Cantonal School Schaffhausen
|Cantonal School Schaffhausen ("Kanti")|
|type of school||High school , technical middle school|
|management||Pasquale Comi (high school), Boris Bänziger (technical secondary school)|
The canton school Schaffhausen is a general secondary school in the canton of Schaffhausen and is located on the Emmersberg, near the old town of Schaffhausen . The school includes a high school diploma and a technical secondary school. The maturity school is a four-year short-term high school with three profiles (music-linguistic, scientific-mathematical and linguistic-ancient language). The three-year high school prepares students for the occupational fields of health / natural sciences, social affairs and pedagogy / communication.
In addition to normal lessons, life at the Schaffhausen Cantonal School is also shaped by a diverse school culture. This includes, among other things, the “Kantifest”, which only takes place every 4 years, the “Kantitheater”, the chamber choir and the last day of school for the final classes.
The canton school Schaffhausen goes back to a Latin school founded in the 16th century , from which a grammar school emerged in the 19th century, the actual forerunner of today's school. The campus of the Schaffhausen Cantonal School consists of several buildings that were built between 1902 and 2005.
The school today
Today the school includes the Matura school and the technical secondary school . The Matura school leads to the Matura and thus opens up access to all types of universities. The technical middle school leads to the higher technical schools, over a subsequent year of practical experience to the technical maturity and thus to the technical colleges or through a preparatory course to the pedagogical universities of Schaffhausen and Zurich .
The management of the canton school consists of the rector, the administrator, the head of the technical college and the vice-rectors for the three training profiles. The student body is institutionally represented in all school matters by the student organization. The teaching staff works with the school management through the student councils and their boards.
The canton school is closely networked with its social, political, economic and educational environment. The supervisory commission forms the interface to the cantonal education department and the canton. One of the supporting organizations is the Cantonal School Association, founded in 1992, which promotes selected school projects, organizes school-related and educational-related events and supports the school's interests in political votes. In particular, it is the holder of an ombudsman as an independent mediator in all school conflict situations.
As a short-term grammar school, the maturity school follows on from the second year of secondary school and comprises four school years, but there is also the option of joining the grammar school to the third year of secondary school. It is divided into three different profiles with the option of choosing major subjects:
- Music-linguistic profile (profile M): Ancient Greek , Italian, Spanish, artistic design or music with an instrument
- Scientific and mathematical profile (profile N): Applications of mathematics and physics, chemistry and biology or economics and law
- Linguistic-ancient language profile (profile S): Ancient Greek , English, Italian or Spanish
From the third school year onwards, the students also choose a supplementary subject (economics and law, philosophy, ancient history, applications of mathematics, artistic design, music with an instrument). From the fourth year of school, an interdisciplinary offer is compulsory as a cantonal elective. In addition, students have the option to choose a range of optional subjects, particularly languages and instrumental lessons.
The bilingual Matura in German and English and the Maturité bilingual in German and French can be acquired at the school. The bilingual German / English Matura can be acquired by students of the linguistic-ancient language profile. Here part of the teaching takes place in immersion classes , namely in the subjects of mathematics, physics and history. The possibility of a bilingual Maturité is basically open to all students. It is linked to a year-long stay in Vaud during the third year of school .
There is a support program for sport and culture for students who are particularly talented in sport or music. It offers talented young people a school framework that allows them to combine competitive sport and musical excellence with their school education. The support options include partial exemption from lessons, support lessons or an extension of school time.
Technical middle school
In 2007, the former secondary school was transferred to today's technical secondary school. This follows on from the third year of secondary school and prepares students for the three occupational fields of health / natural sciences, social affairs and education / communication. With the acquisition of the technical secondary school certificate and the specialist maturity, it leads to the technical colleges and thus to professions in technology and natural science (specialist maturity in natural sciences) in nursing, physiotherapy, nutritional advice, occupational therapy or as a midwife (specialist diploma in health), as a social worker, social pedagogue or psychologist (specialist maturity Social issues) and journalism or organizational communication (communication diploma). The technical secondary school certificate in one of the three professional fields also opens the way to the University of Education Schaffhausen and Zurich and thus to training as a primary school teacher.
As a general school, the Fachmittelschule essentially teaches the same subjects as the Matura school. These are taught by the same teachers at the Schaffhausen Cantonal School. Depending on the professional field, however, different priorities are set:
- Health / Natural Sciences: Natural science subjects
- Social: social sciences as well as economics and law
- Pedagogy / communication: musical subjects as well as communication and media
There is also the subject of psychology for all students. Lessons in a natural science are also compulsory in all three school years. A special feature of the teaching at the Fachmittelschule is the extracurricular internship, which contributes to a stronger practical relevance of the school education. It lasts three weeks and is carried out in the second school year.
Special forms of teaching
In addition to conventional forms of instruction , a range of special forms of instruction is practiced at the Schaffhausen Cantonal School, which serve to deepen the subject, provide individualized support, practice special skills and promote social cohesion.
- Half-class lessons or block lessons in individual subjects
- 1st grades: school relocation
- 2nd grade: three-week language stay in France or England
- 3rd grade: project week, business week and technology week
- All classes: snow sports camps in Valbella and S-chanf
The school library serves as an information center for pupils and teachers and also as a popular place to stay and work in between hours. Individual and group workstations are available in the library, as well as PCs with Internet access, printers and copiers. The library holdings include around 25,000 media: fiction, non-fiction, teaching aids, reference works, comics and audio books, as well as magazines, DVDs and audio media. Another 25,000 media can be found in the specialist rooms.
