Plastic bag

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Plastic garbage bag in Paris

A plastic bag (also plastic carrying case or plastic bag ; in Austria : Sackerl , plastic bag or nylon Ackerl , Switzerland (plastic) Säckli , in East Germany often plastic bag or plastic bag , in southern Germany plastic bag or Plastikgug ) is a bag or a bag made of plastic film , mostly from Polyethylene or polypropylene. 40 g of petroleum are used to manufacture a conventional plastic bag weighing approx. 20 g . However, they can also be made from recycled material or bio-based plastics . Plastic bags are mainly used to transport purchases and for storage and transport of household waste . Printed plastic shopping bags are used as advertising media for retailers and the consumer goods industry . According to the EU Commission, around 95 billion plastic carrier bags came into circulation in Europe in 2010.


Carrying bag (1965), reusable
Carrying bag from the grocery retail chain " Latscha " from the 1970s with a simple punched handle (replica)
Still in use: the shirt bag (folded and in use)

In 1853, the paper manufacturer Gumpert Bodenheim in Bad Sooden-Allendorf produced the first industrially manufactured paper bag. In 1961, the Horten department store in Neuss issued the first plastic bags. They were called shirt bags because the straps looked like an undershirt . In 1965 the rider strap carrier bag followed, which was developed based on the experience of the paper processing industry and is considered the first real plastic carrier bag.

Advantages and benefits

Plastic bags are characterized by high strength and low manufacturing costs and are water and chemical resistant. They can be welded and are therefore easy to work with. Only a few chemicals are required for production; production is not very energy-intensive and low-emission . Plastic bags are light and can withstand heavy loads. However, if overused, they can tear, especially at the handles . In addition, plastic bags are not always disposable . The bags are often used several times and can then be recycled .

Plastic bags are mainly used for the packaging and transport of purchases as well as for the disposal of household waste , as garbage bags and yellow bags for recyclable plastic packaging ( dual system ).

Plastic bags are often used as an advertising medium. In Germany they are then provided with colored imprints, mostly the company logos of the respective dealers or producers. As symbols of consumer society , plastic bags are occasionally used deliberately as accessories .

Environmental issues

Carrying bag with "I'm green" made of sugar cane
Plastic waste spoils the landscape in
wild rubbish dumps

A plastic bag is used for an average of 25 minutes. Compared to other plastic waste, plastic bags and other thin plastic films are particularly easily drifted into the environment inadvertently, and on the mainland they probably make up the majority of plastic waste in the environment.

In countries where there are no recycling systems for waste and recyclable materials, plastic bags end up in the environment in an uncontrolled manner after use. The decomposition process takes hundreds to thousands of years, depending on the type of plastic and location, and probably even longer in arctic waters and the deep sea.

Plastic litter in the sea

A garbage vortex weighing around three million tons has formed between California and Hawaii. Driven by wind and currents, this floating garbage dump spins in a giant eddy on the ocean. This vortex is about the size of Central Europe. There are six kilograms of plastic for every kilogram of plankton . In several other eddies in the South Pacific, the Atlantic and the Indian Ocean, there are plastic carpets of this type, albeit in smaller quantities. Many regions in the Red Sea are also polluted with plastic waste.

Environmental balance: paper bag or plastic bag?

Paper bags are easier to dispose of than plastic bags, mainly because paper bags are more likely to rot. In addition, paper recycling can fall back on a mature infrastructure. However, the production of a paper bag has a greater impact on the environment than the production of a plastic bag, because it uses less water, fewer raw materials and generates less carbon dioxide. A paper bag should therefore be used three times as often as one made of plastic to compensate for this disadvantage. The type of plastic used in the production of the plastic bag is relevant for the overall ecological balance. Here a polypropylene bag proves to be better than a polyethylene bag.

Long-lasting reusable systems can be far superior to single-use packaging made of plastic and paper.

Animal welfare

Plastic bag in a stork's nest

Sea turtles often mistake plastic bags for jellyfish and eat them. Birds swallow indigestible plastic pieces or feed them to their young. Tens of thousands of whales , seals and sharks die every year . Sunken plastic bags get caught on corals , take away their light and access to food and thereby kill them.

Plastic bags are also a danger for animals on the mainland. Shreds of plastic bags in bird nests can lead to constrictions and mutilation of legs. Storks build plastic bags into their nests so that occasionally rainwater does not run off and young storks drown. Wild animals foraging can choke on plastic bags and other debris.


