district 302 of Cologne
|Residents||36,687 (Dec. 31, 2017)|
|Population density||7091 inhabitants / km²|
|Postcodes||50935, 50937, 50939|
|Light rail lines|
|Source: 2017 residents . (PDF) Cologne district information|
The Sülz district ( Kölsch : Sölz ) belongs to the Cologne-Lindenthal district in the south-west of Cologne . In the southeast it borders on the districts of Zollstock and Klettenberg , in the southwest on the neighboring municipality of Hürth - Efferen , in the north on Cologne's Neustadt-Süd and in the northwest on the Lindenthal district . Sülz has grown together with Klettenberg due to a large number of jointly used facilities such as schools, churches and shopping streets.
The exact limits are as follows: All streets west of Luxemburger Straße and the streets of the rectangle from Gottesweg to the railway line and Zülpicher Straße (included) belong to Sülz , this further out of town to Gleueler Straße (exclusive) to the motorway ring, then the Sector to the Luxemburger (exclusive) to the Gottesweg.
As of December 31, 2017, Sülz
- 36,687 inhabitants, making it the fourth largest Cologne district
- a surplus of women (19,573 females versus 17,114 males)
- 21,574 single and 10,839 married residents
- 25,127 citizens between the ages of 18 and 60, 4,646 citizens younger than 18 and 6,914 citizens older than 60 years
- 13,493 Catholics, 6,905 Protestants and 16,289 other and non-denominational people
- 22,288 households, of which 13,714 (61.5%) one-person and 5,233 (23.5%) two-person households
- With 42.1% the highest proportion of recreational areas of all Cologne districts (next to Klettenberg with 42.1%)
The name Sülz is derived from the Fronhof Sulpece, which was first mentioned in 1145 as Villa Sultz and was renamed Sulpze in 1181. The "Hof Sülz" has been documented as a winery since 966. Until secularization , the Fronhof belonged to the twelve canteen goods (table goods) of the Benedictine abbey of St. Pantaleon, founded in 957 . With the construction of the Weiherkloster in 1198 and a total of nine castles and manors in its vicinity, which merged into a fortress cooperative in 1240, this ensured an upswing in today's Sülz area. The monastery court association was grouped around the Fronhof, which was a closed area. In 1251 Abbot Hermann II leased the Fronhof to the "Colonus" Mathias zu Halfenbau for nine years; Among other things, the tenant had to carry the manure to the fields on the farm.
The courtyard was destroyed in 1474 during the Cologne Neuss War when the army of Charles the Bold approached , as was the pilgrimage chapel of St. Nicholas, built in the 12th century, and the entire development in front of the Cologne city wall for security reasons by the city of Cologne in order to deprive the enemy of any cover . At the first cadastral survey it was 482.26 Prussian acres . From 1487 the old courtyard was rebuilt as Villa Nova on Berrenrather Straße. It formed an economic unit with the Weißhaus on Luxemburger Strasse, which was mentioned in a document in 1378, and the Komarhof, which later belonged to Cologne-Klettenberg , and the Klettenberger Hof. Today the Neuenhöfer Allee, as a former representative driveway from the Krieler Dömchen , reminds of the Fronhof, which was demolished at the beginning of the 20th century.
In the 19th century, the area of today's district was dominated by agriculture. The modern development of Sülz began, as Hess (2019) explains, in 1836/37 with the emigrant farms of the Heuser family from Cologne on Berrenrather Strasse "on the Sülz". Following their example, more farmers settled here, so that a register of the municipality of Kriel for 1858 already lists five farms that were located on their long plots away from Berrenrather Straße. At the same time, the era of brickworks in Sülz began on Zülpicher Strasse (Krieler path). In 1845 the Cologne building contractor Heinrich Wagner bought 13 acres of land south of Zülpicher Strasse from the Cologne brickworks owner Heinrich Felten, who until 1855 ran one or more brickworks between today's Lindenburg and Zülpicher Strasse. Wagner built a brick factory here and later a sand pit in the area of Agidiusstrasse. In order to better develop his site, he replaced the beaten path with a private path between Zülpicher and Berrenrather Strasse, which later became Wagnerstrasse and is now known as Agidiusstrasse. On this he also built some houses for his brick workers and for sale. In the further development, in addition to the farmers and brick factories, small businesses and factories first settled - on laid-out terrain - in the area between Sülzburgstrasse and Agidiusstrasse, which resulted in an enormous influx of people. There were machine factories and spinning mills in Sülz; Bicycles, motorcycles, automobiles and tobacco-processing machines were built, gold moldings, letterpress inks, furniture, arc lamps, brushes, varnish, liquorice, cigars, fishing rods, bodices and straw hats were made, and bread was baked. In this way, the mixture of living and working that was typical of Sülz at the time was created. The buildings of many of the factories are still preserved today.
