Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library - Lower Saxony State Library

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Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library - Lower Saxony State Library
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library library Am Schuetzenplatz Waterloostrasse Calenberger Neustadt Hannover Germany 01.jpg

Duration 1600000
Library type Regional library and scientific library
place Hanover
Visitor address Waterloostr. 8th

The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library - Lower Saxony State Library (sometimes abbreviated as GWLB ), based in Hanover, is one of the largest regional and academic libraries in Germany and, alongside the State Library of Oldenburg and the Herzog August Library in Wolfenbüttel, one of the three state libraries in Lower Saxony . It has had its current name since January 1, 2005. Before it was called, among other things, the Royal Public Library (since 1720), (Formerly) Royal and Provincial Library and Lower Saxony State Library (1947-2004). The library has a strong scientific orientation, maintains several databases and is an important research center for European cultural history. As a state library, it collects all magazines, newspapers and printed works that appear in Lower Saxony. It has 375 incunabula , 12,500 titles from the 16th century, 62,500 titles from the 17th century, 65,000 titles from the 18th century and 134,000 titles from the 19th century. Their map collection contains 30,000 loose map sheets. There are more than 4,500 manuscripts in the library, but one title often includes entire handwritten bundles of different origins, so that the actual amount deviates significantly from the number given. The Leibniz estate alone comprises 400,000 pages.


Costume book of Matthäus Schwarz from Augsburg (1520–1560)

The library was founded in 1665 by Duke Johann Friedrich as the court library of the Guelph dukes (later electors and kings of Hanover ). Its first important leader (prefect) was the polymath Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz from 1676 to 1716 , who also held the office of court historiographer. From 1698 the library was housed in what was later to be known as the “Leibnizhaus”. While in 1676 a total of 3110 volumes and 158 manuscripts were recorded in Tobias Fleischer's catalog, the inventory in 1801 was estimated at 130,000 volumes.

After the increase in rank to the Electorate of Hanover in 1692 and the personal union with the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1714, the library was further expanded and made significant. From 1719 it was housed in a new building designed by French architect Louis Rémy de La Fosse , which also housed the royal archive. It was there that the court and cabinet library became publicly accessible to a certain extent for the first time, which was reflected in the designation as the “Royal Public Library”.

During the personal union, when King George II (1727–1760) had his residence in Great Britain, the library's holdings were expanded, for example through the royal private library and the establishment of a fixed acquisition budget. In 1737 the library received the right to deposit copies. From 1727 there was the " Catalogus perpetuus ", which is considered the first card catalog in the world. The library was headed by respected scholars such as Johann Georg von Eckhart , Simon Friedrich Hahn , Johann Daniel Gruber and Christian Ludwig Scheidt .

George II's coat of arms , which can be found on many of the library's covers

In the 17th and 18th centuries, many estates and private libraries were acquired and assigned to the holdings. In 1678 3,600 volumes were acquired from the library of the Hamburg polyhistor Martin Fogel, and Leibniz himself was able to take over 6,000 volumes. The estate of the Protestant abbot of the Loccum Monastery, Gerhard Molanus, with 9,000 volumes and diverse manuscripts, was acquired in 1729. The estate and the library with around 20,000 individual writings and many manuscripts were purchased from the Helmstedt family of scholars and professors in 1743. The library received gifts and books from the Princely House of Braunschweig-Lüneburg on several occasions, such as around 2,000 volumes from Electress Sophie von Hannover , 5,000 volumes from Georg I , 2,000 volumes from Georg II and in 1837/1849 around 11,000 volumes from Duke Adolf Friedrich von Cambridge .

After a phase of stagnation at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th century, the library experienced a new upswing from 1827 to 1842 under the direction of Georg Heinrich Pertz , which was also continued under Adolf Schaumann (library director 1851–1867). However, this development was interrupted by the loss of the state independence of Hanover, which was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866. In 1897 the Hanover Provincial Library was attached to the Royal Library, whose ownership structure had been disputed for decades.

In 1947 the library was given a new sponsor by the state of Lower Saxony and named "Lower Saxony State Library". From the 1960s onwards, the Lower Saxony State Library took over the supply of literature for the humanities subjects at the University of Hanover and also operated a number of departmental libraries, which were transferred to the administration of the university library in 2003. In 2005 it was renamed to its current name. The Horst Bienek Archive is part of the library.

