Horten AG

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Horten AG

legal form Corporation
founding 1936
resolution 1994
Reason for dissolution Takeover by Kaufhof
Seat Dusseldorf
Branch Department store / retail

The Horten AG was one of Helmut Horten established German department store group based in Dusseldorf . After Kaufhof , Hertie and Karstadt it was the fourth largest German department store chain. Horten was taken over by Kaufhof in 1994 and gradually integrated until the Horten brand gradually disappeared in the early 2000s.

History of Horten AG

Company foundation and aryanizations

Helmut Horten (January 8, 1909 in Bonn - November 30, 1987 in Croglio , Switzerland) came from the Horten merchant family . He began a commercial apprenticeship in the Leonhard Tietz department store and then moved to the Alsberg department store in Duisburg as an employee.

After the National Socialists came to power, the NSDAP organized the boycott of the Jews , and in the process of Aryanization (also known as de-Jewification ) it was made difficult or even impossible for Jews to continue their operations through loan cancellations and other measures. Many Jewish business people therefore wanted to emigrate and sold their harassed businesses at low prices.

In 1936 the head of Commerzbank's Duisburg branch, Wilhelm Reinold , approached the then 27-year-old Helmut Horten with other donors, and together with him they founded Helmut Horten KG as the only personally liable partner . This was initially taken over by the Alsberg brothers' department store in Duisburg from the Jewish owners Strauss and Lauter, who were forced to emigrate. The Jewish employees were fired and the department store advertised that it was now in Aryan ownership . In Wattenscheid the department store of the Jewish businessman Sally Hess was taken over in the same year. In the course of the Aryanization and the expropriation of Jewish owners, the Horten KG expanded further and six branches were taken over by 1939.

After the occupation of the Netherlands, the company acquired one of the largest department stores in the Netherlands, Gebr. Gerzon Modemagazijnen, for $ 100,000 (about 10% of the actual value) plus an exit visa from the Jewish Gerzon family .

At the end of the war, the department stores either came under Russian influence or were destroyed by the bombing except for the house in Wattenscheid.

post war period

In 1954, what was then Helmut Horten GmbH took over Emil Köster AG. This increased the number of branches by 19 department stores of the Köster and DeFaKa brands . The Köster brand disappeared as early as 1965 when a new hoarding building replaced the Wiesbaden branch. The DeFaKa locations were converted piece by piece into full-range department stores or replaced by new buildings until the 1970s. The DeFaKa branches were described by hoarding as "department stores of classic character" and had their focus on textile goods. Although the approaching end for the DeFaKa brand was announced in 1967, investments were still made in the stores and, for example, a department of “the men's outfitter” was set up in the Kiel branch.

In the 1960s, the requirements for the Horten “full-range department stores of the most modern type” were set up at Helmut Horten GmbH. In addition to escalators, self-service supermarkets, the “Miss H.” fashion boutique, the men's department “the men's outfitter” and catering by the “copper pike” restaurants were to be set up in these branches. Modern department stores should, if possible, also include their own parking garages and gas stations. By 1967 three petrol stations had already been opened (Duisburg-Hamborn, Neuss, Nuremberg). In addition, almost all of the houses should be immediately recognizable as hoarding thanks to the uniform honeycomb facade. The second brands Merkur and DeFaKa should therefore be dropped in the coming modernization phase.

In the post-war period, numerous new department stores were fitted with the ornamental aluminum tile façade designed by the architect Egon Eiermann (ceramics were also attached to some branches). These " hydrangea tiles " are still visible today on many department store facades and are partially listed.

After the Second World War, the Horten AG operated its branches under different names, so the newly established branch in Neuss was initially called " Merkur ", although the house had already received the hydrangea tiles. Other branches, for example in Essen, were called DeFaKa (German family department store) until the new building in the 1970s . The name "Merkur" later had a purely internal meaning for Horten when a purchasing company was founded together with Kaufring in order to be able to order larger quantities on the market at better conditions. After the purchase by Kaufhof, this community became unnecessary, and Horten sold the 50% in "Merkur Purchasing Company Horten-Kaufring mbH" together with a 25% share package in the Kaufring von Horten to the German company Woolworth.

1974 Horten AG bought the hypermarkets of the Otto Group . Horten turned almost all hypermarkets into normal department stores with the name Horten. The one-storey house in Hamburg-Eidelstedt was named Hanse SB-Warenhaus, with the letters resembling the Horten lettering. Since Otto had only built up his department store line in 1970, the locations were accordingly not the best (except for Hamburg-Poppenbüttel). By the end of the 1980s, almost all the branches taken over had been closed. In 1982 the Recklinghausen branch was converted into self-service. The name Hanse SB was also used here.