Garbage bags made from bioplastics
Shopping network

Alternatives to plastic bags are shopping nets, bags made of bio-based plastics , paper bags , cloth bags or shopping baskets . The replacement of plastic bags with these alternatives was promoted by the environmental movement , which made the plastic bag a symbol of the throwaway society . The slogan Jute instead of plastic!” Has become particularly well known .

For some years now there have been bags of the same quality made from renewable raw materials , usually corn or potato starch or polylactic acids . With the same usage properties, they have the advantage over plastic bags that they can be biodegraded without residue after the bag has been used - but only in suitable systems. So far, there are mainly garbage bags for organic waste on the market. However, these also have disadvantages (energy consumption in production, displacement of food-growing areas to obtain the required raw materials). Accordingly, the use of durable (fabric) bags is currently the most sensible alternative.

Sale instead of free addition

In German grocery supermarkets it used to be common for every buyer to be given one or more shopping bags without asking. In the meantime, the plastic bags are often paid for, and consumption has fallen sharply. However, in France , Spain and Poland it is still common to get plastic bags for free when you shop for groceries. Handleless paper bags are in use in many places in the United States .

In 2016, the German Retail Association decided in a voluntary commitment with the Federal Environment Ministry to ban free plastic bags from all of its members' stores. Plastic bags should continue to be available, but just like paper bags and reusable carrier bags, they will be offered for a fee. However, bags made of very thin transparent film for packing and handling loose food, such as baked goods, fruit and vegetables, remain free of charge. The three large drugstore stores DM, Rossmann and Müller have already removed the small, free carrier bags from the branches. However, this regulation only applies to retail stores, other sales points such as petrol stations and kiosks, where many customers ask for plastic bags, are still allowed to give out free plastic bags at the checkout. Instead of the voluntary agreement, however, Deutsche Umwelthilfe demands a nationwide tax obligation.

Bagging machine in a department store

Since April 2018, the Netto supermarket chain has been collecting a deposit of around 13 cents on the Danish island of Funen . This amount will be paid out when the plastic bag is returned. The deposit money for plastic bags that are no longer returned will benefit the WWF .


Statistically, 64 shopping bags were produced and used per year and person in Germany in 2010. The average consumption of 76 bags per inhabitant per year in 2014 was well below the EU-wide average of 198 plastic bags. In 2015, the current consumption of plastic bags per capita and year in Germany was given as 71. Due to the prohibition of the free distribution, the consumption of larger plastic bags fell within one year from 45 (2016) to 29 (2017) pieces; In the same period, the consumption of the still free, thinner fruit bags rose from 36 to 39 pieces.

Handling in different states


Plastic bag from a German discounter

In clothing stores, the goods are often packed in plastic bags with an advertising print at the checkout. In the food retail sector, plastic bags are also available as so-called “shirt bags” or “bags” for packing loosely presented fruit and vegetables as well as for packing baked goods sold loosely (increasingly being replaced by paper bags). Plastic carrier bags cost between EUR 0.10 and EUR 0.30 at grocery chains.

At the dialogue event on one-way carrier bags on February 24, 2014 with manufacturers, authorities and environmental and consumer associations, the Federal Environment Agency reaffirmed its recommendations to further reduce the consumption of one-way carrier bags and to expand the obligation to pay for plastic carrier bags in the food retail sector. After a consultation between the national trade association (HDE) and the Federal Environment Ministry in autumn 2015 on the application of an EU directive that aims to reduce the per capita consumption of plastic bags (excluding shirt bags ) to 40 per year by 2025, plastic bags should not be used in Germany be more free. In April 2016, Josef Sanktjohanser (for the HDE) and the Federal Environment Minister Barbara Hendricks signed a voluntary commitment , according to which from July 2016 plastic bags should no longer be given free of charge, but only for a fee.

On November 26, 2020, the Bundestag passed a statutory ban on plastic bags with a wall thickness of 15 to 50 micrometers as part of an amendment to the Packaging Act , which came into force on January 1, 2022.


In fashion and sports shops, textiles in particular are routinely given in plastic bags at the cash register. If you don't want them, you have to point it out at the checkout. Something similar is common in consumer electronics stores. Occasionally, suppliers also provide bags with brand advertising. Textiles from dry cleaning are usually handed over with transparent, very thin tubular sleeves made of polyethylene that are up to the size of a coat. In large shops for groceries and general supplies and at discounters, a price of 20 to 25 cents is charged for large plastic bags with an advertising print. Sometimes the bar code on the spot crossed to simplify a Wiedermitbringen. The term “ BILLA -Sackerl” is linguistically stereotypical , in nature striking yellow-red.