Well-known resident and in some cases industry-leading companies were, for example:
- Tobacco processing machines Wilh. Quester, Berrenrather Straße - Carré between Sülzburg and Gerolsteiner Straße
- Cito-Fahrradwerke , Luxemburger Straße
- Allright -Fahrradwerke, Neuenhöfer Allee, later merged with Cito to form the Cologne-Lindenthaler Metallwerke
- Former Silberberg & Mayer straw hat factory , Lotharstrasse
- Heinrich Dumont cigar factory, Berrenrather Straße 186–190, since 1938 in the same place, then umbrella factory Gebrüder Nolte and in the 1960s fishing tackle manufacturer Brink, later bought by Noris and merged with Shakespeare to form Noris-Shakespeare
- Bread factory Hermann, Manderscheider Strasse (only the administration building on the corner of Luxemburger Strasse is preserved)
- Kölner Motorenwagenfabrik , Marsiliusstrasse (1897 first German automobile factory), later Priamus automobile works
In the 19th century, Sülz belonged to the municipality of Kriel in the Efferen mayor of the Cologne district . Together with the entire municipality of Kriel, Sülz was incorporated into the city of Cologne in 1888.
In a second stage of development, after the turn of the century in Sülz, residential areas close to the center were opened up for the Cologne residents along the arteries from Roman times as well as in the area between Berrenrather and Luxemburger Strasse, which were now designed based on architectural elements of the New Town of Cologne and different centers such as residential developments , Business settlements, squares, green spaces as well as church and school buildings.
Streets, squares and green spaces
The actual settlement of Sülz began in 1845 in Egidiusstrasse, the former Wagnerstrasse. Here and in the other small, almost right-angled street grid between Berrenrather and Zülpicher Straße as well as Weyertal and Sülzburgstraße and Gustav-, Redwitz- and Marsiliusstraße, not only did the first commercial settlement take place, the first two-story houses for workers were also built here and merchandise for sale . The Bosen hardware store, which was founded in 1875 in a typical three-window house that was later changed with the closed window front on the first floor and which was closed in 1998, still stands in Marsiliusstraße , the inventory of which is to be recovered and rebuilt in a museum.
Almost 100 years after the beginning of the settlement of Sülz , the crossing Palanterstraße formed the “red cell” in Sülz, which was otherwise predominantly riddled with National Socialists (today a strong red-green majority). Here, simple large working-class families jostled into the apartments, fighting with those from neighboring Veedeln . It was precisely for this reason that the National Socialists held their parade marches there. The boxer and three-time German middleweight champion Peter Müller was also at home in Palanterstrasse .
Berrenrather, Luxemburger and Zülpicher Strasse are the three large straight arterial roads that both lead out of town and also connect Sülz with Cologne city center. They come from Roman times. Public transport also runs here, the Sülz tram, which runs exclusively above ground, on Luxemburger and Zülpicher Strasse, and buses on Berrenrather Strasse.
The Weyertal and the former Kaiserstraße run right through the district, which was renamed as Gottesweg with the incorporation into Sülzburgstraße and its extension from Luxemburger Straße. Since the turn of the century between Berrenrather and Luxemburger Strasse, Sülzburgstrasse has been one of the shopping streets of the Sülzer and neighboring Klettenbergers, and numerous shops have also settled in the large neighboring streets at this height, so that this square forms the center of Sülz.
The other traffic connections to the neighboring districts are the military ring road, the Sülzgürtel, on which a tram line also runs, as well as the streets Universitätsstraße and Weißhausstraße , which continue the Innere Kanalstraße in the Sülz area. Between the military ring and the Sülzgürtel is also the Neuenhöfer Allee, which leads past the Beethoven Park.