Building history

After the previous building on Lavesallee, in which the state library and the main state archive were housed together, turned out to be too small, a new building was planned for the library at the beginning of the 1970s on Waterloostraße, which would also house the store holdings and a library school could. The plans for the building, which was built between 1973 and 1975, were designed by the Göttingen architects Gerhard Brütt and Heinrich Matthies. You founded the bmp architecture office in 1966 and previously worked for the state of Lower Saxony as a planner for the new buildings at the University of Göttingen. Heinrich Matthies was previously deputy head of the new building department I for the University of Göttingen, which was dissolved around 1968.

Tasks and holdings

With flags, sculptures created on the lawn at the “Steinintermezzo 2005” for the interreligious dialogue between Islamic believers and Christian youth
Building with magazine extension on the left

The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library is today a modern regional library and scientific library with a large number of historical holdings . According to its own information, it currently has around 130,000 books that were printed before 1815. The total stock is over 1.6 million volumes.

The library has numerous collections of historical value. In its biblical collection it counts 600 editions from the 15th to the 19th century, including Luther's December Testament from 1522, the first German Bible printed in North America (Germantown near Philadelphia 1743) and the London polyglot from 1654 to 1657. The binding collection contains from the old workshop of the court bookbindery and from other European book workshops around 2500 outstanding pieces of book binding art are represented. 869 engraving printing plates from the 17th and 18th centuries are included in the engraving plate collection. The coat of arms collection of the Darmstadt heraldist Kammerrat Carl Leo Külp was acquired in 1971 and comprises around 50,000 coats of arms on individual sheets. The collection of opera libretti with 2500 libretti comes from the Royal Library and the Hermann Schüling Collection. Further collections with large holdings exist for artist books, school programs, funeral sermons, seals, pictures and old graphics as well as Rara, Rarissima and Unica.

The library is the regional depository copy library for Lower Saxony. On this basis, the Lower Saxony Bibliography is created at the GWLB , an online state bibliography for Lower Saxony and Bremen .

The center for education and training at the GWLB coordinates the various library training courses in Lower Saxony and conducts training events for librarians.

The Academy for Reading Promotion Lower Saxony supports reading promotion in the state of Lower Saxony through training events for teachers, librarians, educators and volunteers in reading promotion as well as through public relations.

The research work on the early modern period and on the cultural history of Europe is extensive. To this end, the library publishes its own series in cooperation with various publishers.

Special medieval manuscripts

Outstanding among the collection of medieval manuscripts are the Monseer fragments (around 800, see below), the story of the passion of St. Kilian and St. Margaret (10th century), a Biblia Sacra from the 13th century and the Low German prayer book (around 1430). The Stories of the Passions of St. Kilian and St. Margaret is the oldest surviving representative of the sub-genus Libellus (little book) and contains saints' vites and prayers. The Biblia Sacra from the beginning of the 13th century, with decorative initials and multicolored ink, contains the complete Bible, translations of Hebrew names, liturgical texts and notes on readings. The very fine parchment in this manuscript probably comes from animals killed in the womb. The Low German prayer book , written around 1430, belonged to a woman who did not belong to the clergy. The richly decorated copy with many paintings is written in Middle Low German and tells of the life of Jesus and Mary in verses and rhymes.

Leibniz estate

Letter from Leibniz to Kiel of March 1716 concerning a publication

The estate of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , which contains a large number of manuscripts from Leibniz's correspondence with numerous scholarly contemporaries, is of particular importance in the library's holdings . The Leibniz Archive of the GWLB is working with other research centers on an edition of Leibniz's writings.

Leibniz's correspondence contains around 15,000 letters with 1,100 correspondents. It is part of the Leibniz estate kept in Hanover with around 50,000 numbers and around 200,000 sheets. The estate also includes Leibniz's library and the only surviving copy of the four-species calculating machine he designed .

Exchange of letters from Leibniz as Unesco world document heritage

The German Nomination Committee proposed Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's 2006 correspondence stored in the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library for the UNESCO World Document Heritage Program (Memory of the World) . In autumn 2007, the General Director of UNESCO made a final decision on the new entry in the Memory-of-the-World Register. In doing so, UNESCO declared the correspondence to be part of world memory and therefore particularly worthy of protection.