The 2000 Billa bags in which the opera critic Marcel Prawy collected his music documents became legendary . In the 1970s, the derogatory terms Jugokoffer and Tschuschenkoffer were widespread, an allusion to the preferred travel utensil in Yugoslav guest workers' cars . All SPAR store types offer a number of alternatives: carrier bags made of paper, cotton, also for hanging in the shopping cart and, since 2009, slightly yellowish and quickly rotting plastic bags made of potato starch plastic film for 0.35 euros (Interspar already in June 2007 for 0.29 Euro).

In addition, smaller, very thin, cloudy-transparent ones made of LD-PE can usually be torn off a roll free of charge when packing vegetables and fruit yourself. Turkish shops, for example, use larger bags of this type, which are also lightly colored. Even simpler white plastic bags are usually free of charge. Rubbish bins in private households , in companies, at discounters, self-service restaurants and in public spaces are lined with PE garbage bags of different sizes, often black. In some places the light fraction waste collection (plastic packaging) takes place in "yellow bags", which are bought and tied up and placed in front of the front door.

With the film Plastic Planet , the plastic-free experimentation family by Sandra Krautwaschl and a film about it, as well as campaigns by environmental NGOs, especially Greenpeace, a certain rethink has been reflected. Lidl and Merkur have been offering permanent bags since 2016 . These textile-reinforced, sewn plastic bags are larger and more durable than large film carrier bags and usually have a handle made of woven belt. A textile shop in Vienna charges a price for carrier bags.

The federal government has announced a ban on plastic bags for January 1, 2020. The National Council unanimously passed a corresponding law on July 2, 2019. Plastic bags made from fully biodegradable plastic were exempt from the ban.


A motion for a ban was passed by parliament in 2010 and adopted in 2012. To apply them, it would have taken an amendment to the federal law on environmental protection . But the administration decided to bypass the legislative work and rely on a private agreement with the major distributors. In 2016, parliament wrote off the motion.

As a result, since November 2016, plastic bags in Switzerland have only been given out for payment by the Migros retail chain . Coop and most of the other large retailers followed suit. After that, the demand for plastic bags collapsed by over 80 percent. According to its own statements, Coop alone saves 850 tons of new plastic every year. There would be even more if the retailers were to abolish the free plastic bags at the tills in the smaller shops such as Coop Pronto , Migrolino , etc. At the end of 2020, the agreement is to be expanded to include reusable bags. Coop has announced that it will implement the agreement from January 1, 2020.

Bans on plastic bags worldwide.
  • Plastic bags prohibited
  • Taxation of certain types of plastic bags
  • Voluntary taxation
  • Partial taxation or prohibition (at local or regional level)
  • European Union

    The European Commission was planning additional taxation or a ban on plastic bags: The citizens of the EU were asked to express their opinion on the subject in an English-language online survey ( consultation ) from May 17, 2011 to August 9, 2011.

    The result was an EU directive: The per capita consumption of plastic bags (with the exception of so-called shirt bags , the thin bags for fruit and vegetables in the supermarket) should decrease to 40 per year by 2025.


    Denmark introduced a tax on plastic bags in 1994 and today has the lowest per capita consumption in Europe.


    In 2007, a ban on plastic bags came into force in Paris . A nationwide ban on non-compostable plastic bags has been in place since January 1, 2016.


    From January 1, 2018, Greeks will have to pay 4 cents for the (<50 micrometer ) thin plastic bags in shops, and 9 cents from 2019. Environmentalists criticize that this regulation does not apply to kiosks and weekly markets.


    On March 4, 2002, the Republic of Ireland introduced an environmental tax of EUR 0.15 on each plastic bag. This resulted in a 90 percent reduction in the use of plastic bags and an increase in the use of reusable bags within five months. The proceeds of this tax were used for environmental projects. Many retailers in Ireland gave their customers paper bags or simply left out the packaging altogether. Most supermarkets continued to use plastic bags. After the number of plastic bags initially fell from 386 to 21 bags per year and person, this number gradually rose again to 30, whereupon the tax was increased to 0.22 euros on July 1, 2007 and the number continued to 18 bags per person by 2010 Year and person sank. Many supermarkets have switched to reusable cloth bags or reusable, durable plastic bags. They sell these bags for around one euro.