Squares and green spaces
In the second development phase, a total of seven squares were created: the two event and market squares Auerbach- and Hermeskeiler Platz as well as the multifunctional green city squares designed by the Cologne gardening director Fritz Encke . A typical example of this is Asbergplatz (1912). Just like on De-Noël-Platz (1904/05), Manderscheider Platz (1911) and Nikolausplatz (1912), there are both playgrounds and planted quiet areas.
Auerbachplatz , named after Privy Councilor Benjamin Auerbach , who headed the Israelite Asylum for the sick and the elderly from 1885 to 1935 , and Hermeskeiler Platz serve as marketplaces twice a week and are otherwise available for public festivals and parking spaces. Auerbachplatz has play and relaxation areas in the east and an underground car park in the west.
Historically, in the 19th century, Sülz was located between the inner and outer Cologne fortress belts. After the fortress status was abolished, the former fields of fire (rayon areas) were converted into the inner green belt and the outer green belt from the 1920s . The city designed the outer green belt according to plans by Lord Mayor Konrad Adenauer , the urban planner Fritz Schumacher and the garden directors Fritz Encke and Theodor Nussbaum based on the model of the garden city and “green belt” ideas discussed since the turn of the century as a forest and meadow belt People's meadows and sports fields.
As a transition to the built-up suburb area, numerous green radial lines were laid out in the form of allotments or green spaces such as the Beethoven Park . These should lead from the more decorative green of the house and front gardens to the more natural green of the forest belt. Sülz in particular has the ideal development sequence that was planned and implemented at the time, which decreases in density and intensity from the city center to the outskirts on the military ring, while the intensity of the green increases out of town.
The Sülz allotment garden colony was laid out between 1927 and 1930 to the north-west of the Beethoven Park. In the middle of the allotment garden facility Kletterrose eV, a green hill of rubble rises on the Sülzer Aquarienweg. From 1928 to the mid-1990s, the site of a former artillery barn of the outer fortress belt that was blown up in 1921 housed the Sülzer Zoo, initially known as the Sülzer Aquarium Zoo. Today there is a nature trail here.
Large parts of the 20 hectare Decksteiner Weiher , which, like the Beethoven Park, was also laid out according to plans by Fritz Encke, also belong to the Sülz area of the outer green belt. The Decksteiner Weiher was already planned as a means of rowing, sailing and ice sports in the 1920s. The middle section spanned on Gleueler Strasse is lined with two chestnut avenues.
Buildings and monuments
Churches, chapels and cemeteries
The church of St. Stephanus, which today belongs to the Lindenthal district, was built in different construction phases from the 9th to the 13th century and popularly known as Krieler Dömchen , was formerly the parish church of St. Stephan of the Creile estate.
The Nikolauskirche, built between 1903 and 1909 by Franz Statz, son of the cathedral builder Vincenz Statz, together with the Catholic rectory on the Nikolausplatz designed by Fritz Encke, are likely to have the greatest historical significance. In St. Nikolaus there are Byzantine-style mosaics, such as the apse mosaic by Johannes Osten (1919), expressionist frescoes by Peter Hecker from the 1960s. The 53 m high church tower is a striking dominant feature in the cityscape.
In 1930 Ferdinand Passmann and J. Bonn built the St. Karl Borromäus Church in Zülpicher Strasse on the corner of Redwitzstrasse. The Hochkreuz and Kreuzweg were created by Wilhelm Tophinke . The glazing from 1958 comes from Georg Meistermann . In the course of a renovation in 1967/68 the choir room was redesigned by Gottfried Böhm and the choir wall was also redesigned by Georg Meistermann. The tabernacle was made according to a design by Gottfried Böhm. A Madonna from northern Spain dates to the middle of the 14th century.
In the middle of the children's home on the Sülzgürtel is still the orphanage church of the Holy Family by architects Dominikus Böhm and Gottfried Böhm. Built from 1956 to 1958, it replaced the previous building that had been destroyed in the war, including the preserved neo-baroque tower. In May 2007 it was named "Monument of the Month" by the Rhenish Association for Monument Preservation and Landscape Protection (RVDL).
For the Protestants, Cologne was a diaspora for a long time . The Geusenfriedhof am Weyertal from 1576, which served the Protestant Christians as a cemetery until 1871, also bears witness to this . At the time it was outside the city of Cologne and is known for its large number of excellent grave monuments and the grave slabs with numerous inscriptions from the 16th to 19th centuries. Century in Lindenthal on the border to Sülz to this day.
