Fortified church Kötzting
The fortified church Bad Kötzting is located in the Upper Palatinate town of Bad Kötzting in the Cham district in Bavaria (Herrenstrasse 9-13). The fortified church is located on a rocky knoll above the White Rain and is separated from the north-west adjoining place by a semicircular ditch.
The area around Kötzting was part of the newly established Mark Cham in the 11th century. The first documented mention of the place comes from 1073 and refers to the initial furnishing of the Rott monastery , which also included goods in Chostingen . The reason for this mention was probably the marriage of Count Rapoto IV. From Diepolding into the family of the Pilgrimids , who in 1082 had also taken over the office of Count Palatine from the late Kuno von Rott .
A ministerial castle probably only existed here since the middle of the 12th century, because at this time a Hazzo von Kötzting gave his estate in Pitzling (today in Pemfling ) to the Reichenbach monastery . A Meginhardus de Khostingen is documented around 1146. This Meginhard I also appears around 1170 in a Reichenbach tradition with his son Meginhard II as a witness at a delivery of goods. He also appears together with his brother Konrad von Kötzting between 1176 and 1188 in Reichenbacher documents. Since these family members are mentioned frequently, the family should not have been insignificant. Therefore, a castle complex is to be assumed as their ancestral seat here.
With the handover of the Mark Cham in 1204 to the Wittelsbach Duke Ludwig , the Vogteireche von Rott also came to the Wittelsbacher. A church in the place Kötzting is mentioned in a papal document of April 4, 1179. This parish was handed over to the Rott Monastery by the Regensburg Bishop Konrad IV , making Kötzting a monastery parish . In the 13th century, a Schranne and a customs post are also assumed to be in Kötzting , the market rights appear in the first duke's surbar, dated between 1231 and 1237. Due to the increased importance of the place, the first fortification of the cemetery was possibly created, whereby this will have been the inner ring wall with a gate tower, the so-called stork tower . The Karner was probably built around this time , as there was no longer any possibility of expansion for the cemetery. In the 30s of the 14th century, the abbots von Rott received the right to appoint the Vogt von Kötzting at their own discretion. This office was mostly entrusted to lower nobility from the area. Eberhard II von Hohenwarth is named for 1345 , followed by Albrecht der Sattelboger von Liebenstein and in 1360 another Hohenwarther . From 1580, the district judge zu Kötzting took over both the function of bailiff and judge in personal union.
In 1352 the Cham court with Kötzting was pledged to the Palatinate Wittelsbachers and in 1361 it was partially redeemed to Albrecht I of Lower Bavaria-Straubing-Holland , who only managed to redeem the eastern part of the Cham judicial district with Kötzting. So a new court had to be set up in Kötzting. 1371 is known as the first Kötzingen judge Friedrich Zenger . He was followed by Heinrich Ramsperger in 1388 , Andre Meynczingär in 1407 , Ulrich der Puhelär in 1413 and Ulrich Poschinger in 1414 . The nurse did not reside in Kötzting, but at Castle Sattelpeilnstein . It is not known whether the fortified church was expanded at that time. During the Hussite Wars , 15 riflemen and two rifles were stationed here. In 1424 the unsuccessful negotiations with Bohemian knights took place here and the Viztumamt Straubing gathered 300 riders against the Hussites here in the same year. After the partition agreement of 1429, the Kötzting court also incorporated the Eschlkam area . As a result, the nurse, who now also had the title of captain, moved his official residence to Kötzting. Heinrich Notthaid zu Runding is proven here as such . In 1450 the complex was expanded into a strong fortress. The care castle, the Zwinger with its bastions and the gate tower with the moat in front of it were probably built at that time. Konrad Heuras in 1458 and Pankraz Göttlinger zu Gutmaning in 1461 were attested as captains . After the Hussite Wars, between 1461 and 1480, the Kötzting market was also fortified with ramparts, ditches and palisades . Of the four gatehouses that were created in the village, the so-called Chamer Tor was the last to be demolished in 1836.