    The share of plastic bags in the rubbish objects found in the environment fell by 2004 from 5% to 0.22% to a twentieth of the initial value. The administrative costs of the tax were around 3% of the revenue and were therefore very low. The reaction from both traders and customers to the tax has been positive and it is widely accepted in Ireland.


    Since September 2019, the distribution of free plastic bags has been banned in Iceland .


    Since January 1, 2011, the marketing of conventional plastic bags has been banned in Italy . Paper bags, cloth bags and other easily degradable bags, e.g. B. from corn starch, serve. In 2011–2017, the consumption of plastic bags fell by 55%.

    From January 1, 2018, only biodegradable disposable bags for fruit, vegetables, meat and fish may be used in retail . Consumers now have to pay 1–3 cents per bag, depending on the supermarket. The introduction has been heavily criticized by consumers, consumer protection and environmental protection associations, as the regulations only allow the use of single-use and non-recyclable bags or alternative transport containers and therefore no decline in consumption is to be expected.

    United Kingdom

    Since October 2015 there has been a nationwide tax of 5 pence on plastic bags.

    As early as 2007, traders in the Dartmoor village of Modbury, Devon , made a voluntary commitment not to use plastic bags. After Wales 2011, Northern Ireland in April 2013 and Scotland 2014, a tax of 5 pence was finally introduced in England on October 5, 2015 . Just six months after the tax was introduced, the use of plastic bags in England has fallen by 85%. The majority of consumers in England supported the introduction of the levy, but the number of supporters continued to grow after the introduction.

    In the UK, retailers also or exclusively sell bags-for-life. For a small fee - in 2017, for example, it was 10 pence at the supermarket chain Tesco - customers can buy a more durable plastic bag, which they can then exchange for a new one as often as they like free of charge. In 2014, before the introduction of the tax on plastic bags in England, bags-for-life accounted for 5% of the total number of shopping bags. A study by Cardiff University found indications that in many cases in England after 2015 the bags-for-life were bought instead of single-use bags and these were now increasing at customers' homes.


    There are currently around 4 billion plastic bags distributed annually in Australia. They are banned in South Australia , Australian Capital Territory , Queensland and Northern Territory . In 2008, a nationwide ban failed due to resistance from retailers.


    Plastic bags have been completely banned in Bangladesh since 2000 . They clogged sewers during the monsoon season and increased the risk of flooding.


    Plastic bags are banned in Bhutan .


    Burundi bans plastic bags by presidential decree of August 13, 2018. 18 months transition period and exemptions for biodegradable materials and various applications, including medical applications.


    In Chile until 2018 it was customary to be given free plastic bags to buy in small shops and supermarkets. These bags are not always sufficiently stable, which means that many bags are used for a normal large purchase. It is also common to use these free bags as garbage bags at home. So they go to the disposal with the mixed waste.

    In 2017, according to the industry and the Ministry of the Environment, the Chileans consumed around 3.4 billion plastic bags, a large part of which ended up in the sea. On August 3, 2018, a law came into force that - for the first time in Latin America - prohibits supermarket chains from distributing plastic bags within six months and other retailers within two years - with fines of up to around US $ 350.

    People's Republic of China

    In China , supermarkets, department stores and wholesale markets have been banned from giving away plastic bags for free since June 1, 2008. Very thin bags were banned completely. This arrangement is intended to reduce plastic waste and the resulting pollution. Violation can result in a fine of up to 10,000 yuan . According to statistics, three billion plastic bags are used in China every day. Consumers were encouraged to return to using cloth bags and baskets. Plastic bags should be collected and recycled after use.

    Beijing plans to gradually ban the manufacture and sale of single-use plastic bags, drinking straws and dishes by 2025. Biodegradable products should continue to be allowed. Such a ban will come into force in Shanghai at the end of 2020.


    Plastic bags have been banned in India's capital New Delhi . Violations are punished with up to 1500 euros. In some states, e.g. B. Kerala, thin plastic bags are also prohibited.

    Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda and Tanzania

    In Kenya and Uganda , the thinnest bags are banned and the rest are subject to increased taxation. In Kenya, violations have been threatened with fines of up to 32,000 euros or up to four years in prison since the end of August 2017. Plastic bags are banned in Rwanda (since 2006) and Tanzania (2005). As of June 2019, the import, export, manufacture, sale and use of plastic bags are definitely prohibited in Tanzania. Environmental offenders face up to six months' imprisonment or a fine of 2,000 dollars for using plastic bags on the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar . But there are no controls or the like when entering Zanzibar. Local traders and sellers also distribute plastic bags for purchases, so no penalties are to be expected.


    In Malawi, the ban on the production and use of plastic bags was passed by the Malawian government in 2015, but plastic bag producers first obtained the repeal of the law in the country's High Court a year later because their business activities were compromised. However, on August 1, 2019, the seven judges of the highest court ruled that the 2015 law was lawful and reinstated the ban.


    In Morocco , the government banned plastic bags nationwide on July 1, 2016.

    New Zealand

    In New Zealand , plastic bags are added free of charge to shopping in both supermarkets and consumer stores such as fashion, electronics and sports stores. Even in convenience stores, which are intended for quick shopping in between, free plastic bags are usually given out when purchasing multiple items. While the bags in supermarkets and convenience stores are usually very thin and white, fashion stores often use thicker bags with the respective logo of the shop. In liquor stores, alcoholic beverages are usually packed in black bags. An exception to the general distribution of bags is the outdoor outfitter "Kathmandu", who himself does not use plastic, but only (disposable) cardboard bags. If the customer wants a bag, he has to buy it at the moment.

    As of 2017, New Zealand consumed 750 million bags per year, equal to 150 per person per year. On August 10, 2018, Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern announced extensive negotiations with the parties concerned in order to dispense with disposable plastic bags in 2019 after a 6-month test phase in order to protect the world's oceans.

    East Timor

    In East Timor, plastic bags, like other single-use plastic products, have been banned since 2020.

    Papua New Guinea

    Plastic bags have been officially banned in the island state of Papua New Guinea since 2003. The reasons for this lie in the increasing pollution of the environment from discarded plastic bags and other plastics.

    South Africa

    In South Africa , retailers are no longer allowed to distribute plastic bags for free. Since 2003 they face a fine or prison sentence if they violate it.


    Plastic shopping bags are a major environmental problem across Turkey . Currently, every Turk uses an average of 1.2 bags a day, many of which are improperly disposed of. Since January 2019, retailers have had to charge at least 25 kurus (approx. 4 cents) for plastic bags, otherwise they face a fine.

    United States of America

    In the United States, individual states and municipalities regulate the use of plastic bags. Hawaii is the first US state to ban plastic bags across the board.

    In 2003 a bill was discussed in the state of California that would impose a tax of three cents on every plastic bag. However, after protests from retailers and plastic manufacturers, this was not implemented. But in September 2014, the US state of California became the second US state to pass a nationwide ban on plastic bags. This ban was preceded by a series of municipal measures. The first ban on plastic bags in the USA was passed by the city council in San Francisco in 2007 . In 2006, 180 million plastic bags were distributed there. The Los Angeles City Council passed a plastic bag ban in July 2008, which has been in place since July 1, 2010. Paper bags can be purchased for $ 0.25. There has been a ban on plastic bags in San Jose since 2012 . In a subsequent study, 89% fewer plastic bags were found in the rain drainage system, 60% fewer in rivers and 59% fewer on roads and in residential areas.

    Effective January 1, 2010, Washington, DC introduced a policy that charges a $ 0.05 fee on plastic bags. This rule only applies to the dispensing of plastic bags in grocery stores and has created some confusion in retail outlets. A bookseller who usually gave a pack of peppermint drops to the customer as a freebie has refrained from this practice. The retailer was not sure whether he was violating the regulation that applies to grocery stores in this case.


    • Karin Bartl, Raimund Bartl, Volkmar Schnöke: plastic bags. Art to wear. Torch bearer, Hanover 1986, ISBN 3-7716-1469-4 (illustrated book).
    • Ida-Marie Corell: Everyday object plastic bag (= edition applied ). Springer, Vienna / New York, NY 2011, ISBN 978-3-7091-0478-1 (Dissertation University of Vienna [2011], 300 pages).
    • Susanne Gerber (Ed.): Kunst.Stoff.Tüten. Plastic bags. Exhibition catalog. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern 2002, ISBN 3-7757-1203-8 .
    • Heinz Schmidt-Bachem : Bags, pouches, carrier bags. On the history of the paper, cardboard and foil processing industry in Germany. Waxmann, Münster 2001, ISBN 3-8309-1037-1 .
    • The plasticbag. Art in everyday life - plastic bags from all over the world. Exhibition catalog. Upper Palatinate Folklore Museum, Burglengenfeld 1998.
    • Herbert Cerutti: Very strong. Status symbol, sex toys, environmental killers - the history of the plastic bag. In: NZZ Folio . 11/2006.
    • Günther Berger: From paper bags to plastic bags. Sheets of the Meidlinger District Museum, Vienna 2005, issue 65.