The IT working group (AGI) is responsible for the procurement and maintenance of the IT infrastructure at the Schaffhausen Cantonal School. This includes, for example, laptop carts, school-wide WLAN and technical teaching aids.
A multi-purpose hall is located in the supplementary building, which was inaugurated in 2005. During the school week it serves as a cafeteria, but the hall is also used for meetings, theater performances and concerts and offers space for a maximum of 230 people.
In the summer of 2012, a day nursery was opened at the canton school. In cooperation with a care facility already established in Schaffhausen, the day care center “Muggäschnapper”, it offers child care close to the workplace.
History of the founding of the first canteen
In 1996 a building shed from the construction site of the N4 bridge (Nationalstrasse 4 / Grünau-Flurlingen ZH) was taken over. The former N4 building shed was placed on the former site of the balloon gym and was used as the first canteen. At first it was taken over by the representatives of the Cantonal School Association and the school management, since the "IG Pro Mensa" (a school association) lacked the legal basis until then. The goal of the association was to offer the students cheap and suitable food.
The Baubaracken-Mensa fulfilled its purpose, but quickly reached its limits due to a lack of space. That is why Urs Saxer and two of his business classes started the project “Operational Cafeteria Concept”. In four groups, market and product goals were determined and existing canteens analyzed, as well as furnishing and design concepts designed. The budget was also calculated and possible suppliers for the catering were contacted and the results were presented to the bank consortium and the Kantiverein.
Opening March 1, 1997
Thanks to the great commitment of the school classes and Urs Saxers, the cafeteria was officially opened and used on March 1, 1997, after nine months of construction, during which the former barrack was transformed into a functional canteen. Not all problems were solved, and in 1998 the Kantimensa was in the red: It wanted to compensate for the large loss of around CHF 44,000 with a sponsored run.
The barracks cafeteria was not as satisfactory as hoped and had too few visitors. Since another school building was planned at the same time, a claim was made to build a new, improved cafeteria in this building.
Canteen from 2005
After 2005, the cafeteria was in the supplementary building and there was no more loss. The "Impulse Foundation" has also been a member and supporter of the cafeteria in the Schaffhausen Cantonal School since 2005. In 2015 the kitchen of the Kantimensa was remodeled.
Up to 320 meals are prepared daily. Mostly fresh products are used, industrial semi-finished and finished products are dispensed with, the bread is freshly baked in the cafeteria.
Most of the cafeteria employees get their work done with the help of the "Impulse Foundation". As part of their social and professional work integration, up to 15 people can find a job appropriate to their skills and possibilities in the modern large kitchen and can thus train and expand their professional and social skills. They are supported by trained catering professionals as well as individually through individual or group coaching within the foundation's wide range of funding.
Based on the creation of a temporary job site for the unemployed in 1983, the “Impulse Foundation - FIT FOR JOBS” under private law was established at the end of 1997. The foundation offers jobs that focus on the existing skills and performance of the participants. It attaches importance to the promotion and maintenance of professional qualifications. A professional team of professionals works with the participants.
In addition to teaching in the narrower sense, school life at the Schaffhausen Cantonal School is shaped by numerous other activities and occasions that contribute to a lively school culture.
The origins of the so-called «Kantifestes» go back to the 100th anniversary of the Schaffhausen Cantonal School in 1951. At that time Shakespeare's Midsummer Night 's Dream was performed in the large hall of the Hotel Schweizerhof . During the celebrations, particular attention was paid to the participation of the students. This also applied to the high school graduation ball held five years later, on September 28, 1956: Under the direction of high school graduates, corridors of the schoolhouse and a number of classrooms were "enchanted" in a "fairytale land", a student dance orchestra played and it became one of A prepared buffet is offered to the students. In the annual report of the Schaffhausen Cantonal School for the school year 1956/57 it says about this festival:
“To ensure that such a party does not become a mere routine but an unforgettable experience every time, it must not be held too often. The idea of this year's high school graduate also seems to be correct to us that it should take place every five years so that every student who goes through the cantonal school experiences it once. "
This laid down the elements of the «Kantifestes», which are still essential to this day and which took place for the first time in its current form in 1967: the multi-year cycle, the design of the rooms by the students, a rich culinary offer and a varied entertainment program. Decorated rooms from the Kantifest 2012, shortly before the start of the festival:
A drama course has been offered as an optional subject at the canton school for several decades, and since 1991 the participants have performed a play from the well-known theater literature every year. The performances take place in the multi-purpose hall of the supplementary building. In 2016 came the play of Hercules and the stable of Augia. A satire on a useless hero (based on the radio play Hercules and the Stable of Augias by Friedrich Dürrenmatt ) for performance.
The music outside of the regular lessons has a long tradition and a high priority at the school. The chamber choir was founded in 1955 by Edwin Villiger. In addition to its own concert and stage productions, the choir's repertoire includes trips abroad and regular appearances at the Schaffhausen Bach Festival. In 1998 eight students also formed the first vocal ensemble . Since 2002 the vocal ensemble has been made up of mixed voices, i.e. female and male voices, and has developed its own programs. The trumpet ensemble (wind ensemble) was founded thirty years ago. The aim was and is to offer the trumpet and horn students an opportunity to work out the literature written and arranged for it and to perform it at the festivals and music events of the canton school.
