The chokeberry ( Aronia ) are a genus within the family of the rose family (Rosaceae). The only three species originally come from eastern North America and grow there as a shrub one to two meters high.
Aronia species are deciduous shrubs with pointed, striking wine-red winter buds. The simple, stalked, more or less hairy leaves are elliptical to obovate, 2 to 8 centimeters long, mostly pointed or pointed, finely notched to serrated on the edge and on the upper side on the midrib with distant, black-red hairs with bright red autumn colors. There are stipules present.
Ten to twenty flowers stand together in umbrella-like inflorescences . The hermaphrodite, mostly stalked, radial symmetry , five-fold flowers have a diameter of about one centimeter. The bracts and bracts are transformed into glands. There is a small flower cup . There are five sepals . The five free petals are white or pale pink. The mostly up to about 20 partly hairy stamens are fused at their base. There are several, approximated and subordinate stamps , often with free styluses .
The red or black, single to multi-seeded and apple-shaped , rounded, partly hairy fruits ( false fruit ) have a diameter of 5 to 12 millimeters. They have a permanent, partly sunken calyx and the calyx cavity at the top, similar to the Java apple . They have a core and the seeds are similar to apple kernels.
The genus Aronia was established by Friedrich Kasimir Medikus . Aronia medic. nom. cons. was preserved according to the rules of the ICN (Melbourne ICN Art. 14.10 & App. III, Melbourne ICN Art. 53) compared to the previously published homonym Aronia Mitch. nom. rej.
The genus Aronia belongs to the subtribe pome fruit plants (Pyrinae) in the subfamily Spiraeoideae within the family Rosaceae .
The genus Aronia is mainly found in eastern North America, but is also found in the central USA.
There are only three types of aronia :
- Fuzzy chokeberry ( Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Pers. , Syn .: Aronia arbutifolia var. Brilliantissima hort., Crataegus pyrifolia Lam. , Mespilus arbutifolia L. , Photinia pyrifolia (Lam.) KR Robertson & JBPhipps , Pyrus arbutifolia (L.) L . f. , Sorbus arbutifolia (L.) Heynh. ): It is in the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick , Newfoundland and Labrador , Nova Scotia , southeastern Ontario , southeastern Québec and Prince Edward Island and in the US states of Connecticut , southern Maine , Massachusetts , southeastern New Hampshire , New Jersey , New York , Pennsylvania , Rhode Island , West Virginia , Oklahoma , Alabama , Arkansas , Delaware , Florida , Georgia , Kentucky , Louisiana , Maryland , Mississippi , North Carolina , South Carolina , Tennessee , Virginia as well Texas spread.
Black chokeberry or bald chokeberry ( Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott , Syn .: Aronia melanocarpa Spach , Aronia nigra (medic.) Dippel , Aronia nigra (Willd.) Koehne , Hahnia arbutifolia var. Nigra medic. , Mespilus arbutifolia var. Melanocarpa Michx. , Photinia melanocarpa (Michx.) KRRobertson & JBPhipps , Pyrus arbutifolia var. Nigra Willd. , Pyrus melanocarpa (Michx.) Willd. , Pyrus nigra (Willd.) Coffin. ): It is in the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick, Newfoundland , Nova Scotia, southern Ontario, southern Quebec and Prince Edward Island and the US states of Connecticut, Indiana , Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan , New Hampshire, New York, Ohio , Pennsylvania , Rhode Island , Vermont , West Virginia , Illinois , northeast Iowa , eastern Minnesota , Missouri ( Stoddard County only ), Wisconsin , northern Alabama , northern Georgia , Kentucky , western Maryland, western North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia:
- Aronia melanocarpa var. Grandifolia (Lindl.) Schneid.