    Web links

    Commons : Plastic Bags  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files
    Wiktionary: Plastic bag  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

    Individual evidence

    1. Nylonsackerl in the dictionary on
    2. ↑ Fancy a bag? England's environmentalists fight plastic flood . ( Memento of January 24, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) September 17, 2013; Retrieved December 12, 2013
    3. Heinz Schmidt-Bachem : 150 years of industrial paper, cardboard and film processing: "Paper goods" & cartons (PDF). In: Magazin Kultur & Technik 3/2003, Deutsches Museum
    4. Frank Wichert: Plastic bags practical but polluting ., 2013; Retrieved May 6, 2015
    5. Beautiful plastic bags are unthinkable in Germany . ( Memento of May 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) StadtRevue, October 2003 edition; accessed on May 10, 2015
    6. Contributions to the industrial history of paper, cardboard and film processing in Germany , p. 350, publication by the University of Tübingen, accessed on May 7, 2015
    7. Heinz Schmidt-Bachem : From paper: A cultural and economic history of the paper processing industry in Germany . 1st edition (2011), pp. 752 and 960
    8. CHEMIE / 238: Beautiful colorful plastic world - plastic bag, problem with scope (ROBIN WOOD magazine). Robin Wood, accessed July 18, 2010 .
    9. ^ A b David KA Barnes, Francois Galgani, Richard C. Thompson and Morton Barlaz: Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments . In: Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B . tape 364 , no. 1526 , July 27, 2009, p. 1985–1998 , doi : 10.1098 / rstb.2008.0205 .
    10. ^ A b The Scottish Government (Ed.): Marine Litter Issues, Impacts and Actions . 2012, ISBN 978-1-78256-082-1 ( HTML ).
    11. Samiha Shafy: Environment: The Garbage Carousel. In: Spiegel Online . February 2, 2008, accessed December 30, 2014 .
    12. Gigantic garbage carpet turns in a circle. (No longer available online.) In: February 8, 2008; archived from the original on January 14, 2013 ; accessed on December 30, 2014 .
    13. Christoph Drösser: Environmental protection: Are paper carrier bags better for the environment than plastic bags? In: . November 8, 2014, accessed December 25, 2014 .
    14. a b Plantaciones Edelman: Is a paper bag better than a plastic bag for the environment? Retrieved September 28, 2017 .
    15. Heike Holdinghausen: The fight against plastic waste: Not from cardboard . In: The daily newspaper: taz . May 14, 2019, ISSN  0931-9085 ( [accessed June 28, 2019]).
    16. José GB Derraik: The pollution of the marine environment by plastic debris . A review. In: Marine Pollution Bulletin . 2002, doi : 10.1016 / S0025-326X (02) 00220-5 .
    17. ^ Hazards to Coral Reefs. (PDF; 4.88 MB) In: CORIS - Coral Reef Information System. NOAA, accessed July 27, 2013 .
    18. ↑ Wild Bird Health. Diseases of the legs and feet. In: Wildvogelhilfe. Retrieved July 27, 2013 .
    19. ^ Claus-Dieter Steyer: Continuous rain and cold in Brandenburg . Bad weather conditions threaten the white stork. In: Tagesspiegel . July 27, 2013 ( HTML ).
    20. The yogurt cup as a deadly trap. Garbage left in nature poses a great danger to wild animals. In: Jagdnetz. German Hunting Association, August 7, 2008, accessed on July 27, 2013 .
    21. Jörg Burger: Shopping: Plastic instead of jute. In: . June 8, 2006, accessed December 25, 2014 .
    22. Alexander Dallmus: What is more environmentally friendly? Plastic or paper bag. In: Bayern 1 . March 3, 2015, accessed May 28, 2018 .
    23. "Bio" plastic bags do not have any ecological advantages . ( Memento from July 2, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
    24. a b Plastic bags: DUH calls for retailers to be obliged to pay in:, June 20, 2018, accessed on November 4, 2018.
    25. ^ Supermarket chain - deposit on plastic bags in Denmark In: ( dpa ), April 16, 2018, accessed on April 17, 2018.
    26. Bernhard Walker: Plastic bag no longer free . , October 24, 2015; Retrieved October 25, 2015