UNESCO Associated School
The school is a UNESCO -associated school, it is committed to the idea of international understanding and cooperation. These principles of UNESCO, anchored in the mission statement of the school, are put into concrete terms by an active group of students and teachers. Since 2000 there has been a contact with the Josef Haltrich-Gymnasium in the Romanian city of Sighișoara / Schässburg; Groups from the Haltrich high school and the canton school in Schaffhausen visit each other alternately every year. Students as well as the accompanying teachers get to know the lessons at their partner school and everyday life in their host family; Excursions give them an insight into the current political, social and economic situation in their host country.
The school is in regular contact with the other Unesco-associated schools in Switzerland. In 2008 it was recognized as being particularly active among the Unesco-associated schools.
The school has a long tradition of student associations . They emerged from the student associations and high school associations that emerged at the beginning of the 19th century . The Scaphusia was founded in 1858 by Hermann Freuler as the fourth school association in Switzerland . Their motto is “litteris et amicitiae”. The connection colors are blue-white-blue. When Scaphusia is a non-abstinent connection, even a beer-comment applies to the. The Munot connection was founded in 1908 as part of the abstinence movement that began in the mid-19th century .
Latin school and grammar school (16th to 18th centuries)
The origins of the school go back to a school in the Allerheiligen monastery that probably existed as early as the High Middle Ages . After the abolition of the monastery in the course of the Reformation , the city of Schaffhausen founded a Latin school in 1525 with Latin as the main subject and the language of instruction. In addition to reading, writing and arithmetic, the students learned Greek and Hebrew as other languages. In this way, a linguistic and philosophical training was conveyed on the basis of Greco-Roman antiquity in the sense of the Renaissance schools widespread across Europe. Prospective pastors, but also laypeople who would later take on a legal office, were prepared here for the subsequent university studies. In 1626 the Latin school became a six-year school, which was now called a grammar school - a name that began to establish itself for this type of school in general from the time of the Reformation. However, since the grammar school was apparently insufficient as preparation for a subsequent course of study, a further training level was created in 1685 with the establishment of the Collegium Humanitatis, which was based on the content of the university's basic studies. For two additional years, in addition to the ancient languages, the subjects of logic, metaphysics, theology, morals, mathematics and physics were taught. The training at the Collegium should also shorten the subsequent studies in the universities, which are often far away. In Switzerland there was only the university, founded in Basel in 1460, until the 19th century, but since the Reformation there have been higher educational institutions for pastors in Zurich and some other cities.
Foundation of the canton school (1851)
The socio-political upbringing of pupils and the secularization of the educational system demanded by the thinkers of the Enlightenment led to a fundamental reorientation in education in parts of Western and Central Europe as early as the second half of the 18th century. Under the influence of the French Revolution and in the 19th century liberalism and nationalism , such ideas were gradually implemented in the school system. At the same time, class privileges were abolished, and constitutions restricted the influence of the church. At the same time, due to the onset of industrialization, new requirements for training in scientific, technical and economic terms developed. State education policy increasingly took all these changes into account.
In a first step, this was shown by the fact that in many high schools in Switzerland the material program had been revised since the second half of the 18th century. In Schaffhausen, from 1771 onwards, classes were no longer based on a strictly humanistic canon of subjects: the newly introduced subjects of history and natural sciences were taught in German at the college, and a short time later the grammar school also added some German, history and geography lessons to the timetable.
The Europe-wide expansion of revolutionary France led to the dissolution of the confederation of the old Confederation . The formation of the Helvetic Republic in 1798 under French rule brought about further changes in the Schaffhausen school system. In 1799 a French school was founded, which, due to its great success, was merged with the newly organized grammar school in 1805. Here the basis for the division of the grammar school into a humanistic and a realistic department was laid. However, only the humanistic grammar school education, to which the Collegium Humanitatis continued until the school reform of 1850, should lead to university studies. In the realistic department, basic training was provided for professions in craft and trade; the focus here was on modern languages and natural sciences. Initially, the number of hours of 28 weekly lessons in the humanistic department was very different from just 17 lessons in the realistic department, but this inequality was remedied in the course of a reform of 1827. At the same time, teaching in mathematics and science was expanded in both departments.
The regeneration period (1830–1848) created further prerequisites for reforms in the school system: “People's education as people's liberation” was the motto in the regenerated, that is, liberal cantons, to which Schaffhausen belonged. That is why the first seminars as teacher training centers were set up in Schaffhausen as early as 1827.
The modern Swiss federal state was founded in 1848. As a result, the political and economic upswing in Switzerland intensified. New elites formed in society, business and politics, which pushed further innovations in the education system. With the cantonal school law of 1850, the Schaffhausen-based people laid the foundations for educational policy that were to determine their school system from then on. The elementary school, which has been compulsory since 1827 , was expanded to five years of teaching and the secondary schools were introduced across the canton. The latter should have a dual function, on the one hand as higher basic education, to prepare for professional life, and on the other hand, in the sense of a Progymnasium, lead to the transition to the Gymnasium in two school years, namely via an obligatory entrance examination. With this, the short-term grammar school had prevailed with the so-called broken course. One reason for this decision was not to disadvantage the rural students by introducing a long-term high school.
