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flag coat of arms
coat of arms
Federal district Ural
Oblast Chelyabinsk
Urban district Magnitogorsk
mayor Vitaly Bachmetiev
Founded 1929
City since 1931
surface 375.8  km²
population 407,775 inhabitants
(as of Oct. 14, 2010)
Population density 1085 inhabitants / km²
Height of the center 310  m
Time zone UTC + 5
Telephone code (+7) 3519
Post Code 455000-455051
License Plate 74, 174
OKATO 75 438
Geographical location
Coordinates 53 ° 23 '  N , 59 ° 2'  E Coordinates: 53 ° 23 '0 "  N , 59 ° 2' 0"  E
Magnitogorsk (European Russia)
Red pog.svg
Location in the western part of Russia
Magnitogorsk (Chelyabinsk Oblast)
Red pog.svg
Location in Chelyabinsk Oblast
List of cities in Russia
Magnitogorsk in May 2005
The Technical University of Magnitogorsk
Satellite image of Magnitogorsk

Magnitogorsk ( Russian Магнитого́рск , literally translated "the city on the magnetic mountain") is a city in the Chelyabinsk Oblast in Russia .


Geographical location

The city is located in the Southern Urals on both banks of the Ural River . According to the most common definition of the inner Eurasian border , the western part of the city is in Europe and the eastern part in Asia . Magnitogorsk is located on the border with the Russian Republic of Bashkortostan .


Magnitogorsk has 416,521 inhabitants (as of 2017).

Population development
year Residents
1939 145.948
1959 311.101
1970 364.209
1979 406.074
1989 440.321
2002 418,545
2010 407.775
2015 417.039
2017 416,521

Note: census data and updates


Magnitogorsk emerged from 1929 as part of the first five-year plan and was founded as an industrial and working-class town. Under the direction of the German architect and urban planner Ernst May , a building concept was developed in which particular attention was paid to short distances between workplaces and residential developments, as well as other efficiency criteria. The 1st quarter and parts of the 2nd quarter as well as a satellite city were realized by May . When the plans were finally in place, the construction and settlement of the city had already begun, so that they had to be revised and the city was designed completely differently than originally intended. Presumably, however, the final, less efficient structure had the careless benefit of a greater distance between industrial emissions and the residential complexes. However, despite the extensive separation of the largest industrial and residential complexes by the Ural River, the environment in Magnitogorsk is extremely polluted (see below: Environment ).

In terms of economic efficiency, Magnitogorsk became a shining figurehead of the Soviet Union. Within a short time the largest iron and steel production was established in Magnitogorsk. During the Second World War , the city was the most important Soviet supplier of the steel necessary for the production of war weapons. In Magnitogorsk there was a prisoner of war camp 102 for German prisoners of war of the Second World War.

On the morning of December 31, 2018 (local time), 39 people were killed in a gas explosion . One block of flats partially collapsed. Buried people were at risk of freezing to death when the outside temperature was as low as –20 ° C. At the beginning of January, all of the dead were recovered and no more people were missing.


Magnitogorsk is a center of steel production. The first steel was produced here as early as 1930 . The first three blast furnaces were erected at a breathtaking speed for the time, in 56, 16 and 5 days. Even today, the steel from Magnitogorsk is sold to 7,000 factories in the country and another 40 countries. The Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works company is based in the city.


The city is home to the HK Metallurg Magnitogorsk sports club . His ice hockey team plays in the Russian Continental Hockey League ; she has won several Russian championships and in 2005 she won the Spengler Cup in Davos. In 2008 Metallurg won the last edition of the IIHF European Champions Cup . Its home arena is the Arena Metallurg multi-purpose hall, completed in 2007 , which has almost 7,700 seats and is used for concerts as well as ice hockey games. Yevgeny Malkin , one of the world's best ice hockey players, grew up in Magnitogorsk and played for HK Metallurg until 2006.

A handball team of the club also plays internationally.


According to a 2007 study by the Blacksmith Institute , the city is among the 35 most polluted places in the world. Only 1% of all children are in good health; a local hospital reports that 72% of all children are born sick. 73% of all mothers are also not healthy. This is due to the extremely high concentrations of sulfur dioxide in the air, as well as lead and other toxic heavy metals in drinking water.

Town twinning

Magnitogorsk lists the following twin cities :


sons and daughters of the town

Personalities who have worked on site

Worth knowing

The asteroid (2094) Magnitka was named after the city.


  • Thomas Flierl (ed.): Standard cities. Ernst May in the Soviet Union 1930-1933. Texts and documents . Berlin: Suhrkamp 2012. ISBN 978-3-518-12643-1
  • Evgenija Konyševa (Čeljabinsk) and Mark Meerovič (Irkutsk) (eds.): Left bank, right bank. Ernst May and the planning history of Magnitogorsk (1930-1933) . Publisher Theater der Zeit 2014.
  • Stephen Kotkin: Steeltown, USSR: Soviet Society in the Gorbachev Era . Berkeley 1991. ISBN 0962262900
  • Stephen Kotkin: Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization . Berkeley 1993. ISBN 0520069080
  • Elke Pistorius: The general plan drafts of the Ernst May group for Magnitogorsk and the plans for the first and second quarters (1930-1933) . In: INSITU. Zeitschrift für Architekturgeschichte 6 (1/2014), pp. 93–116.

Web links

Commons : Magnitogorsk  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wiktionary: Magnitogorsk  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. Itogi Vserossijskoj perepisi naselenija 2010 goda. Tom 1. Čislennostʹ i razmeščenie naselenija (Results of the All-Russian Census 2010. Volume 1. Number and distribution of the population). Tables 5 , pp. 12-209; 11 , pp. 312–979 (download from the website of the Federal Service for State Statistics of the Russian Federation)
  2. ^ Pistorius.
  3. Maschke, Erich (ed.): On the history of the German prisoners of war of the Second World War. Ernst and Werner Gieseking publishing house, Bielefeld 1962-1977.
  4. 16 dead after gas explosion in Russia recovered, January 2, 2019, accessed January 2, 2019.
  5. ↑ Gas explosion in Russia: Baby recovered alive, accessed January 1, 2019.
  6. Number of deaths rises to 39., January 3, 2019, accessed on March 4, 2020.