Also with Kaufring and Hertie , Horten AG founded the purchasing company "Sono-Centra" in 1990 with the aim of being able to order larger quantities in Asia at more favorable conditions. Each of the three partners held a third of the shares in this company.

Appearance of the hoarding department stores

From the outside, the department stores could be recognized by the characteristic hydrangea tiles . The lettering "Horten" was affixed to the building in a dark blue.

Inside the hoarding department stores, brown walls with dark wooden floors or carpets prevailed until they were converted into Galeria branches. Larger branches were so-called "full-range suppliers", which means that there were all the usual goods (such as toys, car accessories, sporting goods etc.). Many department stores had a grocery store and a restaurant called "bon appetit". Over time, some department stores also got their own hoarding travel agency.

The separation of Helmut Hortens from his department store chain

With the sale of its Horten shares, Horten started a debate about tax evasion in Germany . Helmut Horten moved to Switzerland with his wife Heidi in 1968 and in the same year converted the company from a GmbH to an AG. In the following years he gradually sold all of his shares for 1.13 billion Deutschmarks . According to Swiss law, there was no tax on this and in Germany hoarding was no longer subject to tax, which in 1972 led to the reorganization of German foreign tax law . Therefore, the foreign tax law (or in particular the exit taxation of § 6 AStG) is still referred to as " lex hoarding".

After Helmut Horten's death in 1987, his wife Heidi inherited his fortune.

After the shares were sold, the majority of Horten AG initially came into British hands, and from the late 1980s onwards, WestLB held the majority of the shares. In the early 1990s, two large trading companies wanted to take over Horten. On the one hand, the Kaufring , which at that time did not yet operate its own department stores, but was very interested in entering the stationary market with its own branches, and on the other, Kaufhof . In 1992, Kaufring then took a 5% stake in Horten via West LB, but Kaufhof also increased its shares bit by bit. Eventually, Horten was taken over by Kaufhof; The takeover was completed in 1994. Before that, however, Kaufring had secured ten smaller department stores (1993). At that time, Kaufhof was part of the Metro group.

The Galeria concept

Logo of the Galeria Horten until 2003 (from 2002 to 2003 on shopping bags in white on green)

The development of the “Galeria concept” by Horten AG six years before the takeover by Kaufhof paved the way for today's Kaufhof Group. For the first time in 1988 a Galeria Horten was opened in Münster and in the same year in Heidelberg. The branches have been extensively redesigned. Wide corridors, small signs on the main corridors to mark the departments, were features of the converted branches; in addition, the dreary brown disappeared from the walls and ceilings. Some houses also received a large window element that broke up the monotonous structure of the hydrangea tiles. Even the “bon appetit” restaurants were initially given a design approximating in style; with different expenses for the food, depending on the preparation method. However, only houses over 7000 m² should be included in the Galeria concept; it could therefore not have been used for all branches. The converted houses were able to record significant increases in profit, so that soon more and more branches were allowed to decorate themselves with the addition. Some smaller branches have therefore already been outsourced to Horten; they went under the name Horten-extra. This measure is comparable to the founding of Karstadt-Kompakt, if not as far-reaching. Ten of the small branches were transferred to Kaufring AG before the final takeover by Kaufhof AG in 1993, which they converted into likewise unprofitable “ J.Gg. Rupprecht ”department stores.

Internationalization of the Galeria concept

The Galeria concept developed by Horten AG can now also be found abroad. The Belgian Kaufhof subsidiary “ INNO ” has been operating all branches since 2004 as “Galeria Inno”. As with Horten, the original Inno logo was only supplemented by the Galeria sheet and the lettering in the first version (like the Galeria Horten logo, only with Inno instead of Horten). In addition, the company color changed from blue / red to dark green / green. In Poland there were also Galeria department stores called “Galeria Centrum” there (e.g. in the Ściana Wschodnia in Warsaw), but these had nothing to do with the Galeria concept of hoarding.

Separation of the department store business from Horten AG

On January 1, 1995, the Horten department store business was transferred from Horten AG to Horten Galeria GmbH, based in Cologne. After that, however, Horten AG initially remained as a real estate company; continue to have its headquarters in Düsseldorf. Horten Galeria GmbH was later merged with Kaufhof Warenhaus AG, and Horten AG disappeared in 1998, initially in Divaco AG & Co. KG , in which Metro AG amalgamated several companies that were no longer part of the core business. Ultimately, the Horten AG disappeared from the scene a little later.

