacrifice with a woman. Since no woman could be found who wanted to become a widow after one night, the god Krishna took the form of a woman and married Aravan. During the celebrations, the Hijras first act out the wedding and slip into the role of Krishna. They spend the night with a man of their choice and become "widows" in the sense of Aravan's sacrifice the next morning. They then mourn Aravan's death by breaking their bracelets and performing ritual dances with lamentations . An annual beauty contest is held as well as various health and HIV or AIDS seminars. Hijras from all over the country travel to this festival. A personal experience of the hijras at the festival is featured in the BBC Three documentary India's Ladyboys , and also on the National Geographic Channel television series Taboo .

In Islam

Indian hijras who identify as Muslims apparently also include aspects of Hinduism . Despite this syncretism, Reddy (2005) notes that a hijra does not practice Islam any differently than other Muslims and argues that its syncretism does not make them any less Muslim.

See also


  • Eva Fels: In search of the third gender. Promedia, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-85371-233-9 .
  • Eva Fels, Traude Pillai-Vetschera: Hidschras - the third gender of India . In: FrauenSolidarität. Issue No. 78 (4/2001), p. 18 f.
  • Kira Hall, Veronica O'Donovan: Shifting gender positions among Hindi-speaking hijras. In: Victoria Bergvall, Janet Bing, Alice Freed (Eds.): Rethinking Language and Gender Research: Theory and Praxis. Longman, London 1996, pp. 228-266.
  • Ruth Lor Malloy: Hijras: Who We Are by Meena Balaji and other Eunuchs as told to Ruth Lor Malloy. ruthlormalloy.com, eBook, 2009
  • Serena Nanda : Neither Man nor Woman - The Hijras of India. 2nd edition, Wadsworth, Belmont CA 1998, ISBN 0-534-50903-7 .
  • Renate Syed: Hijṛās. India's Third Gender, or, Why Hijṛās Are Not Transgender, but Cisgender. In: Gerhard Schreiber (Ed.): Transsexuality in Theology and Neuroscience. Results, controversies, perspectives = Transsexuality in theology and neuroscience: findings, controversies, and perspectives. De Gruyter, Berlin / Boston 2016, ISBN 978-3-11-044080-5 , pp. 233–244.
  • Satish K. Sharma: Hijras - the labeled deviants. Gian Publication House, New Delhi 2000, ISBN 81-212-0266-3 .
  • Fabrizio Ferrari: Divinity, tradition and prostitution among the Hijras. In: Trickster. No. 3 (English; online ( memento of December 18, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ) on trickster.lettere.unipd.it).
  • Jennifer Loh: "Borrowing" Religious Identifications: A Study of Religious Practices among the Hijras of India. In: SOAS. Volume 3, March 2011, pp. 50-67 (English; PDF on soas.ac.uk).


  • Between the lines by Thomas Wartmann (2005; DVD: 2007)
  • Middle Sexes HBO documentary (2005, with a part about modern Hijda)
  • Shabnam Mausi (2005; English)

