from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Głubczyce Coat of Arms
Głubczyce (Poland)
Basic data
State : Poland
Voivodeship : Opole
Powiat : Głubczyce
Gmina : Głubczyce
Area : 12.52  km²
Geographic location : 50 ° 12 ′  N , 17 ° 50 ′  E Coordinates: 50 ° 12 ′ 0 ″  N , 17 ° 50 ′ 0 ″  E
Height : 266 m npm
Residents : 12,735 (Dec. 31, 2016)
Postal code : 48-100
Telephone code : (+48) 77
License plate : OGL
Economy and Transport
Street : Opole - Brno
Next international airport : Wroclaw

Głubczyce [ gwupˈʧɨʦɛ ] ( German Leobschütz , Czech Hlubčice , Silesian Lischwitz , Schlonsakisch Gubczýcé ) is a town in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. It is the seat of the town-and-country municipality of the same name with a little more than 22,700 inhabitants and the powiat Głubczycki .

Geographical location

Map of the municipality

The city is located in Silesia on the river Psina (tin) at an altitude of 266 meters above mean sea level , each 50 kilometers south of Opole ( Opole ) and northwest of Ostrava in Leobschützer loess hill country, near the border with the Czech Republic .


Reconstructed town hall with Marian column (photo 2012)
Defense tower of the medieval city fortifications
Parish church of the "Birth of Mary", first documented mention in 1259

The first written mention of the place "Glubcici", which belongs to Moravia and had a wooden castle, took place in 1107. The settlement was on the right side of the Zinna , which has formed the border between Moravia and Silesia since the Pentecostal Peace of 1137 . In 1224 there is evidence of royal customs in the town of Lubschicz, which was presumably founded by King Ottokar I Přemysl under Magdeburg law . The exact time when the city was founded is not known.

In 1241 the city was destroyed in the Mongol storm and after the reconstruction the left bank of the river was settled. From 1253 to 1626 Leobschütz was Oberhof for numerous Moravian towns and villages that received the Leobschützer law derived from Magdeburg law , which was confirmed in 1270 by the Bohemian King Přemysl Ottokar II . As early as 1265 he had given the city forest to the city. In 1275 Leobschütz received the right to miles . In September 1278, the Roman-German King Rudolf I confirmed the privileges of the city of Leobschütz. In 1281 Queen Kunigunde donated the Johanneshospital. The city ​​wall with watchtowers and moats was built before 1282 . The patronage of the parish church "Mariä Birth" came in 1259 to the Order of St. John of Gröbnig , whose commander was from 1282 to 1591 in Leobschütz. In 1298 the city received further rights from the Bohemian King Wenceslaus II. In the same year, the city had a cloth defeat and a municipal department store on the ring, in the place of which the town hall was built in 1383 . In 1421, the Leobschützer Rechtsbuch was written in German and belongs to the Saxon-Magdeburg legal system. In 1433 Leobschütz temporarily had the right to mint.

In the years 1365 to 1394 and from 1434 to 1482 Leobschütz formed the independent Duchy of Leobschütz , which came from the Premyslid branch of the Duchy of Opava . The last Leobschützer Duke Johann II († around 1485) founded the Franciscan monastery in 1480 . After 1482 Leobschütz was attached to the Duchy of Jägerndorf . The Reformation was introduced in 1523 and some Franciscans and Jews were driven out by force. From 1524 to 1623 Leobschütz was the capital of the Brandenburg principality of Jägerndorf . In 1558 a Protestant school was built. During the Thirty Years War , the city was badly damaged, the worst by the Swedes in 1645 .

View of Leobschütz from 1819

After the First Silesian War , Leobschütz fell to Prussia in 1742 . Subsequently, parts of the city wall were razed and the moat around the city was filled in. Since 1815 Leobschütz belonged to the province of Silesia and from 1816 was incorporated into the district of Leobschütz , with which it remained connected until 1945. The cloth and linen weaving, which had been in operation since the Middle Ages, was converted to a machine factory in the 19th century. Flax cultivation and sheep breeding were also of economic importance. In 1855 the city received a railway connection to Ratibor , in 1873 to Jägerndorf and in 1876 to Deutsch Rasselwitz . At the beginning of the 20th century, Leobschütz had three Catholic churches, a Protestant church, a synagogue , a grammar school, a Catholic school teachers' college, a preparation institute and a district court.

After the First World War , in the referendum in Upper Silesia in 1921, over 99% voted to remain with Germany.

During the Second World War , the city became a training center for the SS and the seat of an SA storm department . In the Kristallnacht was the synagogue of the city burned down.