    27. Newstime of May 10, 2019
    28. February 26, 2014, UBA calls for the expansion of the obligation to pay for plastic bags ( Memento of March 5, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (accessed on February 26, 2014)
    29. Environmental protection: Trade and government agree on a plastic bag fee. In: time online . April 26, 2016. Retrieved April 19, 2017 .
    30. Government wants to ban light plastic bags , November 26, 2020
    31. Christoph Wagner-Trenkwitz: The professor from the "Hotel Sackerl". In: Die Zeit , No. 50/2006.
    32. Bagage - rag pack. Austrian - German,
    33. Tschuschenkoffer in
    34. SPAR press contact
    35. Pro-Tech delivers 2 million organic bags for INTERSPAR ( Memento from May 5, 2007 in the web archive ), June 18, 2007.
    36. Page no longer available , search in web archives: (PDF)@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
    37. From for supermarket plastic bags, November 10, 2016, accessed November 13, 2016.
    38. Plastic bag ban comes in 2020, December 5, 2018, accessed December 9, 2018.
    39. ↑ The ban on plastic bags from 2021 is now fixed! Retrieved July 2, 2019 .
    40. Federal Ministry for Sustainability and Tourism: Plastic bag ban in Austria from 2020. December 5, 2018, accessed on November 2, 2019 .
    41. "10.3850 - Motion": Stopping pollution with disposable plastic bags in the business database of the Swiss Parliament.
    42. No plastic bags for vegetables and fruits In:, January 9, 2018, accessed on January 9, 2018
    43. 5 cents for the plastic bag - demand slumped by 80 percent In:, November 1, 2017, accessed on January 6, 2018
    44. Migros and Coop are canceling free plastic bags. In: October 23, 2019, accessed December 20, 2019 .
    45. ↑ Disposing of the rubbish: Consultation on plastic bags .
    46. Environmental protection: EU is considering banning plastic bags. In: Focus Online . May 18, 2011, accessed December 25, 2014 .
    47. Consultation on options to reduce the use of plastic carrier bags and options to improve the requirements of biodegradability in Directive 94/62 / EC on packaging and packaging waste and the visibility of biodegradable packaging products to consumers .
    48. , October 24, 2015, Bernhard Walker: Plastic bag no longer free (October 25, 2015)
    49. Time Oct. 19, 2015, p. 12
    50. Chris Stokel-Walker: How can plastic bag addiction be cured? In: BBC News. Magazines. BBC, October 1, 2015, accessed December 22, 2015 .
    51. AFP: France: plastic bags banned. In: . October 13, 2005, archived from the original on December 26, 2014 ; Retrieved December 25, 2014 .
    52. Italians have to pay for one-way bags from 2018 January 2, 2018, accessed January 2, 2018.
    53. a b BIO Intelligence Service (2011), Assessment of impacts of options to reduce the use of single-use plastic carrier bags, Final Report prepared for the European Commission - DG Environment , accessed on March 13, 2015, pp. 114–115 .
    54. Fight the "wild garbage" in Ireland. ( Memento from March 1, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
    55. Plastic bags under attack ( Memento from October 21, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
    56. ^ Frank Convery, Simon McDonnell, Susana Ferreira: The most popular tax in Europe? Lessons from the Irish plastic bags levy . In: Environmental and Resource Economics . No. 38 , 2007, p. 1–11 , doi : 10.1007 / s10640-006-9059-2 .
    57. Iceland: Plastic bags banned from now on. In: . September 1, 2019, accessed September 1, 2019 .
    58. Italy - fabric instead of plastic .; Retrieved January 4, 2011.
    59. Italians have to pay for one-way bags from 2018 January 2, 2018, accessed January 2, 2018.
    60. Legge sui sacchetti - application . (Italian) Retrieved January 17, 2018
    61. a b Hilary Osborne: How will the plastic bag charge affect me? In: the Guardian. October 2, 2015, accessed July 30, 2016 .
    62. Modbury as a model for Bremen . In: Der Tagesspiegel ; Retrieved December 8, 2013