Osnabrück, Wittekindstraße 23 in September 1995 second Galeria-Kaufhof branch with hydrangea tiles

The end of the Horten department store brand

At around the same time as the 125th anniversary of Kaufhof Warenhaus AG, the Horten department store brand came to an end. After the takeover of the majority of shares in Horten AG, the Horten branches that remained in the new Kaufhof Group were either renamed (Galeria) Kaufhof or otherwise, sold or closed. Today only the Carsch-Haus in Düsseldorf bears the Horten logo above its entrances, carved in stone, without any color highlighting. The last normal hoarding department stores until 2004 included Erlangen, Nuremberg, Krefeld and Ludwigshafen. The last Galeria Horten was in Gießen until October 2003.

Development of the "Horten" trademark

Hoarding "H" logo. From the mid-1960s a. a. To be found on all flags, also on supermarket shopping carts and on the uniforms of the saleswomen called “after-school care”. In the early 1980s it was replaced by the hoarding honeycomb as a logo
Slim prototype logo from the early 1960s. Use of the Wuppertal branch from 1963 (the logo was no longer used afterwards)
  • At the beginning of the 1960s there were “slim” and “fat” prototypes, the version in bold can be found on all new openings from the mid-1960s
  • For decades, the main color of the lettering was a dark blue
  • Until the 1980s, the lettering was a bit coarser and more angular
  • The main features were the "H" and the "n" with their sprouting to the front (H) or back (n)
  • During the modernization, mainly the "t" and the "r" in the logo were changed
  • Despite the long time between modernization and conversion / closure, the old logo remained on most of the branches until the end
  • at times the "H" in a circle and square was an additional logo (see logo on the right)
  • the Hortenwabe then also managed to be an additional logo; it was still in use at the Galeria Horten in Gießen until 2003
  • From 1988 onwards, some branches had a Galeria sheet over their Horten lettering
  • In 2001, the Horten lettering on some branches became green instead of blue for the first time
  • In 2002 the Horten logo was redesigned even more radically:
    • Hoarding now in white on a dark green area
    • Addition of the note "A branch of Kaufhof Warenhaus AG"

The logo was supplemented by an advertising text (slogan)

  • Horten - the department store with a supermarket.
  • Hoarding - the house full of ideas.
  • Hoarding is a real pleasure.
  • Galeria Horten - A world full of ideas. (later used by Kaufhof)
  • Horten - Strong partner of the Kaufhof Group (mostly shortly before the store was renamed)
  • Hoarding - quality - selection - low prices. (mainly new federal states)