The grammar school, as the school continued to be called, now legally became the "cantonal institution"; the name "Kanti", which is used from now on, and which is derived from it, did not gain acceptance until the beginning of the 20th century in connection with the newly built school building on the Emmersberg. At the same time, the school was also restructured: into a four-year lower grammar school with a realistic and a humanistic department and then a two-year upper grammar school that continued the humanistic department. The discussion about the weighting of general education and usefulness in the design of the lesson table was carried out with great vehemence, as the following statement by the classical philologist and then vice-director of the grammar school, Dr. Albert Ott, illustrated, who defended the focus on the classical humanistic ideal of education, otherwise the danger threatens that «(...) already in the tender youth the germ of a mean and low conception of the destiny of the human being (would) ; the boy is arbitrarily led by the material direction of his upbringing to the idea that everything that does not have an immediate practical use is worthless. " In the end, however, language teaching in both departments lost weight in favor of expanding mathematics and natural sciences. The training in the realistic department proved to be insufficient preparation for the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) founded in 1855, especially in an intercantonal comparison , which is why the training period was ultimately extended by half a year.
Design of the canton school
The further development of the canton school was also influenced by socio-political and economic changes. It was also caught in the tension between the federal and cantonal authorities.
From 1851 gymnastics was one of the compulsory subjects at the new lower grammar school , which had already been offered as voluntary "physical exercise" in 1835 on the initiative of a grammar school teacher at the time. In 1866, thanks to the construction of a gym, continuous teaching became possible. The gymnastics lessons were gender-segregated from the beginning, for the boys it was designed as a preliminary military lesson with a view to the later recruit school through a corresponding federal decree within the framework of the new military legislation from 1874 until well into the 20th century : performance and increase in performance determined the lessons. Only with the social change from the 1970s onwards did a new orientation take place.
The revision of the Federal Constitution of 1874 established an expansion of federal competences in the field of education and in 1880 led to the first Matura Recognition Ordinance (MAV) . The basis of this regulation was the new constitutional mandate to the federal government to regulate the admission to medical studies. This also meant influencing the grammar school course itself, where the prerequisites for admission had to be created. This federal regulation regarding medical studies soon developed into the legal basis for grammar schools in general, as the universities began to require the Matura certificates based on the MAV as certificates of admission not only for medical but for all their faculties. The MAV 1880 fundamentally strengthened the humanistic training course for the last time, as it made a qualification in the languages Latin and Greek a condition for studying medicine - such a high school diploma was recognized by the universities as a certificate of admission, while the graduates of the realistic department demonstrate sufficient knowledge of Latin and then had to take an admission test; conversely, the “humanists” were required to provide evidence of sufficient knowledge of physics and descriptive geometry in order to be accepted at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) , which is why these subjects were integrated into the new curriculum. In 1922/23, after a few intermediate steps, the duration of the two training courses was aligned with one another and set at five and a half years by the government council of the canton of Schaffhausen.
From the beginning of the 20th century, the ideas of so-called reform pedagogy were discussed in many parts of Europe; These ideas were also dealt with in the Schaffhausen school system. Basically, it was about a changed educational image, which focused on action-oriented teaching and independent learning and research by the students. The demand of reform pedagogy for so-called “work schools” was only implemented in a few areas at the Schaffhausen Cantonal School, for example through the introduction of manual labor, internships in physics and natural science subjects.
With the subsequent MAV revisions, the ancient languages increasingly lost their weight in high schools. In connection with the increasing orientation of the school to the needs of the economy, they led to a strengthening first of the mathematics and natural science education and then the modern language and economic subjects.
The next MAV revision in 1925 compared the three newly defined high school qualifications as Matura types A (with Greek and Latin), B (with Latin and modern foreign languages) and C (mathematics, natural sciences and now more emphasis on modern foreign languages) as practically equivalent. From now on, the “realists” were admitted to all university courses without examinations, provided they had successfully completed an additional Latin course.
The MAV brought an expansion in 1972 by creating two new possible maturity courses: In addition to the modern language type D, type E, which could be completed with a business and trade maturity examination; Type E was introduced in Schaffhausen from the 1993/94 school year.
The cantonal school law of 1981 led to the shortening of secondary school education by six months to five years, as a uniform 6th grade transfer regulation was introduced for admission to lower secondary level, instead of the previous alternative options of transferring from the fifth or sixth grade of elementary school. The broken educational path continued to exist, although the teachers at the cantonal school had campaigned for the uninterrupted training variant, i.e. direct transfer to grammar school after elementary school. In 1994, the canton parliament decided to reduce the duration of the training by another year to a new four years, mainly in order to bring the start of studies in line with the European average. The fact that savings could also be made as a result also contributed to this decision.
The Matura Recognition Regulations (MAR) from 1995, implemented at the Schaffhausen Cantonal School from the 1997/98 school year, once again fundamentally changed the grammar school training program and laid down the structures that were currently in force. As an agreement between the Swiss Conference of Cantonal Directors of Education (EDK) and the Federal Department of Home Affairs (EDI) , the previously valid orientation of the MAV to federal medical legislation was abandoned. Instead, a standardized Matura with binding minimum requirements was created, which opens up access to the universities and the ETH for all graduates.