- Chokeberry ( Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Elliott var. Melanocarpa )
- Aronia × prunifolia (Marshall) Rehder (Syn .: Crataegus prunifolia (Marshall) Baumg. , Mespilus prunifolia Marshall , Photinia floribunda ( Lindl. ) KRRobertson & JBPhipps , Pyrus floribunda Lindl. ): It is a natural hybrid of Aronia arbutifolia ×. Melanocarpa and is in the Canadian provinces of southeastern New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Quebec and in the US states of Connecticut, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, New Hampshire, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, West Virginia, northern Illinois , Wisconsin, Kentucky, western Maryland, North Carolina and Virginia.
- The Michurin chokeberry no longer belongs to the genus Aronia , as it is an intergeneric hybrid between Aronia Medik. and Sorbus L. is. Such hybrids become Sorbaronia C.K. Schneid. posed: Aronia mitschurinii A.K.Skvortsov & Maitul. → Sorbaronia mitschurinii (AKSkvortsov & Maitul.) Sennikov .
- Hybrids between Aronia melanocarpa and Sorbus aucuparia become Sorbaronia fallax (CKSchneid.) CKSchneid. called.
- There is also the intergeneric hybrid Sorbocotoneaster Pojark . This includes the natural hybrid between Sorbus aucuparia L. and Cotoneaster laxiflorus Lindl. = Sorbocotoneaster pozdnjakovii Pojark .
Aronia varieties are not very susceptible to plant diseases. The high flavonoid concentration in the shell makes it insensitive to external influences such as ultraviolet radiation or pests. The two species most commonly grown because of their apple fruits are the chokeberry ( Aronia arbutifolia ) and the black chokeberry ( Aronia melanocarpa ). The fruit- growing use began at the beginning of the 20th century by the Russian biologist and fruit grower Iwan Michurin , who is said to have crossed the aronia around 1910 with other types of fruit such as mountain ash and medlar , or at least refined them.
In Germany, the chokeberry is mainly grown in Saxony , Brandenburg and Bavaria. About 86% of the total German harvest was produced here in 2016. In 2015 around 470 tons were harvested. According to the Federal Statistical Office, around 1,100 tons were harvested on almost 560 hectares in 2016. The cultivation area increased by approx. 41% compared to the previous year 2015. In 2019 the area was 959 ha with a yield of 1127 t. In Austria , the chokeberry was first planted in 2001 by six farmers in southeast Styria . A steadily increasing number of companies have now joined forces in the Aronia AUSTRIA association based in Feldbach . In 2019, around 1560 tons were harvested in Austria on an area of 537 hectares. In Switzerland Aronia is grown since of 2007. The total area under cultivation is 77 ha (2019). Almost all producers are organized in the IG Aronia association (50 members 2018). The Swiss harvest is processed by Aronia Swiss and Landi Hüttwilen .
The pea-sized, black, often waxy- coated fruits, which can be harvested from mid-August to October, taste sweet, sour and tart and similar to blueberries . The berries are either used dried (like raisins ), made into jam (for example together with oranges ), or drunk as juice after steaming . In ground form, they are often used in self-mixed fruit smoothies .
Due to its high flavonoid , folic acid , pro- vitamin A , vitamin B2 , vitamin K and vitamin C content, aronia is one of the medicinal plants in Poland and Russia . In vitro has been demonstrated that fruit extract of Aronia melanocarpa the oxidative stress caused by surgery or at various stages of chemotherapy , in patients with invasive breast cancer due to its antioxidant effect significantly reduced. Because of its strong red color ( anthocyanins ) it is also used as a substitute for food colors ( especially cochineal red A ).
Like many plant-based foods, chokeberries also contain cyanogenic glycosides , with the hydrocyanic acid content of fresh fruits typically being around 0.6 to 1.2 milligrams per 100 grams. According to the Max Rubner Institute , eating small portions is harmless. Heating reduces the hydrogen cyanide content so that processed fruits can also be consumed regularly.
Habit , fruits and leaves
Aronia benefits from a symbiosis with the Japanese stick sponge ( Pholiota nameko ), also called Nameko ( Japanese滑 子), Tuscany mushroom or Goldkäppchen , a fungus from the Schüpplinge genus .