Former hoarding department stores

  • Aachen , Komphausbadstrasse 10 (renovated in 1998, today still labeled Lust for Life , but vacant, it should be the house of the fashion brand Sinn )
  • Andernach , Hochstraße 80 ( Rupprecht , today Stadthausgalerie Andernach )
  • Augsburg , Bürgermeister-Fischer-Strasse 1 (closed 1987, since 1988 Wöhrl fashion store)
  • Baden-Baden , Lange Strasse 44 (today Wagener Galerie department store )
  • Bergheim , Südweststraße 13 (closed, demolished early 2007, Kaufland since late 2008)
  • Berlin , Anton-Saefkow-Platz 8 (ex. GDR- "Konsument", from 1995 Kaufhof, 2007 closed due to relocation)
  • Berlin , Senftenberger Ring (taken over by Otto in 1974 and closed in 1988, then Hertie until 1999)
  • Bielefeld , Stresemannstraße 11 (initially continued as Galeria Kaufhof, with hydrangea tiles on the back to Zimmerstraße), revitalization of the building in 2016/2017 (now part of the Loom)
  • Bochum - Wattenscheid , Alter Markt 6 ( Rupprecht , converted into the Gertudis Center)
  • Braunschweig , Bohlweg 72 (1972–1974, today Galeria Kaufhof, hydrangea tiles)
  • Bremen , Papenstrasse 5 (on the site of the former Lloyd building , opened in 1972, today Galeria Kaufhof, hydrangea tiles)
  • Bremerhaven , Bürgermeister-Smidt-Straße 10 (today Hanse Carreé)
  • Cottbus (consumer hoarding), August-Bebel-Straße 2 (today Galeria Kaufhof)
  • Dessau (Horten Konsument), Franzstraße (closed in 1995, demolished in 2007, reopening of the Dessau-Center shopping center in the same place in 2009 )
  • Dortmund , Kampstrasse 35-37 (closed in 1993 and converted into the Westfalen Forum )
  • Duisburg , Königstraße, first department store acquired during the Aryanization, later used by Karstadt, the house was demolished in January 2006
  • Duisburg , Düsseldorfer Straße 32-36 (built in 1958 as a prototype of the Merkur department stores, during a renovation in 1965 the area was doubled and renamed to hoarding, later Galeria Horten, now Galeria Kaufhof, hoarding honeycombs have since been removed)
  • Duisburg - Marxloh , August-Bebel-Platz 20 ( Rupprecht and MediaMarkt, Brahm-Center, today "Marxloh-Center", hydrangea tiles)
  • Düsseldorf , Berliner Allee 52 (built 1964–1966, until then Horten had no branch under his name at the administrative headquarters, but there was a DeFaKa at this point, which had belonged to Horten since 1954 and which also had the first new building on Oststrasse from 1964 to 1966 when DeFaKa used, Horten, the department store was only called with the completion of the component on Berliner Allee, until December 20, 2014 Galeria Kaufhof, Hortenkacheln). The hydrangea tile facade was dismantled in 2015 and sold for reuse of the meltdown. On March 22, 2018, EDEKA "Zurheide" opened a grocery supermarket with approx. 10,000 m² of retail space, The Crown, with a new facade.
  • Düsseldorf , Heinrich-Heine-Allee 1, "Das Carsch-Haus ", opened in 1915 by 'Gustav Carsch & Co.', an upscale men's outfitter, demolished in 1979, reopening of Horten on September 27, 1984 with 10,500 square meters of retail space under the name Carsch-Haus with an upscale assortment, after the takeover by Kaufhof AG, continued under the name "Carsch-Haus". Above the right entrance to Heinrich-Heine-Platz still the chiselled word Horten.
  • Erlangen , Nürnberger Straße 30, (last new building called "Merkur", was the 50th branch of the Horten group. One of the last Horten until 2004, today Galeria Kaufhof, Hort tiles removed in 2012 and replaced with a new, so-called "3-D facade "replaced)
  • Essen , Kettwiger Straße 1a, (formerly 'DeFaKa', demolition of the building from the twenties and new building in 1978, today Galeria Kaufhof, hydrangea tiles)
  • Frankfurt am Main , Hessen-Center (taken over by Otto in 1974 and closed in 1978)
  • Frankfurt (Oder) , Heilbronner Straße 30 (closed, demolished in 2006 and replaced by the new Kaufland building)
  • Gera , Sorge 23 (closed with the opening of the new Galeria Kaufhof at a different location in Gera, where HERTIE was founded)
  • Gevelsberg , Mittelstraße 27 (formerly Merkur, then Rupprecht ; today the building contains various shops, a dance school and an office floor)
  • Gotha , (Horten Konsument) Erfurter Straße (closed in 1995, fashion discount since 1999)
  • Gießen , Bahnhofstraße 9 (last Galeria Horten until 2003, then until the closure in June 2012 Galeria Kaufhof with Hort tiles)
  • Günthersdorf , Merseburger Straße 17 - "Saale Park" shopping center (closed)
  • Hagen , Friedrich-Ebert-Platz 1 ( Volme Galerie , the last hydrangea tiles were removed in 2014)
  • Halle (Saale) , Große Ulrichstraße 59, 1991: Takeover of the three consumer stores on the market, closure after merger in favor of the new Kaufhof building (meanwhile expanded to Galeria Kaufhof)
  • Hamburg , Eidelstedt (taken over by Otto in 1974, still as a hypermarket under the name Hanse SB ; closed May 31, 1989.)
  • Hamburg , Mönckebergstrasse 1 (today Saturn, between 1999 and 2001 on three floors as a pleasure-for-life department store, which only operates under this name in Aachen, hydrangea tiles have meanwhile been partially removed)
  • Hamburg- Poppenbüttel , Heegbarg (taken over by Otto in 1974, demolition and new building for Galeria Horten in 1990. From 2000 Galeria Kaufhof fashion store, since 2006 only the old Kaufhof in Poppenbüttel, the former Galeria Horten is now P&C and C&A)
  • Hamburg- Wandsbek , Wandsbeker Marktstrasse 103 (closed in 1988, today Quarree shopping center )
  • Hamm (Westphalia), Willy-Brandt-Platz. Opened in 1970, demolished in 2007 (2002–2005 Yimpas, completely vacant since 2005, auction of 300 hydrangea tiles at the end of April 2007). Redevelopment by the city of Hamm (science center "Heinrich-von-Kleist Forum")
    The Horten department store in Hamm (demolished in 2007)
  • Hanover , Seilwinderstraße 8 (opened in 1975, today Galeria Kaufhof, hydrangea tiles)
