Building land (landscape)
natural area no.128 (outlined in brown)
|Systematics according to||Handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany|
|Main unit group||12 →
Neckar and Tauber-Gäuplatten
|About main unit||128 →
|circle||Main-Tauber-Kreis , Neckar-Odenwald , Hohenlohekreis , district Heilbronn|
The building land is a gauze landscape in the northeast of Baden-Württemberg . It is a natural area of the Neckar and Tauber-Gäuplatten (main unit 12) in the south-west German layer level country . The building land leads the number 128 in the systematics of the manual of the natural spatial structure of Germany .
The name Bauland goes back to the name Ponland as "area in which beans are grown" (from the Middle High German pône ). The country is considered the home of the green core .
Because of the numerous wayside shrines and other small monuments with images of the Virgin Mary, the building land, together with the Taubertal and the Taubergrund, has also been called Madonnenland or today Madonnenländchen since the 1920s, and because of its climate, it is also called Badisch Siberia .
The landscape lies between Odenwald , Tauber , Jagst and Neckar and extends over larger parts of the Main-Tauber district and Neckar-Odenwald district . It also affects the Hohenlohe district and the Heilbronn district .
Geology and landforms
The shell limestone landscape of the building land adjoins the Buntsandstein - Odenwald to the east . Typical of Kalklandschaften are karst formations . These include sinkholes on the earth's surface (e.g. the sinkhole field in Rehgrund near Hettingen , a district of Buchen ), dry valleys and karst springs (e.g. the Morre spring in Hettingen, the Rinschbach spring in Rinschheim or the closest spring in Götzingen ) . Cave systems can arise underground. The Eberstadt cave worlds with the hollow stone , the Kornäcker cave and, above all, the Eberstadt stalactite cave , which is open to visitors, are striking examples of this.
The building land owes its karstification to the development of the south-west German layered landscape . The shell limestone layers in the Triassic were originally formed from marine deposits. The red sandstone lay underneath. The shell limestone packages were overlaid by Keuper and the limestones of the Jura . It was only with the formation of the Upper Rhine Rift in the Tertiary that the entire layer package on the eastern edge of the rift was bulged and inclined to the east and southeast. Strong erosion processes took place, which finally exposed the shell limestone in today's building land and exposed it to karstification.
The building land is hilly. The trough-shaped valleys are the result of low depth erosion and increased side erosion. Often they appear as dry valleys , i. H. superficial runoff in the streams only occurs after extensive rainfall or snowmelt. The building land drains on the one hand to the north into the Main and on the other hand in the southern parts into the Neckar. These two river systems are in competition with each other. It is typical of the karst landscape that the surface and subterranean watershed sometimes differ considerably from one another.
Lower, middle and upper Muschelkalk show different resistance to weathering and erosion in geological time periods. Today they are arranged from west to east according to the stratification in the south-west German stratified level land. The relatively hard Lower Muschelkalk forms a flat step in the landscape in places. The watch tower near Buchen is located on the edge of the steps of the Lower Muschelkalk and is a historical vantage point with a good overview of building land and the Odenwald. The Middle Muschelkalk, on the other hand, is not very resistant and occurs in the lower areas of climbs. Source horizons also occur here. They were decisive for the early establishment of settlements ( old settlements ). The Upper Muschelkalk further to the east is step-forming due to its relative hardness.
The building land is an open landscape, which means that there is little forest.
The natural area of building land extends roughly from the Neckar near Mosbach to the northeast to Assamstadt , from there to the north to Hardheim and back to the Neckar past Buchen. The eastern border is based on the watershed between Erfa and Kirnau zur Tauber.
The building land is subdivided as follows:
(for 12 Neckar and Tauber-Gäuplatten )
- 128 building land
- 128.1 Neckarelzer Valley
- 128.2 Well Forest
- 128.3 Schefflenzgäu
- 128.4 Waidach
- 128.5 Medium building land
- 128.6 Eastern building land
- 128.7 Beech plate
- 128.8 Natural space unit 128.8 (without name)
- 128 building land
Municipalities in building land
The following municipalities and their municipality are either wholly or partially in the building land:
- The over 600 meter long Eberstadt stalactite cave as a walkable part of the Eberstadt cave worlds
- Sinkhole fields as evidence of the karst landscape
- Upper Germanic-Raetian Limes : As a section of the German Limes hiking trail , the Limes hiking trail of the Swabian Alb Association leads through the building land. From Miltenberg to Osterburken, this path is looked after as the Eastern Limes Path by the Odenwald Club.
- Hardheim -gerichtstetten: Keltenschanze
- Adelsheim : historic old town, local history museum
- Osterburken : Roman museum, Roman fort
- Emil Meynen , Josef Schmithüsen (Ed.): Handbook of the natural spatial structure of Germany . Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Remagen / Bad Godesberg 1953–1962 (9 deliveries in 8 books, updated map 1: 1,000,000 with main units 1960).
- Peter Wiesinger : The meaning of proper names: Volksetymologie . In: E. Eichler u. a. (Ed.): Name research. An international handbook on onomastics . de Gruyter, Berlin / New York 1995, p. 463-471 ( scribd.com [accessed October 11, 2012]).
- Hermann Eris Busse: Peter Brunnkant (1927), new edition Freiburg i. Br. 1985, p. 168ff; ders .: In the cuff of the Baden rider's boot . In: Badische Heimat. Journal for Folklore, Heritage, Nature and Monument Protection, 20th year, 1933, p. 21
- Otto Klausing: Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 151 Darmstadt. Bundesanstalt für Landeskunde, Bad Godesberg 1967. → Online map (PDF; 4.3 MB) (only minimal margins!)
- Horst Mensching , Günter Wagner : Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 152 Würzburg. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1963. → Online map (PDF; 5.3 MB)
- Josef Schmithüsen : Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 161 Karlsruhe. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1952. → Online map (PDF; 5.1 MB)
- Wolf-Dieter Sick : Geographical land survey: The natural space units on sheet 162 Rothenburg o. D. Deaf. Federal Institute for Regional Studies, Bad Godesberg 1962. → Online map (PDF; 4.7 MB)