School development continued to be an issue: evaluation projects at the federal level, such as the EVAMAR project, examined the experiences of the newly designed secondary schools in 1995/97, the EDK developed new strategies towards national educational standards, which were also included in the partial revision of MAR 2007 , e.g. B. in the form of promoting interdisciplinary work and computer science. On the part of the economy, too, clear claims are still being formulated with regard to prior education for natural, engineering and computer science. Under the title “Kanti 2015”, the Schaffhausen Cantonal School has taken up and developed further needs and scope for action. Since the 2011/2012 school year, the first interdisciplinary courses can be selected from a wide range.
Pedagogical training course at the canton school
The training to become a teacher at primary level or as a kindergarten teacher took place temporarily as an integrated training course in the cantonal school.
The first teachers' seminar was founded in the city of Schaffhausen in 1826, connected to the so-called "model school", which was open to poor children and was intended to serve as a training school for prospective teachers. A course was offered for 16 seminarians each, each lasting four months, spread over two years. In 1851 the seminar was closed again after long-term criticism of the quality of the training, and future teachers in Schaffhausen had to be trained in other cantons. Only in 1896/97 was a seminar department attached to the grammar school due to the worsening teacher shortage in the canton. Initially, the future teachers first visited the realistic department of the canton school for two years before they could enter the seminar. This qualification also entitles them to study at various university faculties. The training course was redesigned in 1957: the one-year senior seminar followed the sub-seminar and focused on the actual vocational training. Successful completion of both levels became a prerequisite for teaching on the one hand and a requirement for admission to university studies on the other. Only after further reforms did the undergraduate students receive a Matura certificate from 1985, which entitles them to study at all non-medical faculties of the universities. The senior seminar was extended in two steps to two years and renamed the primary school seminar in 1995.
In 1971 the kindergarten teachers' seminar, which was renamed the kindergarten seminar in 1995, was founded as a new training branch within the canton school. Together with the primary school seminar, it formed the so-called Pedagogical Seminar Schaffhausen (PSS) from 1995, still as a department of the cantonal school. The aim of this reform was to develop the seminar department in the direction of a university of applied sciences, as was finally made binding by the reorganization of pedagogical training throughout Switzerland by the Swiss Conference of Cantonal Education Directors (EDK) in 1999: training to become a teacher in the future, as in other European countries, will be offered at the tertiary level. In 2003, classes began at the Schaffhausen University of Education (PHSH), which is legally separate from the cantonal school . Due to its comparatively small size, the PHSH has entered into a partnership agreement with the Zurich University of Education . Teachers for kindergarten and primary school are trained in three-year courses. The course has a modular structure analogous to the other university courses.
From the diploma middle school (DMS) to the technical middle school (FMS)
Since the 1950s, the possibility of an additional branch of training was discussed, which should close the gap between secondary school leaving certificate and demanding vocational training , which also require the minimum age of 18 years, with a solid general education and preparation for this. The main focus was on young women who wanted to choose such a career in the social, paramedical or nursing field. As part of the partial revision of the School Act of 1969, the Diplommittelschule (DMS) was finally created, which lasted three years, offered a very broad system of elections for the students, included an extracurricular internship and was completed with a diploma. The school started in 1975 with 46 students and three students. Right from the start, the lessons were given by the teachers of the cantonal school, and the headmaster is a member of the rectorate committee of the cantonal school. Since 1989, the diploma has been recognized intercantonally. In 2007 the diploma middle school was redesigned to today's technical middle school in order to give the graduates access to the newly created technical colleges . Parallel to the restructuring of the grammar schools through the Matura Certificate Recognition Regulations (MAR) from 1997 into training profiles, different subject combinations of the diploma schools or the later technical high schools were defined on the basis of different occupational fields. The training concludes with a thesis that is based on the requirement criteria of the Matura thesis .
Until the 19th century, Latin schools and grammar schools were mainly open to the sons of the urban upper class. This did not change fundamentally until the middle of the 19th century: The composition of the student body at the canton school founded in 1851 and the development of their number depended mainly on the following factors: population growth in general, the opening up to other sections of the population in the course of the 19th century and the admission of girls from the end of the 19th century. Since the middle of the 19th century the number of pupils has been steadily increasing - by 1910 it had more than doubled due to the first-mentioned factors: 232 pupils attended the canton school at that time. The political and educational innovations from 1848 onwards led to the school opening up to all classes of the population. The catchment area of the grammar school was extended to the entire canton area and also to the neighboring landscapes of the canton of Zurich and the canton of Thurgau . In 1851 ten free places were created for pupils with poor parents, who thus did not have to pay school fees and could acquire a scholarship . The new cantonal constitution of 1876 finally stipulated that teaching at all schools in the canton of Schaffhausen must from now on be free of charge. In addition, a Konvikt for external students, which existed until 1916, was opened in 1860 to make it easier for students from the rural communities to gain access to high school education.
The canton school also owed the growth in the 20th century to the increasing proportion of girls, who in 1929/30 made up almost a third of the student body (70 students, 167 students). Until 1897, the canton school was only open to boys. The discussion about the question of a possible co-education was triggered by a father's application for admission to the seminar department for his daughter. After lengthy discussions, the request was granted. At the same time, all sections of the school were made accessible to the girls in 1898. More and more girls subsequently chose this educational path, after the introduction of the Diplommittelschule (DMS) they gradually formed the majority at the school. The figures for the 1979/80 school year are an example: 560 boys, 591 girls, 145 of them DMS and 19 kindergarten seminar students.
