Bora-class missile ship Samum
The project 1239 "Siwutsch" (Russian: "Сивуч", as the name for the Steller sea lion ) is a class of small corvettes or rocket ships of the Russian Navy . The class was planned by the Russian design office "Almas" in catamaran design and from 1984 two ships of the type were built in Zelenodolsk . This makes it one of the world's first catamarans used by the military .
The ZKMB "Almas", a Soviet design office with experience in the planning and construction of air cushion landing ships, was commissioned to design a new type of ship, which should cover the tasks of project 1234 and also operate in association with air cushion vehicles. That meant heavy armament combined with a shallow draft at high speed in order to be able to follow the hovercraft in action.
However, the required ability to operate on the high seas could not be achieved with a hovercraft, so an SES ship was chosen, the catamaran construction of which on the one hand provided sufficient stability for heavy seas, while on the other With the help of the ground effect, the draft in coastal waters could be reduced to about one meter.
The weight of the superstructure and hulls was reduced by a lightweight construction, but with a draft of only one meter on the air cushions, the two hulls did not provide enough stability to absorb the center of gravity of the construction with the weapons and drive systems in the upper half of the ship and at the same time generate sufficient speed. In addition to a conventional drive consisting of a shaft and propeller on the underside of the hull , each of the two catamaran hulls also received a lowerable stabilizing wing on the outside. A nacelle with two additional propellers is attached to the outer edge of each of these wings, which provide additional propulsion power after the wing has been lowered.
The class has two 63.9 meter long hulls that support the upper deck with the superstructure and armament. In order to reduce weight, the material mainly used for construction is an aluminum-magnesium alloy . The stability should be sufficient to use the weapon systems safely up to a sea state of level 5.
Project 1239 is equipped with a total of three redundant drive systems, each of which is composed of two separate motors , each of which is supported on one of the hulls of the catamaran structure. The CODAG system is composed as follows:
Two M-511A diesel engines with up to 9,700 HP (7,134 kW ) provide the standard drive with one motor per hull, which move the two shafts below the hull and thus drive the two three-bladed propellers. That's enough for 30 knots of sailing in calm seas. When using this drive system alone, the draft is just under 3.5 meters.
Two M-503B diesel engines with up to 3,300 HP (2,427 kW) can create an air cushion between the hulls that reduces the ship's draft when two flexible roller doors close the openings between the hulls at the bow and stern. If the roll-up door at the stern is opened so that the air flow generated there can escape, Project 1239 moves forward at around 3 knots.
Two M-10 gas turbines with up to 20,000 HP (14,710 kW) each drive a three-bladed tandem propeller in a nacelle on the booms. If the ship is on the air cushion, it can achieve a top speed of up to 55 knots in combination with the M-511 and M-503B engines.
Four diesel generators of the type DGR-200 each supply 200 kW of energy for the ship's systems.
The armament of Project 1239 is among the heaviest ever to be accommodated in a ship of this size. It is made up of various elements that were also used on several other classes of ships of Soviet / Russian origin, but occur in greater numbers here:
- The anti-ship armament includes eight anti-ship missiles of the type P-270 Moskit . The weapon has a range of around 120 kilometers, carries a conventional warhead with 320 kg of explosives and reaches a speed of up to 2,800 kilometers per hour.
- A 4K33 Osa-M complex is mounted on the aft ship for air defense . A launcher, each capable of carrying two ready-to-launch missiles, is installed over a drum magazine containing 20 9K33 spare missiles. The missiles have a range of around 10,000 meters and are therefore considered short-range weapons.
- Two AK-630 -M guns are installed for defense in the immediate vicinity . One of the weapons is on the fore, another on the stern. The weapons can be aimed automatically via a radar or manually. The two six-barreled guns in the caliber projectiles use up to 30 mm with a weight of 500 grams and a joint cadence of up to 10,000 rounds per minute.
- The on-board artillery consists of a 76 mm L / 59 rapid fire gun AK-176 , which is positioned at the bow. It can be used against ground targets or, to a limited extent, against air targets at distances of up to 12,000 meters.
Sensors, control systems and countermeasures
Project 1239 is equipped with various sensor systems to locate air, surface and underwater contacts:
- One of the most characteristic systems is the main radar for fire control for the heavy anti-ship missiles and for locating potential targets of the "Monolit" type (NATO: "Bandstand"). It is installed on the rear part of the bridge roof under a cover several meters wide.
- The second noticeable sensor is an air search and target acquisition radar "Pozitiv" ME1 (NATO: "Cross Round"), which is installed on a platform on the main mast behind the bridge under a cover similar to the fire control radar.
- Immediately in front of the “positive” radar is a small “Ekran” (NATO: “Curl Stone B”) navigation radar.