Golden letter

The golden letter measures 54.7 × 8.5 cm and is 0.2 mm thick. It is engraved on sheet gold and set with 24 rubies . The Burmese King Alaungphaya had sent him to the English King George II in 1756 and in it offered the British East India Company a fortified trading post in his territory. The letter is the only one of its kind.

However, the letter did not arrive in London until two years later, where its meaning was misunderstood. The letter therefore went unanswered, but Georg II forwarded it to his home library in Hanover. There it was finally archived with a wrong description and thus fell into oblivion for almost 250 years. It was only after it was rediscovered in 2006 that Jacques Leider , a historian and Southeast Asia expert at the École française d'Extrême-Orient in Paris , managed to translate it, revealing the actual art-historical and geopolitical significance of writing. The Golden Letter is kept in the Leibniz Library.

Altatlan and map collection

Map from the Blaeu Atlas

The GWLB owns one of the most important atlases and map collections in European cultural history. The inventory includes around 500 atlases from the 15th to 19th centuries. From the Royal Library , works by almost all of the major cartographers and atlas publishers from the incunable up to the 18th century are represented. In addition to these atlases, there is the extremely extensive and universally equipped map collection with around 30,000 loose map sheets, many of which are handwritten and hand-colored. The collection includes the incunabula of the Cosmographia of Claudius Ptolemy (Ulm 1482) with colored woodcut maps, the editions of the great Atlas Blaeu , as Atlas Novus in German (Amsterdam 1646–1655) and as Le grand Atlas in French (twelve volumes , Amsterdam 1667) in splendid bindings and hand-colored, available.

Many maps have oversized formats, such as the well-known London with Westminster plan from 1746 with a length of 4 meters. The campaign cards of King George I as army commander in the Belgian theater of war are of particular historical value . This collection is supplemented by two 17th century globes from the private collection of Duke Johann Friedrich.

Herrenhausen Royal Garden Library

Herrenhausen in an engraving by Nathaniel Parr , around 1745
An apple from the provenance of the Royal Herrenhausen Garden Library;
Gouache by Friedrich Molters , 1833

In July 2007 the former Royal Garden Library in Herrenhausen was acquired by the public sector. This means that manuscripts and books that are precious for the history of the Herrenhausen Gardens as well as for the history of botany and garden culture have been made accessible to research for the first time in 70 years. The collection includes books and a valuable inventory of manuscripts, drawings and herbaria. Part of the collection - mostly books - is now in the Frankfurt University Library Johann Christian Senckenberg and the Weimar Duchess Anna Amalia Library . The holdings in the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library (GWLB) also contain manuscripts, herbaria and drawings and are an important source of the history of Herrenhausen and the court gardeners who work there.

The research program Königliche Gartenbibliothek Herrenhausen is a joint research project of the GWLB and the Center for Garden Art and Landscape Architecture (CGL) of the Leibniz University Hannover, funded by the state of Lower Saxony. The extensive source material of the Hanoverian holdings of the Royal Garden Library in Herrenhausen is recorded, cataloged and scientifically evaluated in several stages . In 2011 two dissertations and an anthology on this topic were presented by the GWLB and the CGL.

Monseer fragment

Older ownership stamp
Ownership stamp from the 1990s
Ownership stamp after renaming

Some of the Monseer fragments are kept in the GWLB . The manuscript was probably written by Benedictine monks around 800 in Mondsee Monastery. The text comes from the Bible and was written in the Carolingian minuscule. On the recto page (right) was the old high German translation, the Latin text was on the verso page (left). The manuscript was only passed on in pieces and is now kept in Vienna and Hanover. In the 15th century, bookbinders had cut up the code for the use of parchment as book covers and thus destroyed it. Parts of this codex could be found and restored. The Monseer fragment is the oldest piece in the GWLB collections.

Esther roll

The Esther roll is a 6.5 meter long, pull-out font. This roll was made at the beginning of the 17th century and is one of the special treasures of the GWLB. In terms of content, the role is related to the Jewish festival of Purim, which is celebrated as a festival on Adar 14 and 15. The Book of Esther is read out during the evening prayer. The magnificently decorated and heavily decorated scroll was made for private use, as the scrolls used in the synagogues were not decorated.