Web links

Commons : Hijra  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b c Report (APA): India recognizes transgender people as third gender. In: The Guardian . April 15, 2014, accessed January 22, 2020.
  2. a b Susan M. Shaw, Nancy Staton Barbour et al. a. (Ed.): Women's Lives around the World: A Global Encyclopedia. Volume 3: Asia and the Pacific. Abc-Clio, 2018, ISBN 978-1-4408-4766-0 , p. 87 (English; page preview in the Google book search).
  3. Thomas Köllen: Sexual Orientation and Transgender Issues in Organizations: Global Perspectives on LGBT Workforce Diversity. Springer, 2016, p. 171 .
  4. Lynelle Seow: CultureShock! India. Marshall Cavendish International Asia Pte Ltd, 2017, p. 132 .
  5. Misty M. Ginicola, Cheri Smith, Joel M. Filmore: Affirmative Counseling with LGBTQI + People, online . Wiley & Sons, 2017, p. 189.
  6. Being Transgender: Thomas E. Bevan Ph.D .: What You Should Know, ABC-CLIO, p.70 , 2016
  7. 7 Countries Giving Transgender People Fundamental Rights the U.S. Still Won't . In: mic.com . Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  8. ^ Adil Mahmood: Hijras and Bangladesh: The creation of a third gender. ( Memento of July 5, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) In: Pandeia.eu. December 2, 2013, accessed January 22, 2020.
  9. Gayatri Reddy: With Respect to Sex: Negotiating Hijra Identity in South India ( English ). University of Chicago Press, 15 May 2010, ISBN 978-0-226-70754-9 , p. 243: “By and large, the Hindi / Urdu term hijra is used more often in the north of the country, whereas the Telugu term kojja is more specific to the state of Andhra Pradesh, of which Hyderabad is the capital. "
  10. Jump up ↑ Anitha Chettiar: Problems Faced by Hijras (Male to Female Transgenders) in Mumbai with Reference to Their Health and Harassment by the Police . In: International Journal of Social Science and Humanity . 5, No. 9, 2015. "The Urdu and Hindi word" hijra "may alternately be romanized as hijira, hijda, hijada, hijara, hijrah and is pronounced" heejra "or" heejda "."
  11. Hindi : हिजड़ा, Urdu : ہِجڑا, Bengali : হিজড়া, Kannada : ಹಿಜಡಾ, Telugu : హిజ్ర, Punjabi : ਹਿਜੜਾ, Odia : ହିନ୍ଜଡା. Also known as chhakka (Kannada, Bambaiya Hindi), ਖੁਸਰਾ khusra (Punjabi), kojja (Telugu), and ombodhu (Madras Tamil).
  12. hjr (main meanings): a) to break with, leave, forsake, renounce, emigrate, flee ". Lahzar Zanned: Root formation and polysemic organization. In: Mohammad T. Alhawary & Elabbas Benmamoun (ed.): Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics XVII-XVIII: papers from the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Annual Symposia on Arabic Linguistics. John Benjamin , 2005, p. 97.
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  15. Amiteshwar Ratra: Marriage and Family: In Diverse and Changing Scenario. Deep and Deep Publications, 2006, p. 61 , Deep and Deep Publications
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  18. a b Eva Fels & Traude Pillai-Vetschera: Hidschras - the third gender of India , in: FrauenSolidarität , Issue No. 78 (4/2001), p. 18 f.
  19. Between the Lines - India's third gender between mysticism, spirituality and prostitution. Film by the photographer Anita Khemka
  20. "None of the hijra narratives I recorded supports the widespread belief in India that hijras recruit their membership by making successful claims on intersex infants. Instead, it appears that most hijras join the community in their youth, either out of a desire to more fully express their feminine gender identity, under the pressure of poverty, because of ill treatment by parents and peers for feminine behavior, after a period of homosexual prostitution, or for a combination of these reasons. " RB Towle & LM Morgan: "Romancing the Transgender Native: Rethinking the Use of the 'Third Gender' Concept", in S. Stryker and S. Whittle (eds): Transgender Studies Reader , ( Routledge , 2006), p. 116.
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  38. ^ RB Towle and LM Morgan: "Romancing the Transgender Native: Rethinking the Use of the 'Third Gender' Concept", in: S. Stryker and S. Whittle: Transgender Studies Reader . Routledge: New York, London 2006
  39. ^ RB Towle and LM Morgan: "Romancing the Transgender Native: Rethinking the Use of the" Third Gender "Concept," in: S. Stryker and S. Whittle: Transgender Studies Reader . Routledge: New York, London 2006
  40. Serena Nanda: "Hijra and Sadhin", in: Constructing Sexualities . Ed. LaFont, S., New Jearsey: Pearson Education, 2003. Print.
  41. See e.g. E.g .: In Their Own Words: The Formulation of Sexual and Reproductive Health Behavior Among Young Men in Bangladesh. ( Memento of February 22, 2012 in the Internet Archive ), Shivananda Khan, Sharful Islam Khan and Paula E. Hollerbach, for the Catalyst Consortium.
  42. See, for example, various reports of Sonia Ajmeri 's marriage: z. B. 'Our relationship is sacred' , despardes.com
  43. ^ The Humsafar Trust. (HST) ( Memento from February 19, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) (English) - an Indian foundation , which focuses on numerous medical and legal aid projects in the LGBT spectrum.
  44. Wild crescendo. In: Der Spiegel No. 41, 1983, pp. 202-206