- The MR-123 “Wympal” fire control radar (NATO: “Bass Tilt”) for the AK-176 and the AK-630 guns is located halfway up the main mast. Alternatively, the weapons can also be aimed at targets in close range manually using two "Kolonka" fire control devices.
- The control radar for the Osa anti-aircraft missiles (NATO: "Pop Group") is located amidships on a superstructure.
- Project 1239 carries an "Anapa" ME-1 sonar to search for underwater contacts . The "Anapa" is a diving sonar that can be lowered by the ship to depths of up to 40 meters and then transmits its data on board.
The ship class is equipped with a system of various electronic countermeasures about which not all details are known. Based on the photographs of the ships, the following components of the system were identified:
- An MR-405-Wympel-R2 system, which consists of an ESM receiver (NATO: "Half Hat") on both sides of the navigation radar and the corresponding 600 watt jammers (NATO: "Wine Glass") halfway Height at the main mast.
- A pair of sensors for detecting laser or infrared light (NATO: “Half Cup”) is also installed on both sides of the main mast.
The task of decoys is to hide the ship from the sensors of approaching missiles and aircraft in order to prevent detection and thus a successful attack. For this purpose, two systems are installed on project 1239, which are supposed to produce decoy targets for the enemy sensors at some distance from the actual ship through clouds of radar-reflecting material and artificial heat sources :
- Four PK-10 starters are set up on the stern. Two launchers each are fixed to the deck on the port and starboard sides of the Osa-1 air defense system. Each PK-10 launcher consists of a housing that contains ten short launch tubes with a caliber of 122 mm. Each tube can fire a 25 kg container that releases chaffs or infrared torches in various stages .
- Two PK-16 launchers are set up amidships. They can eject sixteen 8.5 kg infrared or radar decoys with a diameter of 82 mm, but their launching devices, unlike the PK-10 system, are not permanently welded to the deck, but can be set to various reference levels.
Project 1239 is offered for sale by the arms company Rosoboronexport and is offered in corresponding publications with slightly modified propulsion systems and a wide range of possible weapons and electronic systems.
The ships are offered for export with a basic armament that includes the following systems:
- a 100mm AK-190 cannon
- a Kaschtan-M anti-aircraft system
- two 14.5 mm machine guns
- a DP-64 grenade launcher for close-range defense
- 16 Igla flying fists
The rocket armament, on the other hand, can be combined and allows the following constellations:
- Option 1: two starters 8 × 3M80E "Moskit"
- Option 2: four starters 16 × 3R60UE " Uran-E "
- Option 3: two starters 12 × 3R50E " Jachont "
- Option 4: two starters 12 × 3R50E "Jachont" and two starters 8 × 3R60UE "Uran-E"
Ships of project 1239
The type ship "Bora" (Russian: "Бора") was laid down in Zelenodolsk in November 1987 and handed over to the Black Sea Fleet in 1989 for preliminary tests . The commissioning took place in 1997. Although the Russian Navy was no longer able to maintain the ship's maintenance intervals after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the subsequent funding gaps, it was reported that the ship remained operational, even though maintenance-intensive components, such as the roller doors, had already exceeded their estimated service life had passed many years.
The "Samum" (Russian: "Самум") was laid down in November 1991 and put into service in 2000. Like her sister ship, she belongs to the Black Sea Fleet. Rosoboronexport cited their construction and commissioning as an indicator to underpin the efficiency of Russian shipyards and armaments factories even after the upheavals of the 1990s and to market the ship class for export.
Evidence and references
- An M10D1 gas turbine and M527OM3 diesel engines are offered instead of the M10 and M-503 in the export model.
- Hovercraft Bulletin 2002 on hovercraft-museum.org, viewed on October 10, 2011 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 6.6 MB)
- Message from the Rosoboronexport press service regarding participation in the Euronaval 2008 on roe.ru, viewed on October 10, 2011 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Norman Friedman: The Naval Institute guide to world naval weapon systems. P. 711.
- Rosoboronexport 2003 export catalog on roe.ru, viewed on October 10, 2011 ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Апальков Ю.В .: Корабли ВМФ СССР. Том II. Ударные корабли. Часть II. Малые ракетные корабли и катера. (For example: Apalkow YV: Ship of the Soviet Navy, Volume 2, Assault Ships Part 2, Small Rocket Ships and Boats. ), Saint Petersburg, 2004, ISBN 5-8172-0087-2 .
- Norman Friedman: The Naval Institute guide to world naval weapon systems. US Naval Institute Press, 2006, ISBN 978-1-55750-262-9 .
- Bora class on fas.org (English)
- Project 1239 on and-kin2008.narod.ru (Russian)
- Project 1239 on atrinaflot.ru ( Memento from December 24, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) (Russian)
- Egbert Lemcke, Russia's high-speed rocket boats and their main armament - yesterday, today and tomorrow , DSS working papers, issue 71 - 2004