Although Kötzting was not affected by the Landshut War of Succession , there is evidence of extensive repair work around 1534, such as the traid box , the caretaker's apartment and the battlements. In order to simplify the administration, the offices of the caretaker and the boxer were merged during this time . Georg von Nussdorf zu Neunussdorf was the first to hold all these offices in 1533. In the run-up to the Thirty Years War , extensive preparatory measures were taken under the nurses Alexander de Grotta and Matthias Rosenhammer . But that didn't help much, because in 1633 and 1640 the Swedes succeeded in occupying Kötzting, robbing the church and partially setting the castle on fire. The nurse then had to move to Grafenwiesen . The repair work dragged on until the end of the 17th century. The castle was repaired again by 1698, but the increased church tower was ready to be demolished again in 1694 and the bells had to be moved into the gate tower. In 1737/38 the church was extended by a yoke , in 1764 the stork tower was demolished and by 1769 the reconstruction of the church was completed.
Bad Kötzting fortified church then and now
As indicated, many renovations and new buildings have taken place here over the centuries. The engraving by Michael Wening , which shows the situation around 1720, depicts a closed castle area with a high church tower, which is closed with a roof onion . The gate tower can also be clearly seen.
Today the system, roughly equivalent to an equilateral triangle (side length 72 m), is still well preserved. The outer trench was largely backfilled in 1867. In the past it could only be crossed via a wooden drawbridge , which was replaced by the existing stone bridge in 1839.
The former nursing home is now used as a rectory. The building can be qualified as a Randhausburg . It is a three-storey hipped roof building with a semicircular tower and a corner tower of the earlier castle, which dates from around 1459. Numerous Gothic door frames have been preserved in the nursing home . The gate passage bears the dates 1459 and 1551. A room to the north of the passage has a bar with the year 1586. Here is also the prison, which as a fear hole could only be reached via the vault above. The room also has two key notches with a spade-shaped depression, so that the ditch in front of it could be better seen.
The inner wall ring made of granite quarry stone from the 15th century is preserved. The outer wall ring has a shell tower, also made of granite rubble. The so-called Hunger Tower is a three-storey, rectangular wall tower with a hipped roof that can be identified from the 17th century. A trench lining wall made of quarry stone has been preserved.
The complex is dominated by the Catholic parish church of the Assumption . This is a four-bay hall church with a retracted choir and a flank tower that is covered with an onion dome. The door jambs on the southern wall probably come from the previous Romanesque building . The nave dates from 1737/38, the 43 m high tower and the choir were built in 1766/69.
The associated Anna chapel was consecrated on August 30, 1691 . It is a hall building with a gable roof and an onion roof turret over the facade. It essentially dates from 1686. The two baptismal fonts displayed here are Romanesque. One dates from around 1200, the other depicting the heads of the apostles was made around 1300. In 1590 this chapel was dedicated to St. Katharina consecrated, since 1665 the Anna patronage can be proven. The older high altar from 1664 shows a late Gothic Anna Selbdritt , the two side altars show Tobias with his guardian angel and the patrons Marinus and Anianus typical of the Rott monastery as well as the coronation of Mary with the siblings St. Scholastica and St. Benedict of Nursia .
The northern part of the nursing home has been used as a rectory since 1804. The caste or rent office was housed in the southern part until 1906 and the forest office until 1959. The parish bought this building complex in 1959 and converted it into a parish center in 1993/94. The care lock was fundamentally restored from 1993 to 1998. The Kötztinger Whitsun Museum is set up in a building on the complex (Herrenstrasse 11) .
- Bernhard Ernst: Castle building in the southeastern Upper Palatinate from the early Middle Ages to the early modern period, Part II catalog (= work on the archeology of southern Germany . Volume 16 ). Dr. Faustus, Büchenbach 2001, ISBN 3-933474-20-5 .
- Bernhard Ernst, 2001, pp. 157–167.
- Whitsun Museum: Horse pilgrimage and Whitsun wedding
- Entry on Kirchenburg Kötzting in the private database "Alle Burgen".
- Entry on Schloss Kötzting in the private database "Alle Burgen".
- Bad Kötzting fortified church (private website Norbert Heumann)
- Church castle Bad Kötzting on Bad Kötzting, sights
- Fortified church of the Assumption of Mary (Bad Kötzting) at Werbegemeinschaft Kötztinger Land (commercial website)