Calendar overview 1059
|Nicholas II enfeoffs Robert Guiscard with southern Italy .|
|1059 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||507/508 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1602/03 (southern Buddhism); 1601/02 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||62nd (63rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||421/422 (turn of the year April)|
|Iranian calendar||437/438 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||450/451 (February 16-17)|
|Jewish calendar||4819/20 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1369/70 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1370/71 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1115/16 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- May 23 : The ailing French King Henry I had his seven-year-old son Philip elected king and consecrated by the Archbishop of Reims . The Capetian wants to ensure the smooth succession to the throne in the event of his death, which is achieved afterwards.
- August 23 : Synod of Melfi : Pope Nicholas II enfeoffs the Normans Robert Guiscard with Apulia , Calabria and Sicily and Richard of Aversa with the principality of Capua . The Normans recognize the papal suzerainty.
Byzantine Empire / Balkans
- Autumn : The Hungarians cross the Danube together with several Pechenegen tribes , but are immediately stopped by the Byzantine Emperor Isaac I and enter into peace negotiations.
- November 22nd / November 24th : After the successful campaign against the Pechenegs, Isaac I is attacked by a disease that he considers fatal, whereupon, on the advice of the scholar Michael Psellos, he appoints Konstantin Dukas as his successor. His brother Johannes rejects the imperial dignity because the clergy and bureaucracy are hostile to him. Although Isaac recovered, he did not take the purple back, but retired to the studio monastery, where he spent the remaining two years of his life as a monk.
- December 25th : Constantine X is crowned emperor. The bureaucracy thus triumphs over the provincial and military nobility. His policies will weaken the borders and enable the Seljuks, Hungarians, Pechenegs and Normans to wrest several provinces from the empire and devastate them.
- The Fatimids are funding an uprising against the Sunni caliph in Iraq. After Al-Basasiri, allied with them, took Baghdad in December 1058 , he conquered Basra and Wasit , but failed in Khuzestan .
- July 23 : After his defeat, the Seljuk leader Ibrahim Inal is strangled by his nephew Tughrul Beg . The latter then proposes an alliance to Al-Basasiri, but makes the reinstatement of Caliph Al Qa'im a precondition. Al-Basasiri refuses and leaves Baghdad in December.
- July : the Turkmens invade the Sivas region .
science and technology
Religion and culture
- Konstantinos Leichoudes is appointed Patriarch of Constantinople as the successor to Michael I , who died on January 21st .
- January 24th : In Rome the previous year as successor to Pope Stephen IX. elected Nicholas II enthroned as the 155th Pope.
- At a synod in Sutri , the antipope Benedict X is excommunicated by the reformers around Hildebrand von Soana .
- April 13th : At a Lateran synod, Pope Nicholas II issues the papal election decree , which reserves the right to appoint the head of the Catholic church exclusively to cardinal bishops . Simony and Nicolaitism are prohibited. The church in Germany reacts with an excommunication of Nicholas II.
- May 13th : The Abbey of Saint-Martin de Troarn in Troarn is inaugurated by Roger de Montgomerie , a relative of William the Conqueror .
- October 18 : Burchard I. von Halberstadt dies. After the intervention of Cologne's Archbishop Anno II , his nephew Burchard II becomes the new Bishop of Halberstadt .
- November 6th : The Baptistery of San Giovanni , one of the central works of the Florentine Proto-Renaissance , is inaugurated by Pope Nicholas II .
- Udayadityavarman II , King of the Khmer Empire of Angkor in what is now Cambodia , visits Kbal Spean to consecrate an important linga here .
Exact date of birth unknown
- Fulcher of Chartres , chronicler of the first crusade († around 1127 )
- Ngog Loden Sherab , translator, one of the "Ten Pillars of Tibetan Buddhism" († 1109 )
Born around 1059
- Stephan Harding , prior and abbot in the Cîteaux monastery , author of the Carta Caritatis of the Cistercians.
Date of death secured
- January 21 : Michael I , Patriarch of Constantinople (* around 1000 )
- June 29 : Bernhard II , Duke of Saxony (* after 990)
- August 14 : Giselbert , Count of Luxembourg (* 1007 )
- October 9 : Aaron of Krakow , first abbot of the Benedictine Abbey of Tyniec and Archbishop of Krakow
- October 18 : Burchard I. von Halberstadt , German cleric and politician, Bishop of Halberstadt (* 1000 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Ibn Yasin , Berber theologian and founder of the Almoravid movement
- Ibrahim Inal , Seljuk leader
- Luitpold I. , Archbishop of Mainz
- Michael VI. , Emperor of the Byzantine Empire