  • Heidelberg , Bismarckplatz 1 (today Galeria Kaufhof, the first Galeria Horten in 1988, the hydrangea tiles on the front were largely replaced by a glass facade in 1988. In 2002, all of the approx. 2800 remaining honeycomb stones were replaced with new ones)
  • Heidenheim an der Brenz , Karlstrasse
  • Heilbronn , Fleiner Straße 15 (today Galeria Kaufhof; the hydrangea tiles have been removed)
  • Hildesheim , Almsstraße 41 (today Galeria Kaufhof with hydrangea tiles)
  • Ingolstadt , Ludwigstrasse 29 (today Galeria Kaufhof)
  • Jena (hoarding consumer), Inselplatz. Intended in the 1980s as part of the Konsument department store chain in the GDR, construction began around 1987. Completed and opened in 1990 by Horten. During the construction phase in the spring of 1990, the sale took place in a tent, which was still in operation some time after the store opened. This department store was closed in 1994 and demolished in 2010.
  • Kempen , Hessenring 25 (closed, today Edeka Center )
  • Kempten (Allgäu) , Residenzplatz 2 (today Galeria Kaufhof with hydrangea tiles)
  • Kiel , Dreiecksplatz / Preußerstraße Merkurhaus (opened in 1911 as Jacobsen department store, after the war Merkur department store, later Horten, closed in 1989, today Aldi and offices)
  • Krefeld , Ostwall 170–180 (one of the last hoards until 2004, then Kaufhof with hydrangea tiles, closed since June 2010, since 2013 renovation and removal of the tile facade, today Primark and other companies)
  • Leipzig , Richard-Wagner-Straße 20 (formerly a consumer department store, also known as a tin box thanks to the unique aluminum cladding, closed in 2001, then used by Karstadt as a bargain market and alternative area for the new department store in Petersstraße until 2006)
  • Leipzig , Paunsdorfer Allee 1 - Paunsdorf-Center (later Galeria Kaufhof, closed in 2010)
  • Ludwigshafen , Bismarckstraße 63 (from 2004 as Kaufhof, closed since June 2010)
  • Lübeck , "Am Holstentor" (planned around 1980, but not built)
  • Mannheim , N7 2a-4 (today Galeria Kaufhof, hydrangea tiles removed during facade renovation in 2008)
  • Marburg , Gutenbergstraße (former Philippinum grammar school, today Schloßberg Center shopping center )
  • Mülheim an der Ruhr , Rhein Ruhr Zentrum (taken over by Otto in 1974, closed in 1977)
  • Münster , Ludgeristraße 1 (today Galeria Kaufhof, one of the first two Galeria Horten in 1988, building without hydrangea tiles or honeycombs)
  • Moers , Homberger Straße 51 (built in 1962 as Merkur , then Horten, closed since the end of 1999, after renovation of the facade in 2006, front without Horten honeycomb, since October 2014 in demolition, decision to build a new shopping center)
  • Neuss , closed on February 6, 1999, then converted into a Tranktor-Passage , Kino Hitch and Rheinisches Landestheater
  • Nuremberg , Aufseßplatz 18 (one of the last hoards until 2004, Kaufhof until 2012, formerly Schocken , then Merkur, hoarding combs)
  • Oldenburg , Ritterstraße 17 (redesigned September 13, 1995 as the first Galeria Kaufhof branch, today still with hydrangea tiles, redesigned facade until November 20, 2010)
  • Osnabrück , Wittekindstraße 23 (in September 1995 second Galeria Kaufhof branch with hydrangea tiles)
  • Pforzheim , Westliche Karl-Friedrich-Straße 17 (today Galeria Kaufhof; formerly Schocken, then Merkur, then hoarding, then Galeria Horten; hydrangea tiles replaced by aluminum facade in 2014)
  • Pirmasens , Hauptstraße ( Rupprecht , today H&M)
  • Plauen (Horten Konsument) , Postplatz 5–6 (closed since December 18, 2000, probably from 2013 District Office of the Vogtland District)
  • Potsdam (Horten Konsument) , Brandenburger Straße (closed after the fire in 1996, then vacant, Karstadt since 2005)
  • Recklinghausen , Löhrhof 5 (in the Löhrhof Center, Hanse SB from 1982, closed in 1988, renovation, today opened in the rest of the Löhrhof Center), demolished in 2012
  • Regensburg , Neupfarrplatz 8 (today Galeria Kaufhof)
  • Reutlingen , Karlstraße 20 (today Galeria Kaufhof with hydrangea tiles)
  • Schwäbisch Gmünd , Ledergasse 44 (on the B 29 towards Aalen, near the train station) (closed in 2000, demolished in 2012 for the 2014 State Horticultural Show)
  • Schweinfurt , Anton-Niedermeier-Platz 13 (today Galeria Kaufhof with hydrangea tiles)
  • Stuttgart , Eberhardstraße 28 (today Galeria Kaufhof with hydrangea tiles)
  • Stuttgart , Marienstraße (today a shopping mall and offices)
  • Stralsund (former Wertheim start-up branch, Horten Konsument, closed in 1994)
  • Sulzbach , Main-Taunus-Zentrum (today Galeria Kaufhof with hydrangea tiles)
  • Trier , Fleischstraße (today Galeria Kaufhof with hydrangea tiles)
  • Ulm , Bahnhofstrasse 5 (today Galeria Kaufhof with hydrangea tiles)
  • Viersen , Löhstraße 23 ( Rupprecht and Strauss Innovation , then only rented on the ground floor from 2000, but closed since 2004. The property was heated until the beginning of 2006. (around € 10,000 per year pure heating costs) However, due to moisture on the 2nd floor and partly in the basement no longer usable. According to Kaufring AG, renovation would not be worthwhile. Demolition began on January 3, 2007. From the beginning of July 2007, new construction of a shopping center, which opened on March 20, 2008 under the name "Löh-Center". which was the warehouse and cold store of the Horten department store built in 1965, serves as storage space for the new shopping center.)
  • Weimar , (Horten in Weimar GmbH), Schillerstraße (closed in 1995)
  • Wiesbaden , Kirchgasse 28 (from 1985 under the name Carsch-Haus ; today Galeria Kaufhof with hoarding combs)
  • Witten , Bahnhofstraße 5 (today Galeria Kaufhof with hydrangea tiles)
  • Worms , Am Römischen Kaiser 1 ( Rupprecht , closed today EKZ Kaiser Passage)
  • Wuppertal , Erholungsstraße (run as DeFaKa until 1963, after conversion with an expanded sales area as Horten, sold to Cramer & Meermann in 1975 )
  • Zwickau (Horten Konsument) , Hauptstrasse 7-11 (only ground floor rented)