The two Protestant churches are the Tersteegenhaus , built in 1928 by Heinrich Mattar and Eduard Scheler only as a parish hall, with a church tower added later in Emmastraße, and the Johanneskirche in Nonnenwerthstraße.
Remains of the oldest building in Sülz can be found on Berrenrather Strasse, which is identical to the route of the Roman aqueduct throughout its entire course from Hürth -Efferen to Sülz and is therefore now part of the Roman Canal hiking trail . This is a pillar remnant and a mud trap from the Eifel aqueduct from the 1st half of the 1st century.
Directly opposite the mud trap is the Geißbockheim clubhouse built by Franz Kremer , the first president of the Cologne soccer club 1. FC Köln , named after the mascot of 1. FC Köln. Such a billy goat was presented to Franz Kremer by the circus director H. Williams in 1950 during a carnival event.
Also of historical importance are the privately owned, restored moated castle Weisshaus, which was heavily destroyed in World War II, with the Wolff property and the only surviving suburban cinema in Cologne named after the Weisshaus on Luxemburger Strasse, the orphanage on the Sülzgürtel, the straw hat factory Silberberg & Mayer in the Lotharstrasse and that in a former training workshop of the machine factory Wilh. Quester housed youth center in Sülzburgstrasse. The building of a former gold molding factory (1874/75) and the buildings of the former brewery of Josef Heckmann (1878f.) Are located at Sülzburgstraße 104-106. Sülz also includes the Uni-Center , one of the largest residential buildings in Europe, and the Cologne public observatory on the roof of the Schiller High School.
The cityscape of Sülz is today characterized by residential areas of various kinds. These consist of the former two-storey workers' apartments in the core area around Egidiusstraße, as well as numerous from the turn of the century, partly still in the 1920s and 1930s, from GAG, GRUBO, GWG and the foundation stone built cooperative apartments with spacious green courtyards, but also from luxury residential complexes and loft apartments built into the former manufacturing facilities . In the western area out of town you can also find garden town settlements. South of Berrenrather Straße, on the other hand, many town houses from the second phase of development built from 1900 onwards and red brick houses with gardens from 1930 to 1955 to the east of Luxemburger Straße characterize the appearance.
In the wall of the youth center in Sülzburgstrasse, a slave labor memorial created by the youth in 1981 is embedded. Gunter Demnig laid a number of stumbling blocks in memory of the deported Jews in Sülz ; the one in front of the house at Emmastraße 27, for example, commemorates the murdered in Auschwitz Dr. Louise Straus-Ernst , who initially shaped Cologne with her husband Max Ernst Dada , later worked there as a journalist and welcomed many well-known theater people and artists. At house Sülzgürtel No. 8 there is a memorial plaque for the Cologne group of the resistance movement National Committee Free Germany, which has been operating from there since autumn 1944 .
The Sülz monuments also include the first school buildings, a transformer house built in 1923 on a triangular floor plan with ceramic reliefs by Erwin Holler on the Sülzgürtel, the squares and green spaces with the Decksteiner Weiher, the white house with chapel, the Roman mud trap and the remains of the pillar of the Roman water pipe, as well almost 200 houses, settlements and former business premises listed individually in the list of monuments.
Schools and colleges
In Sülz there are two elementary schools and one secondary school on Berrenrather Strasse and one secondary school on Euskirchener Strasse. The Elisabeth-von-Thüringen-Gymnasium and the Schiller-Gymnasium are located on Nikolausstraße and the Hildegard-von-Bingen-Gymnasium is located on Leybergstraße . Near the former orphanage there is the English St. George's School and on Zülpicher Strasse the municipal special school with a focus on "Social and Emotional Development" and a special school on Redwitzstrasse for the specialty "Intellectual Development".
The Sülz regional school of the Rheinische Musikschule in Lotharstrasse, located in the former straw hat factory, is assigned to the university sector. In addition, there are several institutes belonging to the University of Cologne in Sülz: The Institute for Applied Social Research and the Research Institute for Sociology in Greinstrasse, the Institute for Legal Law at the Justice Center and the Institute for Energy Law at Nikolausplatz.
Private theater and music schools, legal traineeships in the parish hall of St. Nikolaus and some courses at the adult education center in the former straw hat factory round off the Sülz training program.