After the Second World War , the birth rate rose again markedly from the mid-1960s to the “ pill break ”, which can be clearly seen in the growing number of schoolchildren from the late 1950s to the late 1970s. The possibility of actively controllable family planning and the change in awareness promoted by the equality movement opened up new professional career prospects for the young women, which certainly contributed to the positive development of the number of female students. The increasing number of high school graduates during this time was also supported by the uninterrupted economic growth for almost 30 years , which offered appropriate positions for well-trained workers.
The decline that can be ascertained after 2000 is partly due to the reduction in middle school duration from five to four years, and partly to the outsourcing of primary teacher and kindergarten training from the cantonal school.
In the 19th century, fewer than 20 teachers were teaching at the school; their number grew with the increasing number of students: in 1949/50 there were 29, thirty years later (1979/80). As a result of the reduction in grammar school education by one year from 1995, the number of apprenticeship positions fell. There have been female teachers at the cantonal school since the mid-1950s, initially as part-time teachers who only taught a few lessons at the school on a part-time basis, and as non-elected, so-called auxiliary teachers. For the first time in the 1967/68 school year two women were employed as main teachers. Since the partial revision of the School Act of 1969, which abolished female teacher celibacy , married women have also been able to become elected main teachers.
Right from the start, the canton school recognized two different forms of employment. On the one hand, there were and are the elected or main teachers, legally until 2005 in the official status that had developed for teachers in the 19th century. On the other hand, teachers were and are also employed in a non-elected status. From the middle of the 20th century onwards, the latter account for around half of all teaching staff and are referred to as assistant teachers or lecturers. They increase the school management's room for maneuver in the event of fluctuations in workload. The teaching staff association was founded in 2000 with the aim of improving the situation and integration of teaching staff at the canton school. With the new Personnel Act of 2005, the civil servant status for grammar school teachers was abolished, since then there has been a legal distinction between permanent main teachers and lecturers. The difference between the two employment relationships concerns the notice periods, but no longer affects wages. Their specifications do not differ either. With the new Personnel Act, the school management was also granted a higher degree of autonomy in personnel matters.
The school system has been under the control of the state since the time of the Reformation, which however primarily saw itself as a supervisory authority and did not feel responsible for the financing. The school could only be maintained thanks to voluntary foundations from the citizens. The salaries of the teachers were correspondingly modest, they were usually not fully employed and mostly taught at the gymnasium and college at the same time, and the schools were dependent on part-time theologians, doctors, etc.
In connection with the school reforms at the beginning of the 19th century and the associated expansion of the range of subjects, the requirements for the qualification of teachers also changed. Since the reform of 1827, at least one of the main teaching positions could no longer be taken over by the holders of a pastor's position; the teachers should be able to demonstrate specialist training. However, the financing of the school and the teachers remained unsatisfactory, which led to a constant change of teachers.
With the Education Act of 1850, the canton took over responsibility for the reorganized grammar school and was thus also responsible for its financing. However, this did not improve the salary situation, and a sustained change of teachers was still accepted. By employing German teachers, the authorities tried to circumvent the teachers' demands for appropriate wages with some success up until the 1860s. A more profound improvement was only created with the Salaries Act and a corresponding decree of 1943, in which wages were raised to the level of cantonal school teachers in structurally comparable cantons. Such salary revisions in the first half of the 20th century made it possible for teachers to rise to the middle class.
From 2006 the wage situation has changed fundamentally again. Since then, the canton school teachers, like all civil servants in the canton of Schaffhausen, have been subject to a new personnel law and are paid according to a new wage system. This system change soon led to a deterioration in real wages compared to the previous system and significantly increased the wage differences between long-term and newly employed state employees, also with regard to the expected living wage. Together with the representation of the entire cantonal teaching profession and the public staff associations, the cantonal school teachers founded the committee “For a fair wage system with a future” in order to put this development up for public discussion and to slow it down.
The buildings on the front Emmersberg that make up the Schaffhausen Cantonal School today were built between 1902 and 2005, i.e. over a period of over 100 years. They are (in chronological order)
- the canton school building from 1902 (Building B)
- the old gym from 1915 (building D)
- the conveyor extensions from 1967 (school building: building C; gym: building E)
- the triple gym from 1995 (not on the site, building F)
- the connecting wing from 1999 (Building A)
- the new building of the diploma middle school from 2005 (building G).
Probably the oldest building that housed a forerunner of the canton school was in a former school building on the Kirchhofplatz, which is now used as a car park . It housed a Latin school run by Magister Ludwig Oechslin . Due to the poor condition of the building, a new building was erected in 1628 in the Marstall (today at the corner of Stadthausgasse and Safrangasse). The grammar school was located there until 1795. This building was also in very poor condition at the end of the 18th century, and there was even a risk of collapse. Therefore, on January 7, 1795, the Grand Council and the Small Council decided to move the school to an orphanage built by Christoph Jezler , but empty. The inauguration took place on October 26, 1795, it is today's Rheinschulhaus.
For about half a century, the new school building met the requirements. But as early as the 1860s, there were complaints about noise emissions and foul-smelling fumes, and the interior design could no longer keep up with developments. When, in the middle of the decade, when the waterworks were built, the school moved to an industrial area, the situation became untenable.
