Grafenwiesen Castle, which only exists in remnants but is still listed, is located in the Upper Palatinate municipality of Grafenwiesen in the Cham district of Bavaria (Schloßweg 1). The castle stands east of the village center on a foothill of the Kaiterberg.
Ministerials of the Counts of Bogen and the Margraves of Cham , named after Grafenwiesen ( de Kravewissen ), have been known here since the end of the 12th century . The first is named as Sigifridus de Grauenwise in a Reichenbach tradition that can be dated between 1176 and 1183 . His possible brother Adilpertus de Grauenwise is mentioned several times between 1178 and 1204 as a witness in the transfer of goods to the monastery. In 1209 Albert von Grafenwiesen witnessed a donation to the Niederaltaich monastery . From 1217 Sigfrid II von Grafenwiesen can be traced . In 1224 the wealthy Grafenwiesen witnessed the transfer of the Kötzting church to the Rott monastery . His oldest son is Siegfried III. who in 1270 arbitrated over Weißenregen because of the bailiwick . The document also mentions the brothers Otto , Konrad and Walter von Grafenwiesen , who probably belonged to a different branch of the family. The presumed widow of Siegfried III. is mentioned in 1311 in the second land register of the Viztumamt Straubing . A Ott of Grafenwiesen (1319) and in episcopal services related Chunrat the Grauenwisaer (1330) have emigrated from Grafenwiesen. As a result, the Grafenwiesener often appear in connection with the Rott Monastery. In 1373 Nycls and Hiltprant the Grafenwisner appear as donors for this monastery.
After the death of Mathes Grafenwieser , who remained childless (around 1400), the property fell to the Hohenwarther family. In 1402, the Hohenwarther family is mentioned for the first time as the owner of Grafenwiesen. The Hofmark is a fief of the Rott Monastery . In 1414 the abbot there gave the vestgehayssen gray wise men to the Elpet Hohenwartherin as a fief. In a legal dispute in 1455, the family relationships are presented as follows: The three siblings Wilhelm , Friedrich and Kunigund were present. The latter married Hans Pock zu Wetzelsdorf . Wilhelm bequeathed his son Hans Grafenwiesen; he had a daughter Walburg , who died unmarried. Kunigund left two sons, one of whom Hermann died as a priest and the second was named Paul . He fathered the son Augustin Pock , who was to be regarded as the right-wing, natural, oral heir to Grafenbysen . In 1475 Augustin Pock , district judge in Viechtach , confessed that he had redeemed Grafenwiesen from the transfer of the Hohenwarther to the Pewtner . On February 5, 1500, an arbitration award was issued in the inheritance dispute between Stefan Widemann , district judge zu Kötzting , and his housewife Anna , widow of the late Augustin Pock, on the one hand and Hans Poißl zu Loifling and his wife Ursula , daughter of Augustin Pock, on the other. After that, Hans Poißl and his wife can keep the Grafenwiesen seat, but have to pay the Widemann a sum of money. Georg Poyßl has been the owner of the Hofmark since 1539 .
In 1573, the guardians of the Poissl heirs sold the castle, castle stables, chapel and Hofmark Grafenwiesen to Ambros Karl , keeper of Kötzting. Ownership of this was passed to Hans Andreas von der Warth on Kaufweg in 1584 . In 1598 he sold the Hofmark to Augustin Ecker von Lichteneck . In 1610 Grafenwiesen passed to Mathias Rosenhammer , captain in front of the forest and caretaker at Kötzting. In 1624 he set up a brewery in Grafenwiesen, about which he got into an argument with Kötzting. During this time, the palace chapel of the Holy Trinity was built , which served as a place of worship until the current parish church was built. The former castle chapel was demolished in 1925/26; archaeological investigations have shown that a previous building stood here around the year 1200.
Then the castle , which was devastated in the Thirty Years' War , was passed on to his granddaughter Ursula Regina von Leiblfing . Around 1645 she was married to Hans Georg Sinzl for the first time and to Johann Freiherr Reittorner von Schöllnach auf Hohenwarth (who was enfeoffed with the castle and Hofmark in 1653). This is followed by his son-in-law Wolf Heinrich Gemel on Grafenwiesen. In 1691 Johann Walser von Syrenburg took over the ownership. He sold Grafenwiesen on March 17, 1702 to the Rott Monastery, from which he had received it as an inheritance. Grafenwiesen remained in the possession of the monastery until secularization . The new coat of arms of Grafenwiesen corresponds to the coat of arms of the abbot Aemilian Oettinger , who headed the monastery Rott am Inn from 1698 to 1728 and acquired the Hofmark Grafenwiesen for the monastery.
The old castle is now owned by the Graßl family; a brewery was housed here until 1959.
Grafenwiesen Castle then and now
The castle is believed to date from the 12th century. In the 14th century it seems to have been destroyed and only temporarily rebuilt. After 1568 the new castle was built here. Even after the devastation of the Thirty Years War , the castle was rebuilt. In 1737 the complex is described as follows: a brick castle, 3 aisles high with a ditch, previously surrounded with water, in the courtyard an old walled castle stable with a chapel .
After the engraving by Michael Wening from 1721, Grafenwiesen Castle was a three-wing, angled and two-storey complex. In the middle of the castle courtyard you can see the castle chapel with an onion dome . A fenced ornamental garden extends to the southeast next to the castle. In front of the castle is a moat filled with water, over which a small bridge leads to the castle building. The main parts of the old palace complex were from the years 1612 to 1620. In the middle of the palace courtyard was the Romanesque palace chapel (demolished in 1923) with Rococo furnishings from around 1760. The large crucifix donated in 1617 still hangs in the Grafenwiesen church today. Today the system is in a hardly recognizable condition.
From the former three-wing complex (inexplicably it is often referred to as a four-wing complex) only the remains of the south wing and the two-storey west wing with a stump of the north wing are preserved. The south wing was extended during a brewery expansion in 1941. In the place of the former outbuildings and the courtyard wall, a barren parking lot desert has now arisen.
- Bernhard Ernst: Castle building in the southeastern Upper Palatinate from the early Middle Ages to the early modern period, Part II catalog (= work on the archeology of southern Germany . Volume 16 ). Dr. Faustus, Büchenbach 2001, ISBN 3-933474-20-5 .
- Max Piendl: The Kötzting Regional Court (pp. 53–54). (= Historical Atlas of Bavaria, part of Altbayern issue 5). Commission for Bavarian State History, Michael Lassleben Verlag, Munich 1953.