- Aronia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- Aronia in the Flora of North America, Vol. 9.
- ↑ a b c d Aronia in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- ↑ a b Robert Zander : Zander. Concise dictionary of plant names. Edited by Walter Erhardt , Erich Götz, Nils Bödeker, Siegmund Seybold . 18th edition. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8001-5408-1 .
- ↑ a b c Alexander N. Sennikov, James B. Phipps: Atlas Florae Europaeae notes, 19-22. Nomenclatural changes and taxonomic adjustments in some native and introduced species of Malinae (Rosaceae) in Europe. In: Willdenowia - Annals of the Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem , Volume 43, Number 1, June 21, 2013, pp. 33–44. Full text PDF.
- ↑ Andreas Zeitlhöfler: The fruit-growing use of wild fruit trees . 2002, archived from the original on September 26, 2011 ; accessed on May 18, 2014 (Chapter 2.1, excerpt from the diploma thesis).
- ↑ Press releases - 1,100 tons of the “health berry” Aronia harvested. Federal Statistical Office (Destatis), accessed on May 16, 2017 .
- ↑ The aronia berry is on the rise again. The cultivation area continues to grow - especially in eastern Germany. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. August 18, 2016, p. 22.
- ↑ Aronia cultivation statistics - Aronia Swiss. Accessed December 16, 2019 (German).
- ↑ Austria-wide brand Aronia Austria. Chamber of Agriculture Styria, October 6, 2015, accessed on April 29, 2018 .
- ↑ Aronia Austria - the companies. Aronia AUSTRIA association, accessed on April 29, 2018 .
- ↑ Statistics Austria: Fruit harvest 2019 from commercial fruit orchards . In: Statistics.at . November 27, 2019 ( statistik.at [accessed March 8, 2020]).
- ↑ a b Development - IG Aronia Switzerland. Retrieved November 13, 2018 .
- ↑ Berry acreage 2019 - swissfruit. Retrieved March 8, 2020 .
- ↑ apfelbeere.org: Properties of the chokeberry. Retrieved on May 18, 2014 (Tables with vitamin and anthocyanin content in chokeberry. It is not clear which species or variety the information belongs to).
- ↑ Magdalena Kedzierska, Beata Olas, Barbara Wachowicz, Rafal Glowacki, Edward Bald, Urszula Czernek, Katarzyna Szydłowska-Pazera, Piotr Potemski, Janusz Piekarski, Arkadiusz Jeziorski: Effects of the commercial extract of aronia on oxidative stress in cancer blood platelets isolated from cancer patients after the surgery and various phases of the chemotherapy. In: Fitoterapia , (2012), 83: pp. 310-317. PMID 22101070 . doi: 10.1016 / j.fitote.2011.11.007
- ↑ Aronia Berries and Aronia Juice , Institute for Food and Bioprocess Engineering, accessed on May 26, 2017
- Sigrid Grün, Jan Neidhardt: Aronia - Undiscovered medicinal plant . edition buntehunde, Regensburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-934941-39-7 .
- Helmut Pirc: Wild fruits and rare fruits in the home garden . Stocker , Graz / Stuttgart 2009, ISBN 978-3-7020-1212-0 , pp. 89-93 .
- Entries about Aronia in Plants For A Future . Retrieved May 18, 2014.
- Profile of the Maria Laach Monastery Nursery for the type of chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa; melanocarpa = black fruit) (PDF; 192 kB) - This subpage is no longer accessible on July 20th.
- Benedictine Abbey Maria Laach: Plant Service (Laacher herb leaves) http://www.maria-laach.de/klosterbetriebe/klostergaertnerei/service/apfelbeere.html Chokeberry / Aronia (PDF; 188 kB; © Matthias Alter, Klostergärtnerei) - Accessed on 20th July 2016.