Canton school building from 1902 ("old building", today referred to as building B)
But it was not until more than 30 years later, on April 29, 1898 and May 10, 1898, that the Great City Council or the Great Council decided that a plot of land on the Emmersberg that had already been bought by the city was available as an area for a new high school building was asked. Due to the definitive construction program, an architectural competition was announced with a total prize money of CHF 4,000. Four of the 59 projects submitted were awarded. The winning project was that of the architect Heinrich Meili-Wapf (1860–1927) from Lucerne and was implemented after a few modifications. The cost of the definitive project was CHF 600,000 including furniture. Construction work began at the beginning of May, erection was finished in November, and the schoolhouse was occupied on December 6, 1902.
The area for the new building comprised 5400 m 2 , of which 1100 m 2 fell on the building; In addition, a 400–500 m 2 school garden was set up.
The building is approx. 30 meters above the old town of Schaffhausen , the east-facing, representative main facade is visible from far around. The style of the building is based on the German Renaissance . The layout of the school building is L-shaped, it comprises four floors, plus a basement and an attic. The two legs are designed as head structures, at both ends there are sloping roofs lying across the main roof, each equipped with distinctive stepped gables and hatches . There is also a bay window on the west facade facing the city .
The main entrance is on the north facade, above is the two-storey auditorium (area approx. 170 m 2 ). The base of the building is made of granite and, like on the first floor, arched windows are let into it. On the other hand, rectangular windows are inserted on the second and third main floors.
The building comprised a total of 16 classrooms, the largest of which could accommodate 54 students. Special emphasis was placed on the natural science subjects in the spatial program. Several rooms have been specially designed to meet the requirements of physics and chemistry lessons, which are only slowly becoming established in the canon of subjects. School laboratories were also available for both disciplines . The schoolhouse was designed in such a way that it would cover the space requirements for a longer period of time. As a result, not all rooms were used for teaching purposes at the time of commissioning. For example, there was a laboratory for food tests on the first floor, while the only X-ray machine in the canton of Schaffhausen was set up in a room specially reserved for this on the ground floor .
Old gymnasium 1915 (today referred to as building D)
Since sport only played a subordinate role in grammar school education at the beginning of the 20th century, it took another 13 years after the opening of the new cantonal school building before the first gymnasium was built. It came to be on the northeast side of the existing building. Extensive construction work was carried out in 1950, including a basement, and in 1978 the building was thoroughly renovated.
Conveyor extension buildings in 1967 ("new building", today referred to as buildings C and E)
In 1960, an architecture competition for extensions was announced again, since there was now an acute shortage of space at the Schaffhausen Cantonal School. The competition was based on a room program developed by the teaching staff. Of the 28 projects submitted, Walter Maria Förderer's winner emerged as the winner. The project was approved in a referendum on March 5, 1962, and the total cost was estimated at CHF 8.114 million. This also included a redesign of the ground floor and an exterior renovation of Building B.
In March 1962, an additional 5177 m 2 of land had to be purchased for the construction ; this purchase had already taken place in March 1962. The topping-out ceremony was celebrated on September 10, 1965, and the inauguration took place on September 29, 1967, as part of the traditional Kanti festival.
The sponsor building comprises two buildings, a new school building (Building C) and a new gymnasium (Building E). Both are in the style of brutalism , a style whose most important Swiss representative was Walter M. Förderer. The new school building is built in a south-easterly direction on a slope towards Schaffhausen's old town. It is much lower than the old building from 1902 and has a flat roof. It creates a clear architectural contrast, but optically does not compete with the existing building. The floor plan is almost square, but the walls are set back in the right half of the facade. Towards the city, the building is terraced. Typical of the Brutalist architectural style, the façade shows in-situ concrete structured with wood planks, structured by large, horizontally oriented sliding windows framed with aluminum frames. The building has 4 floors, with the basement built into the slope. The ground floor and the two floors above are centered around an atrium illuminated by skylights in the roof . A gallery running around the atrium connects the classrooms.
The second building is a gym , supplemented by an apartment for the pedel ; stylistically it corresponded to the school building. The dimensions of the gym are 18 × 30 meters with a height of 7 meters.
Triple gym 1995 ("Munot Sports Hall", today referred to as Building F)
After two proposals for the construction of new gyms (on November 7, 1976 and December 24, 1983) that were rejected by the electorate, the project for a new triple gym was accepted on March 7, 1993. The groundbreaking ceremony took place on January 20, 1994, and the topping-out ceremony exactly one year later. The hall was inaugurated on September 13, 1995. A meadow belonging to the city next to the “Munotsportplatz”, ie a place outside the actual canton school area, was chosen as building land. Accordingly, the spacious hall should also be able to be used by external interested parties.
The net usable area is over 2000 m 2 , the actual gymnasium has the dimensions 24 × 45 × 7 meters. The entire hall can be divided into three sub-halls by means of transverse walls. In addition, a weight room, a theory room and a room for the hall attendant or for a kiosk are integrated. Architecturally, the minimum building height, which is only 2.5 m above the ground, should be emphasized. This was a requirement of the city of Schaffhausen. Accordingly, the hall is sunk 7 meters into the ground. The elongated, very flat-looking main facade with its small round windows (" portholes ") is reminiscent of a ship's hull lying deep in the water. The sloping glazing on all sides of the extensively greened but not accessible flat roof enables good lighting and ventilation.
Connection wing 1999 (today referred to as Building A)
With the new orientation of the cantonal school, additional classrooms were required at the end of the 1990s. A new building, which connected the old building with the new building, was supposed to provide administration rooms in order to gain classrooms in the existing buildings. The company Oechsli + Partner Architects, Schaffhausen, was commissioned with the execution of the connecting wing after a two-stage competition process. Their project had previously been approved in a referendum on June 8, 1997.