Defense sector library II

In 2004 a deposit of around 100,000 volumes from the Defense Area Library II , which was formerly located in Hanover, was deposited in the GWLB . Around 9,000 copies of these writings date from before 1900, some of them from the 16th century. The collection also contains around 120 manuscripts, some of which are autographs by Frederick the Great , Carl von Clausewitz and Moltke .

Funeral procession for Tsar Alexander I.

With a total length of 16.5 meters, the ink drawing for the funeral procession of Tsar Alexander I is one of the largest objects in the collections. The masterful ink drawing from 1826 shows a detailed representation of the entourage of the funeral procession.

Masonic Library

Through foundations , donations from the Freemason lodges in Hanover and the Freemason Library Association as well as through its own acquisitions, the GWLB has now built up the second largest collection of Masonic writings in Germany with around 4,000 volumes (as of 01/2013).

Edited volumes with small letters

Some of the old book holdings in the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library are combined in 900 edited volumes with around 32,000 individual titles, most of which contain small letters such as pamphlets, flyers and personal papers. The focus is on personal writings on princely persons from Lower Saxony, writings on the Thirty Years War, on French and Dutch history and on the 48th revolution, as well as opera texts from the 17th and 18th centuries. The princely character of the old court library is particularly evident here. In this special collection there are also numerous rarities and unica. Like the collection of funeral sermons, coats of arms and general personal items, they are of great importance for regional research.

Heraldic collection

The Külp coat of arms collection with more than 50,000 mostly civil coats of arms has been kept in the GWLB since 1971 and is considered the largest such collection in Germany. A printed register makes it easy to find the family name.

Birgit Dankert collection for research on books for children and young people

In 2004 the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library received one of the most complete private collections on the subject of German children's and youth literature in the second half of the 20th century. It has been continuously built up over decades by Birgit Dankert , university professor at the Library and Information Department at the Hamburg University of Applied Sciences. The collection contains specialist literature on children's and youth literature. It also contains one of the few complete holdings of all volumes published by dtv junior that exist outside the publisher . Since the series was first published in 1971, there are around 2100 volumes. There are also other collections, including reprints of historical children's books and new editions of children's book classics.

Digital offer

The GWLB offers several databases. The digital collections offer digitized works from the GWLB holdings. The new publications on Lower Saxony are listed in the Lower Saxony Bibliography. In the Lower Saxon People database, personal data records on Lower Saxon personalities are recorded, provided that they can be substantiated by a source in the literature or the media. The Leibniz Bibliography is a bibliography of the publications about Leibniz and lists all new publications about Leibniz that are printed worldwide. The LeibnizCentral portal is a knowledge portal on Leibniz. The Lower Saxony Online Archive (NOA) is a portal for digital documents from Lower Saxony for the purpose of long-term archiving. The Werner Kraft Bibliography is a bibliography of works by the librarian and essayist Werner Kraft , who worked in the library from 1928–1933, and also lists the secondary literature about him.

Personal papers and autographs

Autograph of the Leibniz draft for the binary number system

The entire collection of autographs in the library comes from a few thousand personalities and ranges from the Renaissance to the present day. These include a variety of bequests. There are among others:


The extensive holdings of the GWLB, which has grown over time, have been made accessible through several catalogs.


The online catalog (OPAC) is available on the Internet for printed works, digital media and CDs / DVDs from the year of publication 1962. All new acquisitions and deposit copies are shown in this catalog.

Capsule catalog

Printed works before 1962, i.e. the entire old stock, are recorded in a capsule catalog in the building according to Prussian Instructions (PI) . Most of the old stock is not recorded in the OPAC. The retro-cataloging is currently being carried out, but until the end of the project, the entire inventory prior to 1962 has only been cataloged using the capsule catalog. Inquiries about the old stock can be made at the information desk in the building.

Special catalogs

There are special printed catalogs for the manuscripts, the medieval manuscripts, the old files of the library, the parchment bindings, the small fonts and the map collection. Further catalogs, especially those relating to the digital copies, can be found on the OPAC and the GWLB website.