The orphanage ( Kinderheim Sülz ) opened in 1914 on the Sülzgürtel, whose director Friedrich Tillmann helped organize the destruction of unworthy life during the Nazi era in 1940 as the office manager of the command center in Berlin , has not only been used as a children's home in recent years. With the exception of the Church of the Holy Family , parts of the reception building and the Elisabeth House, which are listed buildings, the home was demolished from the beginning of 2010.
The municipal Dr. Ernst Schwering retirement home on Auerbachplatz, which was integrated into a newly built residential complex at the end of 2005, was a Jewish retirement home in the 1960s.
The premises of the former test workshop of the Wilhelm Quester Maschinenfabrik were used for the youth center in Sülzburgstrasse; the building is currently being gutted. A number of housing cooperatives founded in the 1920s with the aim of eliminating the housing shortage for the many working-class families at that time still offer the few affordable apartments in Sülz. For many decades, the Catholic workers' movement KAB was the actual Sülz civic community, which shaped the entire social network.
The Federal Association of the Arbeiter-Samariter-Bund ASB is housed on Sülzburgstrasse in a spacious building complex of a former monastery decorated with a sundial. This former monastery is located directly opposite the second location of the Nikolauskirche, before it was rebuilt in 1906 in a larger dimension appropriate to the rapidly growing population at the original location, today's Nikolausplatz.
Church, municipal and private organizations offer a total of 18 day-care centers with 998 places in Sülz.
Traditional events are the Veedelszoch on Carnival Tuesday, numerous church festivals such as the ecumenical parish fair around the Nikolauskirche and the Corpus Christi procession through the Sülzburgstrasse to the so-called God's Way. The interest group of business people from Sülz organizes the “Carreéfest” on the 1st weekend in September, and in November it makes its shop windows available to artists for a week as part of “Art in the Carrée”. Raffael Becker , who has lived in Sülz since the mid-1950s, is one of the better-known artists , and the draftsman Wilhelm Schlote has also lived and worked here since June 2011 . Artists resident in the Veedel as well as the atelier communities Agidiusstrasse and Lichthof (in the former straw hat factory Silberberg & Mayer) take part in the “Open Atelier Days” in November.
Since 1996 the Forum Klettenberg has organized readings and concerts in the Tersteegenhaus and in the Johanneskirche; Concerts are also held regularly in the Catholic churches. The local high schools, the Freiraum cultural salon on Gottesweg, the Casamax children's theater in the backyard of Berrenrather Strasse and the studio stage of the University of Cologne, as well as various bookshops, host other regular events . Sülz is also home to the Johanneskantorei and the Klettenberg Chamber Orchestra with annual events in the Johanneskirche as well as the Sülz regional school of the Rhenish music school (also in the former straw hat factory) and a number of amateur choirs. The Weißhauskino on Luxemburger Straße rounds off the cultural program. Numerous musicians such as the Bläck Fööss , Hans Süper and the Wise Guys come from Sülz , as do television presenter Stefan Raab .
Opposite the Uni-Center, on the site of the former freight yard of the Cologne-Bonn Railways, are the Cologne Employment Office and the Cologne Justice Center with its district and regional court , public prosecutor's office and the Rhenish Chamber of Notaries; There is a branch of the city library in Wichterichstraße.
politic and economy
The following table shows the Sülz election results from 2009 and 2012
(in brackets the result for the entire Lindenthal district):
|Political party||Municipal 2009 in%||State Parliament 2012 in%||Bundestag 2009 1 in%|
|SPD||28.02 (24.26)||40.54 3 (35.91)||36.52 (31.38) Lale Akgun|
|CDU||23.63 (31.97)||23.51 (32.41)||29.35 (37.8) Michael Paul|
|Green||29.24 2 (22.94)||21.88 (17.27)||18.76 (14.29) Volker Beck|
|FDP||9.54 (12.45)||4.87 (6.45)||9.52 (11.43) Werner Hoyer|
|left||4.06 (3.2)||3.04 (2.31)||5.24 (4.46) Matthias Birkwald|
1 first vote. Second votes in the Lindenthal district:
CDU 30.7%, SPD 21.04%, Greens 18.88%, FDP 20.36%
- 2 Ossi Helling and Gabriele Schlitt
- 3 Lisa Steinmann
In the Bundestag, Sülz and the entire Lindenthal district are thus represented by Dr. Michael Paul (CDU) is represented in the state parliament by Lisa Steinmann (SPD). In local politics, the Sülz district, which has a majority vote in red and green, is represented in the Cologne City Council by Ossi Helling (Greens, Sülz II constituency) and Gabriele Schlitt (Greens, Klettenberg / Sülz I constituency).