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Hermes, Das alte Kempen, p. 157
  2. http://www.wattenscheider-hbv.de/Bilder/wattenscheider2-2000.pdf "Der Wattenscheider", issue 2, June 2000, page 14
  3. Horten: Das Paradies der Damen , Spiegel, May 18, 1955, accessed May 12, 2015
  4. Aryanization: Nobody has anything to celebrate here , Spiegel, December 21, 1987, accessed May 12, 2015
  5. The Golden Twenty Years , Time, January 14, 1972, accessed May 28, 2015
  6. ^ Raul Hilberg : The Destruction of European Jews , Fischer Taschenbuch 1982, Volume 2, ISBN 3-596-24417-X , p. 605
  7. https://www.iww.de/pistb/archiv/aussensteuergesetz-die-wegzugsbesteuer-von-horten-bis-de-lasteyrie-du-saillant-f42713
  8. Martin Walser: Always up to date: On the occasion
  9. The Horten facade ends up in the Art Academy , wz.de, June 16, 2015
  10. Adé Hortenkachel: Dusseldorf department store rebuilt by RKW , baunetz.de, June 13, 2018
  11. 10,000 square meters of sales area: This is what the new Zurheide store looks like , rp-online.de, March 22, 2018
  12. Erlanger Nachrichten of December 1, 2012 : Galeria Kaufhof has a new 3-D facade , accessed on May 3, 2013
  13. Hamburger Abendblatt (short message in the local section): Horten-Filiale zu Edeka from January 10, 1989, page 4
  14. ^ Ernst-Friedrich Krieger - Architecture & Urban Development. Retrieved December 23, 2018 .
  15. New Kaufhof facade in Pforzheim , press release Ebener GmbH of December 3, 2014, accessed on February 10, 2017