On March 18, 1945, the Red Army encircled the place and the 18th SS Volunteer Panzer Grenadier Division "Horst Wessel" and the 371st Infantry Division (Wehrmacht) located therein and captured it on March 24, 1945. As a result of the Combat operations were 40% of the city destroyed. On May 19, 1945, the Red Army deployed Tadeusz Kopczyński to the city as administrator of the People's Republic of Poland , after which the influx of Poles began. Some of these came from the areas east of the Curzon Line that had fallen to the Soviet Union as part of the " West displacement of Poland " . The place name Głubczyce was introduced for Leobschütz . In the period that followed, the vast majority of Germans were expelled , which initially caused the population to decline significantly.

After the end of the war, Czechoslovakia raised claims to several Lower and Upper Silesian areas, including a. also in the area around Leobschütz and Ratibor . Mutual propaganda worsened relations between the two states to such an extent that the only way to avoid an armed conflict could be through Soviet intervention. The border disputes were only resolved with the Polish-Czech border treaty of 1958. From 1946 to 1975 Głubczyce was the seat of the Powiat Głubczycki . It was rebuilt in 1999.


Population development until 1945
year Residents Remarks
1787 0 3.123
1816 03,256
1825 0 4,565 including 167 Protestants and 94 Jews
1840 06.212 including 392 Evangelicals and 130 Jews
1852 07,623
1871 10,689 including 900 Protestants and 250 Jews
1890 12,586 thereof 1,488 Protestants, 10,754 Catholics and 341 Jews
1900 12,629 with the garrison (four squadrons of hussars No. 6), including 1,631 Evangelicals and 230 Jews
1925 12,755 thereof 1,388 Evangelicals, 11,180 Catholics, six other Christians and 127 Jews
1933 13,824 1,427 Protestants, 12,238 Catholics, two other Christians and 126 Jews
1939 13,452 1,404 Protestants, 11,883 Catholics, six other Christians and 44 Jews
Bar chart of the population to date


Ecclesiastically Leobschütz / Głubczyce belonged to the Diocese of Olomouc until 1972 ; since then it has belonged to the diocese of Opole .


The reconstructed town hall on the Ring
Marian column
  • The parish church "Mariä Geburt" was first mentioned in 1259 and from 1370 to 1380 it was converted into a three-aisled hall church. Between 1903 and 1907, the architect Max Hasak carried out a renovation in the neo-Gothic style.
  • The town hall was first mentioned in 1383 and rebuilt in 1603 after a fire. From 1863 to 1864, the building was rebuilt in the neo-Gothic style, which was simplified with a further redesign from 1930. In March 1945 it was destroyed by bombing and after the war the ruins were torn down except for the tower. In 2008 the town hall was reconstructed in its hypothetical original state from before 1863 with EU funding. The town hall bell, which was pulled in for war purposes and which had been in Oldenburg (Oldenburg) for decades , was returned to its place of origin in 2009.
  • The Franciscan monastery was first founded in 1448 and replaced by a brick building in 1480 as a foundation of the Leobschützer Duke Johann II . From 1541 until the return of the Franciscans in 1667, the monastery was in Protestant ownership. From 1753 to 1770 the monastery buildings were rebuilt according to plans by the Prudnik architect Johann Innozenz Töpper. In 1810 it was secularized and used as a school after a renovation. From 1921 it was again owned by the Franciscans. In 2002 it was renovated.
  • The Franciscan monastery church “St. Ädigius und Bernhard ”from 1480 served between 1541 and 1667 as a Protestant church. After the destruction in the Thirty Years War, it was rebuilt from 1670 to 1677. In 1756 it was demolished and in 1758, with financial support from Prince Joseph von Liechtenstein, a new building was built according to plans by Johann Innozenz Töpper. The main altar and the pulpit were created by the Ratibor sculptor Anton Oesterreicher, the painting of the main altar is by the Brno painter Josef Ignaz Havelka.
  • The baroque Marian column "Maria Immaculata on the globe" was created in 1738 by the Kamenz sculptor Anton Jörg and renewed in 1804.
  • St. Anne's Church from 1776
  • Fabian and Sebastian Chapel from 1501
  • Nine wall towers and remains of the city wall from the 13th century

Former buildings

Synagogue in Głubczyce , destroyed in 1938

The Leobschütz synagogue on König-Ottokar-Strasse was built in 1864 and 1865 and was the place of worship and the spiritual and cultural center of the city's Jewish community . It was burned down and destroyed by Nazi henchmen during the Night of the Reichspogroms from November 9th to 10th, 1938 . Today there is an undeveloped meadow with a memorial stone at this point .

local community

The town-and-country community (gmina miejsko-wiejska) Głubczyce extends over an area of ​​294.33 km² and includes 45 other villages with school boards in addition to the town.