The building connected the main entrance of the old building from 1902 (Building B) with the main entrance of the Förderer-Schulhaus from 1967. For this purpose, the existing connecting elements, a roof made of exposed concrete, had to be demolished.
The body of the building initially runs parallel to the east facade of Building B, in order to create a connection to the conveyor building in the last quarter by means of a curve. The main facade of the connecting wing faces east, i.e. towards the old town. The main entrance to the cantonal school is now on the north facade, as was originally the case in the old building from 1902. The connecting wing is architecturally simple, it is dominated by a simple, clear, elegant design language. The shell has been largely left as it is, thus creating a stylistic connection to the conveyor building. The base of the building is made of concrete, the connecting hall is made of steel and glass with individual concrete panels.
The connecting wing comprises two levels: an access level and a basement . The administrative rooms (offices of the school management, secretariat, teachers' room) are located on the upper floor, the access level. This floor also includes a large terrace with a view of the old town. The library and special classrooms for the subject of artistic design are located on the lower floor.
DMS new building 2005 (today referred to as building G)
For reasons of space, most of the students at the Diplommittelschule ( technical secondary school since 2007 ) were taught in the Rheinschulhaus. The city of Schaffhausen gave notice to the canton due to its own needs, and DMS had to definitely leave the premises in 2005. After examining different variants, a feasibility study came to the clear result that a new building on the area of the canton school should be given preference. After a two-stage competition - in the first stage 83 projects were received by the jury - the project "Mittag" by St. Gallen architects Armin Benz and Martin Engeler emerged as the winning project. The project with a construction loan of almost CHF 12 million was approved in a referendum on November 24, 2002. The project for the planned building also included a multi-purpose hall that was to function as a cafeteria in everyday school life . Construction work began in February 2004. In July 2005 the building was put into operation.
The surrounding walls are graded and show terrain jumps. The main entrance, which is exactly inside the right angle, is a little higher than the original break area, connected to it by a slightly increasing extension of the entire courtyard area. The whole building is made with exposed concrete in the panel system. Large , rectangular concrete elements are used on the external facades, while formwork panels are used on large-scale formwork inside . Similar to the conveyor building, the facades are structured by large rows of windows.
The whole building has a basement. On the ground floor there is, among other things, the multi-purpose hall (cafeteria with adjoining kitchen, stage), a classroom for artistic design and several rooms that are used for administrative purposes. On the two upper floors there are a total of 10 classrooms, which are designed for class sizes of a maximum of 25 students, plus 3 special rooms, each with a capacity of 40 people. The extension meets the requirements of the Minergie standard.
The new building closes off the grounds of the canton school to the west. All the buildings together now form a largely closed whole with a variety of references. Like the old building from 1902, the floor plan of the supplementary building is L-shaped. The longer leg is in the extension of the conveyor gym, the shorter leg is at right angles to it and runs diagonally towards the old gym from 1915.
- Male torso , a bronze sculpture by Karl Geiser (in the atrium of the conveyor extension building, 1967)
- Relief panel (attached to a concrete wall between the conveyor extensions, 1967)
- Iron sculpture by Albert Rouiller (erected on a southern boundary wall made of concrete, 1973)
- Installation in the connection building , Zeljka Marusic and Andreas Helbling (connection building, 1999)
- Sichten sichten Installation by Leo Bettina Roost (supplementary building, 2005)
- Licht-Bilder - Bild-Lichter , installation by Silvio Vanzella (outer wall of the supplementary building, 2008)
Other structural features on the cantonal school area
In the courtyard there has been a sundial donated by the Munot Association on the occasion of the inauguration of the additional buildings for sponsors since 1967 . It was calculated and designed by William Brunner from Kloten. It is a sundial that is designed precisely for the location and, thanks to an anodized shadow projector with a precisely calculated lemniscate section, enables Central European time to be read almost to the minute.
Photovoltaic system on the roof of the conveyor extensions
As part of the funding program for photovoltaic systems in the canton of Schaffhausen, the general government council decided to install such a system with 356 polycrystalline modules on the roofs of the sponsors 'schoolhouse (building C), the sponsors' gym (building E) and the DMS supplementary building (building G) to set up a usable roof area of around 1270 m 2 . This should produce an annual yield of 75,000 kWh, which corresponds to around 15% of the entire annual electricity requirement of the canton school and a CO 2 saving of around 38 tons.
- Karl Knies
- Jakob Amsler-Laffon
- Conrad Habicht
- Heinrich Suter
- Marcel Müller-Wieland
- Dieter Bäumle
- Markus Werner
- Thomas Späth
- Carl August Bächtold
- Ludwig Binswanger
- Alfred Brunner
- Ralph Dutli
- Hermann Eisenhut
- Hermann Freuler
- Matthias Frick
- Juerg Fröhlich
- Beat Furrer
- Philipp Landmark
- Andreas Netzle
- Kurt Ruh
- Max Ruh
- Johann Melchior Schuler
- Emil A. Stadelhofer
- Markus Werner
- Gabriel cousin
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- Archive link ( Memento of the original from July 18, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. The government defends the wage system, in: Schaffhauser Nachrichten 13 April 2012, p. 15.
- Russenberger: Building history of the canton school Schaffhausen, pp. 7–15.
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