The former industrial production with its factory chimneys has long been banned from Sülz. According to the zoning plan, most of the built-up part of Sülz is now defined as a residential area and the old town is even defined as a “special residential area”. There are no more industrial areas in Sülz, and only the small area around Rhöndorfer Straße is an industrial area . Further into the city from Universitätsstrasse on both sides of Luxemburger Strasse there is still a mixed area and a special building area for the university. In addition, there are smaller general needs, mainly for schools.
Working life in Sülz mainly takes place in medical practices, lawyers, architecture and business consultancy offices, a number of craft businesses, art studios and galleries, at the two weekly markets and in a large number of pubs, breweries, restaurants, cafes and supermarkets, drugstore chains and small specialist shops .
In addition to tanning salons, hairdressers, bike shops and wine shops, bookstores and second-hand bookshops are almost as densely populated as pharmacies. But also fruit and vegetable shops with an Italian flair as well as delicatessen shops, long-established shoemakers, car repair shops, transport and moving companies, private music and theater schools and, until 2009, a scissors grinding shop characterize the commercial offer in Sülz. In addition, many employees in the media city of Cologne are based in Sülz, some of whom also create media productions on a freelance basis or for small businesses.
Large office complexes are not available for this, with the exception of the Justice Center on Luxemburger Strasse. The mostly small workplaces of the members of the liberal professions are also set up in the former, now restored production plants.
Most Sülzer, however, do not work in Sülz, they just live there. The share of unemployed in 2012 was 4.9%. Only 12 of Cologne's 85 districts still had low unemployment rates.
Sons and daughters
- Peter Müller (1927-1992), boxer
- Franz Schneider (1916–1985), actor and radio play speaker
- Stefan Raab (* 1966), moderator
- Hans-Michel Becker: Abbots, Kies and Duffesbach. Bachem, Cologne 1987
- Hiltrud Kier (ed.): List of monuments 12.3 City districts 2 and 3 Rodenkirchen and Lindenthal. Rheinland-Verlag, Cologne 1984
- Thomas van Nies and Josef van Elten: The Church of St. John XXIII. in Cologne-Sülz (Rheinische Kunststätten Heft 568, edited by the Rhenish Association for Monument Preservation and Landscape Protection Cologne). Media Cologne Communication Media, Hürth 2019, ISBN 978-3-86526-123-6 .
- Johannes Schuster: Sülzer borders and streets. Self-published, Cologne 2000
- City of Cologne (ed.): Culture trails. District 3 (Lindenthal) . Cologne 1984.
- Eusebius Wirdeier : Photo Stories Sülz and Klettenberg 1855-1985. Emons, Cologne 2019, ISBN 978-3-7408-0693-4 .
- Adam Wrede : The Sülz monastery near Cologne. Stauff, Cologne 1909
- Peter Caspers: Op Kölsch-The dictionary . 2nd Edition. Greven-Verlag, Cologne 2014, ISBN 978-3-7743-0380-5 .
- Cologne districtresidents 2017. Office for Urban Development and Statistics, accessed on July 1, 2018 .
- Alexander Hess: Of farms, brickworks and lines of fire. Aspects of the Sülz and Klettenberg local history in: Eusebius Wirdeier: Photo stories Sülz and Klettenberg 1855-1985. Emons, Cologne 2019, pp. 10, 14f.
- Hess, p. 14
- Hess, p. 14
- Alexander Hess: The green hill in Sülz . P. 66 and 69.
- Alexander Hess: The green hill in Sülz. In: Fortis Das Magazin 2015/2016, p. 66f, published by Fortis Colonia, Cologne 2016.
- Source: City of Cologne: Kulturpfade. District 3 (Lindenthal), p. 23
- City of Cologne (ed.): Kultupfade. District 3 (Lindenthal), p. 21
- Alexander Hess: The Heckmann Brewery in Sülz. In: Monument of the Month 1997-2006. Edited by the Rhenish Association for Monument Preservation and Landscape Protection. Cologne 2009, pp. 48–50
- use plan .
- Office for Urban Development and Statistics, as of December 31, 2012