List of political parties in Portugal
The list of political parties in Portugal contains the most important Portuguese political parties, past and present. The political landscape of Portugal has been characterized several times by a strong fragmentation of the party system. Therefore, only the most important parties are mentioned here.
- the absolutists ("absolutistas"). They advocated an absolutist monarchy and were therefore against any constitution
- the liberals , also called constitutionalists ("constitutionalistas"), who advocated a constitutional monarchy. Their most important champion was Manuel Fernandes Tomás .
Constitutional monarchy since the end of the Miguelist War
In the first phase after the end of the Miguelistenkrieg one can still not speak of political parties, but three political currents can be distinguished:
- the Miguelisten ( "Miguel touristas") d. H. the followers of the exiled King Michael (in Portuguese Dom Miguel). Since Michael was the last king to rule absolutistically, they were mainly recruited from the supporters of the former absolutists.
- the cartists ("cartistas"), d. H. the supporters of the Constitutional Charter of 1826 . They represented the conservative part of the constitutionalists.
- the Setembrists ("setembristas"), d. H. the supporters of the liberal constitution of 1821 (see also Liberal Revolution in Portugal ), the left-liberal part of the constitutionalists.
The parties that were to shape Portugal until the end of the monarchy developed from these currents:
- the Regenerative Party (Partido Regenerador), the oldest Portuguese party (founded in 1851 ), a conservative party that inherited the Cartists' legacy. The most important politicians were: the Duke of Saldanha , the Duke of Terceira , Joaquim António de Aguiar , António Maria de Fontes Pereira de Melo , António de Serpa Pimentel and Ernesto Rodolfo Hintze Ribeiro .
- the historical party (Partido Histórico), founded in 1854 , left-wing liberal, the political heirs of the Setembrists. The most important politician of this party was the Duke of Loulé .
- The Reformist Party (Partido Reformista) split off from this in 1867 , the most important politician of this party was the Margrave of Sá da Bandeira .
- Reformist Party and Historical Party merged in 1876 to form the Progressive Party (Partido Progressista). Its main leaders were Anselmo José Braamcamp and José Luciano de Castro .
- the Liberal Regeneration Party , which split off from the Regeneration Party in 1901 . Its main political leader was João Franco .
- the Portuguese Socialist Party (PSP), founded in 1875, is considered the oldest socialist party to be founded, but could only achieve limited political influence and dissolved in 1926 with the end of the First Republic ;
- the Republican Party , which was founded in 1876 , never had a government during the period of the monarchy, was often subjected to persecution, and was never able to win a large number of parliamentary seats due to an unfavorable electoral system. Even so, the Republicans quickly became a significant political force outside of parliament.
- the Portuguese Republican Party (PRP - Partido Republicano Português), a successor organization to the Republican Party of the Monarchy. In 1912 it split into PD, PRE and Unionists.
- the Democratic Party (PD - Partido Democrático), the most important successor party of the PRP and at the same time the most important party during the First Republic. Important politicians: Afonso Costa and António Maria da Silva
- the Evolutionist Republican Party (PRE - Partido Republicano Evolucionista), most important politician: António José de Almeida .
- the Unionist Party (Partido Unionista), most important politician: Brito Camacho .
- Evolutionists and unionists united in 1919 to form the Liberal Republican Party (PLR - Partido Liberal Republicano), most important politician: António Joaquim Granjo .
- they split from the PLR
- the National Republican Party (PNR - Partido Nacional Republicano) of Sidónio Pais .
- PLR, PRRN and the remnants of the PNR finally united to form the Republican Nationalist Party (PRN - Partido Republicano Nacionalista), most important politician Álvaro de Castro .
- the Communist Party of Portugal (Partido Comunista Português, PCP) see below.
Military dictatorship and Estado Novo
- National Union (UN - União Nacional) It became the
- Renamed National Popular Action (ANP - Acção Nacional Popular).
Party foundations after 1974
After the Carnation Revolution , the country's main political parties were re-established. These are:
- the Maoist , now largely marginalized Partido Comunista dos Trabalhadores Portugueses - Movimento Reorganizativo do Partido do Proletariado (PCTP-MRPP, Communist Party of the Portuguese Working People - Movement for the Reorganization of the Party of the Proletariat ) with Arnaldo Matos and Garcia Pereira as the most important representatives;
- the Bloco de Esquerda (BE, Left Bloc ), an amalgamation of four organizations of the radical left and non-party;
- the Partido Comunista Português (PCP, Communist Party of Portugal ), which is part of the Coligação Democrática Unitária (CDU, Democratic Unity Coalition ) with Bento António Gonçalves and Álvaro Cunhal as the main representatives;
- the Partido Ecologista "Os Verdes" (PEV, ecological party "The Greens" ), the other part of the left - green party alliance CDU;
- the Partido Socialista (PS, Socialist Party ) with Mário Soares , António Guterres and Jorge Sampaio as the most important representatives;
- the moderately conservative Partido Popular Democrático (PPD, Democratic People's Party ), which was renamed Partido Social Democrata (PSD, Social Democratic Party ) in 1976 , with Francisco Sá Carneiro , Magalhães Mota , Francisco Pinto Balsemão , Aníbal Cavaco Silva , José Manuel Barroso and Manuela Ferreira Lead as the main representatives;
- the right-wing conservative Centro Democrático e Social (CDS, Democratic and Social Center ), which in 1991 became the Centro Democrático e Social - Partido Popular (CDS – PP, Democratic and Social Center - Portuguese People's Party ), with Adelino Amaro da Costa , Diogo Freitas do Amaral and Basílio Horta as key representatives;
- the Partido Popular Monárquico (PPM, Monarchical People's Party );
- the Aliança Democrática (AD, Democratic Alliance ), an electoral alliance of the conservative parties PSD, CDS and PPM founded in 1979 , which disintegrated again in 1983 ;
- the originally moderate left Partido Renovador Democrático (PRD, Democratic Renewal Party ), whose most important leader was General António Ramalho Eanes , and in whose place the now right-wing Partido Nacional Renovador (PNR, National Renewal Party ) took over in 2000 .
Today existing parties in Portugal
For an overview of the currently active parties in Portugal, the following list of the parties that stood for the parliamentary elections in Portugal in 2015 can be used, in descending order of votes:
- Portugal à Frente ; Electoral alliance of the governing coalition
- Partido Socialista (PS)
- Bloco de Esquerda (BE)
- Coligação Democrática Unitária (CDU), joint electoral list of
- Pessoas - Animais - Natureza (PAN)
- Partido Democrático Republicano (PDR)
- Partido Comunista dos Trabalhadores Portugueses - Movimento Reorganizativo do Partido do Proletariado (PCTP / MRPP)
- Livre / Tempo de Avançar (L / TDA)
- Partido Nacional Renovador (PNR)
- Partido da Terra (MPT)
- AGIR , electoral alliance of
- Nós, Cidadãos! (NC)
- Partido Popular Monarquico (PPM)
- Juntos pelo Povo (JPP)
- Partido Unido dos Reformados e Pensionistas (PURP)
- Aliança Açores , electoral alliance of CDS-PP and PPM only for the constituency of the Azores
- Portugal pro Vida - Partido Cidadania e Democracia Cristã (PPV / CDC)
- List of legal political parties in Portugal on the Portuguese Constitutional Court website (last accessed 11 July 2019)
- History of Portugal , time table of Portugal
- First Portuguese Republic , Estado Novo , Third Portuguese Republic
- List of Prime Ministers of Portugal , List of Presidents of Portugal