  45. "Eunuchs deny long-standing allegations that they kidnap and castrate boys, according to the International Lesbian and Gay Association." India stages Ms World for eunuchs. BBC, March 9, 2001
  46. ^ Purnima Chattopadhayay-Dutt: Loops and roots: the conflict between official and traditional family planning in India. South Asia Books, Columbia (Missouri) 1995, p. 249
  47. Shveta Bhagat: Eunuchs not always born but made. The Times of India, September 5, 2005
  48. Kama Sutra , Chapter IX, "Of the Auparishtaka or Mouth Congress". Text online (translation: Richard Burton, 1883).
  49. There are different interpretations of this passage, a. by Richard Burton in his English translation of the 1883 Kama Sutra, by George Artola ("The Transvestite in Sanskrit Story and Drama", in: Annals of Oriental Research (1975). 25: 56-68) or by Michael J. Sweet and Leonard Zwilling ("The First Medicalization: The Taxonomy and Etiology of Queerness in Classical Indian Medicine.") In: Journal of the History of Sexuality 3, 1993, p. 600
  50. ^ Donald Lach: Asia in the Making of Europe, Volume III: A Century of Advance. Book 2, South Asia . University of Chicago Press, 1998, ISBN 0-226-46697-3, (accessed December 21, 2017).
  51. ^ Laurence W. Preston, "A Right to Exist: Eunuchs and the State in Nineteenth-Century India.", Modern Asian Studies 21 (2), 1987, pp. 371-87
  52. Gayatri Reddy: Colonialism and Criminal Castes , With Respect to Sex: Negotiating Hijra Identity in South India , Ed .: University of Chicago Press, 2005, ISBN 0-226-70756-3 , p. 26.
  53. Amazon.com: Rajesh Talwar: Books, Biography, Blog, Audiobooks, Kindle . Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  54. Ravaging the Vulnerable: Abuses Against Persons at High Risk of HIV Infection in Bangladesh , Human Rights Watch , August 2003. Report online .
    See also: Peoples Union of Civil Liberties (Karnataka) Report on Human Rights Violations Against the Transgender Community ( February 2, 2007 memento on the Internet Archive ), published September 2003. Reported in Being a Eunuch , By Siddarth Narrain, in: Frontline , October 14, 2003.
  55. Shannon Minter & Christopher Daley, "Trans Realities: A Legal Needs Assessment of San Francisco's Transgender Communities", Archived copy . Archived from the original on July 28, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2009.
  56. Awareness about sexually transmitted infections among Hijra sex workers of Rawalpindi / Islamabad . In: Pakistan Journal of Public Health . 2012.  ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )@1@ 2Template: dead link / test.hsa.edu.pk
  57. ^ HIV risk in Karachi and Lahore, Pakistan: an emerging epidemic in injecting and commercial sex networks . 2007 (PDF).
  58. ^ Despite Gains, Pakistan's Transgender Community Under Attack . In: Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty , October 26, 2013. Retrieved February 16, 2014. 
  59. ^ Living on the Extreme Margin: Social Exclusion of the Transgender Population (Hijra) in Bangladesh . In: J Health Popul Nutr . 27, No. 4, 2009, pp. 441-51. doi : 10.3329 / jhpn.v27i4.3388 . PMID 19761079 . PMC 2928103 (free full text).
  60. Indian eunuchs help collect taxes , CNN via Internet Archive. November 9, 2006. Archived from the original on December 1, 2006. Retrieved on December 23, 2009. 
  61. Indian transgender activist resists molest [ation? by police officer, gets beaten up] , Gay Star News. Retrieved February 2, 2014. 
  62. ^ Supreme Court's Third Gender Status to Transgenders is a landmark . In: IANS . news.biharprabha.com. Retrieved April 15, 2014.
  63. Source: Gopi Shankar Madurai , National Queer Conference 2013, A. Shrikumar: No more under siege . In: The Hindu , October 18, 2013. 
  64. ^ The Many Genders of Old India . In: glreview.org . Retrieved June 17, 2016.
  65. Transgender Pakistanis join election fight for first time . In: BBC News , April 18, 2013. 
  66. ^ Corinne Pinfold: Pakistan: First trans woman in general election says the community is 'more than dancers and beggars' , PinkNews. February 26, 2013. Retrieved November 12, 2013. 
  67. ^ Politicians of the third gender: the "shemale" candidates of Pakistan . In: New Statesman . 
  68. Basim Usmani: Pakistan to register 'third sex' hijras . In: The Guardian , July 18, 2009. 
  69. ^ A b National Legal Services Authority ... Petitioner Versus Union of India and others ... Respondents. (Supreme Court of India, April 15, 2014): Text online .
  70. India court recognizes transgender people as third gender . In: BBC News , April 15, 2014. 
  71. Govt to bring policy for transgenders . In: Deccan Herald . Retrieved August 23, 2015.
  72. a b Vidya Venkat: From the shadows . In: The Hindu Group (Ed.): Frontline . 25, No. 4, February 16-29, 2008.
  73. ^ "Many, if not most, translations of Valmiki's Ramayana do not contain this reference." Joseph T. Bockrath, " Bhartia Hijro Ka Dharma : The Code of India's Hijra", Legal Studies Forum 83 (2003).
  74. a b Siddharth Narrain: In a twilight world . Archived from the original on October 21, 2006. In: The Hindu Group (Ed.): Frontline. 20, No. 21, 11.-24. October 2003.
  75. Serena Nanda: "Hijra and Sadhin". Constructing Sexualities. Ed. LaFont, S., New Jearsey: Pearson Education, 2003. Print.
  76. Gayatri Reddy: With Respect to Sex: Negotiating Hijra Identity in South India, Chicago: University of Chicago, (2005).