Sister cities and municipalities


sons and daughters of the town

Other personalities in Leobschütz

  • August Potthast (1824–1898), medieval historian and librarian, died in Leobschütz

Well-known graduates of the Leobschütz grammar school


in order of appearance
  • Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, spots, towns and other places of the royal family. Prussia. Province of Silesia, including the Margraviate of Upper Lusatia, which now belongs entirely to the province, and the County of Glatz; together with the attached evidence of the division of the country into the various branches of civil administration . Breslau 1830, p. 957.
  • Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, towns, cities and other places of the royal family. Preusz. Province of Silesia . 2nd edition, Breslau 1845, pp. 853-854.
  • Karl August Müller: Patriotic images, or history and description of all castles and knight palaces in Silesia and the county of Glatz. Second edition, Glogau 1844, pp. 171–172.
  • Elżbieta Dziegieć, Edward Dziegieć, Stanisław Pączka, Franciszek Zając: Głubczyce jako ośrodek Lokalny . Opole, 1964.
  • Hugo Weczerka (Hrsg.): Handbook of the historical places . Volume: Silesia (= Kröner's pocket edition . Volume 316). Kröner, Stuttgart 1977, ISBN 3-520-31601-3 , pp. 275-276.
  • Katarzyna painter, Barbara Piechaczek: Głubczyce - portret miasta . Racibórz 1998.
  • Katarzyna painter: Dzieje Głubczyc do 1742 roku . Opole, 2003.
  • Jadwiga Królikowska: głubczycko-krnowski region: historia, turystyka, gospodarka = Głubczyce-Krnov region: history, tourism, economy (PDF file; 6.9 MB) . Głubczyce 2004. ISBN 83-914926-5-6 .
  • Katarzyna painter, Roman Gohly: Głubczyce i okolice: Przewodnik . Wrocław 2005.
  • Dehio Handbook of Art Monuments in Poland. Silesia . Munich · Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-422-03109-X , pp. 311-314.
  • Katarzyna painter: Dzieje Głubczyc w latach 1742–1945 . Opole 2006.
  • Mieczysław Razik: Głubczyce przedwczoraj i jutro? . Branice 2008.
  • Aurelia Hołubowska: Skarby pogranicza: przewodnik po regionie głubczycko-krnowskim . Kraków 2009.
  • Ferdinand Minsberg: History of the city of Leobschütz. Contribution to the customer of Upper Silesian cities . Digitized

Web links

Commons : Głubczyce  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Codex diplomaticus et epistolaris Moraviae vol. II, no. 153, p. 155. ( online edition )
  2. Gustav Adolf Harald Stenzel : The Roman King Rudolf confirms the privileges of the city of Leybschütz . In: General Archive for the History of the Prussian State . Volume 8, Issue 1, Berlin / Posen / Bromberg 1832, pp. 370–371.
  3. a b c d e Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. leobschuetz.html # ew39leoleobsc. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  4. a b Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 12, Leipzig and Vienna 1908, pp. 414–415.
  5. ^ Joachim Bahlcke : Silesia and the Silesians. ISBN 3-7844-2781-2 , p. 187.
  6. Alexander August Mützell and Leopold Krug : New topographical-statistical-geographical dictionary of the Prussian state . Volume 3: Kr – O , Halle 1822, p. 91, item 1477
  7. ^ Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, spots, towns and other places of the royal family. Prussia. Province of Silesia, including the Margraviate of Upper Lusatia, which now belongs entirely to the province, and the County of Glatz; together with the attached evidence of the division of the country into the various branches of civil administration . Breslau 1830, p. 957.
  8. ^ Johann Georg Knie : Alphabetical-statistical-topographical overview of the villages, spots, cities and other places of the royal family. Preusz. Province of Silesia . 2nd edition, Breslau 1845, pp. 853-854.
  9. ^ Kraatz: Topographical-statistical manual of the Prussian state . Berlin 1856, p. 345.
  10. ^ Gustav Neumann: Geography of the Prussian State . 2nd edition, Volume 2, Berlin 1874, pp. 181-182, item 13.
  11. ^ For 1910: www.gemeindeververzeichnis.de Landkreis Leobschütz , accessed on January 6, 2011
    For 1890, 1925, 1933, 1939: Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Landkreis Leobschütz. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006). For 2009:
    Główny Urząd Statystyczny, "LUDNOŚĆ - STAN I STRUKTURA W PRZEKROJU TERYTORIALNYM" ( Memento from July 4, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  12. ^ History and sights in the town of Leobschütz / Upper Silesia: Town Hall - www.leobschuetz.org
  13. Bell rings again in Leobschütz (NWZ)
  14. ^ Entry on Ludwig Hollaender in the Catalogus Professorum Halensis (accessed on May 17, 2011)
  15. Ludwig Heinrich Hollaender: Courageous fighter for dentistry ( Memento from June 6, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
  16. КАРЛ БУЛЛА-ОТЕЦ РУССКОГО ФОТОРЕПОРТАЖА ( Memento from February 7, 2012 in the Internet Archive )