    63. ^ Sarah Butler: Scotland introduces 5p charge on carrier bags . Shoppers face fees for plastic bags, following examples of Wales and Northern Ireland in past two year. In: The Guardian . June 28, 2013 ( Scotland introduces 5p charge on carrier bags ).
    64. Rebecca Smithers: England's plastic bag usage drops 85% since 5p charge introduced. In: the Guardian. July 29, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2016 .
    65. a b Wouter Poortinga u. A .: The English Plastic Bag Charge Changes in Attitudes and Behavior . September 2016, Conclusions, p. 27–28 ( [PDF; 537 kB ]).
    66. Rebecca Smithers: Tesco to end sales of 5p carrier bags . In: The Guardian . August 7, 2017 ( ).
    67. ^ Bags for Life: The Embedding of Ethical Consumerism . In: Journal of Business Ethics . tape 125 , no. November 1 , 2014, doi : 10.1007 / s10551-013-1900-2 .
    68. ^ Andrew Darby: Ban on plastic bags spreads to Tasmania . In: The Sydney Morning Herald , November 12, 2010 (English)
    69. Queensland bans single-use plastic bags from July 2018 , from September 5, 2017, loaded on December 18, 2017
    70. Australia is serious - plastic bag ban
    71. Burundi bans plastic bags, August 14, 2018, accessed August 14, 2018.
    72. Chile prohibits the distribution of plastic bags, August 4, 2018, accessed August 4, 2018.
    73. Ban on plastic bags - bagged by garbage
    74. Fight against disposable plastic - China bans plastic bags and drinking tubes. In: . December 12, 2020, accessed December 12, 2020 .
    75. Johannes Boie: Ban on plastic bags - bagged by garbage. In: . May 17, 2010, accessed December 25, 2014 .
    76. Kerala bans thin plastic bags. In: Infochange India / Hindustan Times. September 2, 2007, accessed December 30, 2013 .
    77. ^ East African ban on plastics bags . BBC News
    78. Against littering in Kenya Plastic bags mean jail time . In: Berliner Zeitung . August 28, 2017 ( ).
    79. Plastic bags banned in East Africa. In: June 17, 2007, accessed December 25, 2014 .
    80. Tanzania forbids plastic bags. In: . June 1, 2019, accessed June 1, 2019 .
    81. Zanzibar wants to ban plastic bags. In: February 11, 2015, accessed December 26, 2014 .
    82. Charles Pensulo : Malawi pure states ban on plastic bags as campaigners hail 'fantastic victory' . In: The Guardian . August 2, 2019, accessed December 28, 2019 .
    83. Lerato Mogoatlhe : The Supreme Court in Malawi Just Banned Plastic Bags - Again . In: Global Citizen . Global Poverty Project , August 6, 2019, accessed December 28, 2019 .
    84. Does not come in the bag ., August 2, 2016
    85. New Zealand wants to do without plastic bags, August 10, 2018, accessed August 10, 2018.
    86. Journal da República: DECRETO-LEI N.º 37 / 2020de 23 de Setembro - ALIENAÇÃO, IMPORTAÇÃO E PRODUÇÃO DESACOS, EMBALAGENS E OUTROS OBJETOS DEPLÁSTICO , accessed on October 30, 2020.
    87. Papua New Guinea bans plastic bags. In: February 11, 2015, accessed December 25, 2014 .
    88. Turkey - Retailers have to charge for plastic bags. In: Dlf24. January 2, 2019, accessed on January 2, 2019 (German).
    89. ^ Miguel Llanos: Hawaii first state to ban plastic bags at checkout. NBC News, May 16, 2012, accessed December 14, 2013 .
    90. ^ Plastic Left Holding the Bag as Environmental Plague. ( Memento of July 26, 2004 on the Internet Archive ) In: Seattle Post-Intelligencer , July 21, 2004, on
    91. California wants to be the first American state to ban plastic bags .
    92. San Francisco Bans Plastic Bags ( Memento September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ). In: Badische Zeitung . March 29, 2007.
    93. Los Angeles: Everything except plastic. archive, July 23, 2008
    94. Kerrie Romanow: Memorandum to Transportation and Environment Committee, Subject: Bring your own Bag Ordinance Implementation Results and Actions to Reduce EPS Foram Food Ware . Ed .: City of San Jose. November 20, 2012, p. 5 ( [PDF; 123 kB ]).
    95. In Washington, a Lesson In Bureaucracy Comes in Every Bag. In: The Wall Street Journal . January 25, 2010.