  • Daniel Eberhard Baring was assistant librarian at the Electoral Library for 36 years from 1718, wrote the first bibliography in the history of the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and recorded the Leibniz library.
  • Rudolf Erich Raspe (1736–1794), author of the English first edition of the Wonderful Voyages on Water and Land, Campaigns and Funny Adventures of the Baron von Münchhausen, as he used to tell the same about the bottle in the circle of his friends (translated and expanded by Gottfried August Bürger, Göttingen 1786)
  • Heinrich Böttger (1801–1891), library counselor, historian, 1850–1875 in the service of the Royal Library
  • Paula Blank (1887–1967), 1914–1933 worked as library secretary or senior library secretary
  • Werner Kraft (1896–1991), Library Council 1928–1933
  • Karl-Heinz Weimann (1922–2006), Deputy Director 1964–1987, Paracelsus researcher
  • Reinhard Oberschelp (* 1936), head of Lower Saxony documentation


  • Ariane Walsdorf, Klaus Badur, Erwin Stein , Franz Otto Kopp : The last original. The Leibniz calculating machine of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library (= treasury. Volume 1). ed. from the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library, Hanover 2014, ISBN 978-3-943922-08-0 .



  • Wolfgang Dittrich: Lower Saxony State Library. In: Bernd Hagenau (Ed.): Regional libraries in Germany . Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 2000, ISBN 3-465-03085-0 , pp. 175-182.
  • Wolfgang Dittrich: Hanover, Lower Saxony State Library. In: Detlev Hellfaier (Hrsg.): State library building in Germany, Austria and Switzerland . Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 2003, ISBN 3-465-03291-8 , pp. 27-39.
  • Georg Ruppelt (ed.): On the necessity of a good name. The Lower Saxony State Library becomes the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library. Niemeyer, Hameln 2006.
  • Georg Ruppelt, Thomas Fuchs: Valuables, information, encounters. The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library - Lower Saxony State Library introduces itself. Niemeyer, Hameln 2007.
  • Georg Ruppelt, Veit Görner, Maximilian Engelmann, Frank-Thorsten Moll (eds.): Bookmarks. Worlds of knowledge from cuneiform to YouTube. Publication on the occasion of the exhibition in the Kestnergesellschaft from January 16 to February 15, 2009 in cooperation with the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library. Kehrer, Hanover 2009.
  • Hugo Thielen : Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library. In: Stadtlexikon Hannover . P. 227.
  • Wilhelm Totok, Karl-Heinz Weimann (ed.): The Lower Saxony State Library in Hanover. Development and tasks . Klostermann, Frankfurt am Main 1976, ISBN 3-465-01154-6 .
  • Ulrich Breden : Bibliography on the history of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library and its predecessor institutions. (= Reports Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library. 3). Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library, Hannover 2015. Online resource
  • Georg Ruppelt (Ed.): 350 Years of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library (1665–2015). "The use of an unread library ... cannot be doubted" . Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library, Hanover 2015, ISBN 978-3-943922-12-7


  • Michael Labach: The prehistory of the "Lower Saxony State Library" from 1907 to 1939. From the "Royal and Provincial Library" to the "Formerly Royal and Provincial Library". (= Small historical series of the Laurentius magazine. 4). Laurentius, Hanover 1993.
  • Otto Heinrich May: The war and post-war fate of the Lower Saxony State Library in Hanover (1939–1950). According to diary entries, extracts from files, experiences and findings . Lax, Hildesheim 1968.
  • Reinhard Oberschelp: The old files A and V of the Lower Saxony State Library . Hanover 2001.
  • Werner Ohnsorge: Two hundred years of history of the Royal Library of Hanover (1665–1866) . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1962.
  • Anne-Katrin Henkel: About war and books: evacuation, repatriation and confiscation of library holdings from the formerly Royal and Provincial Library in Hanover during and after the Second World War . Hameln, Niemeyer, 2011 (writings / Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library; 5), ISBN 978-3-8271-8905-9


  • Eduard Bodemann: The manuscripts of the royal public library to Hanover . Hahn, Hanover 1867.
  • Thomas Fuchs: Ex Bibliotheca Hannoverana. Treasures from twelve centuries . Niemeyer, Hameln 2005–2006.
  • Helmar Härtel, Felix Ekowski: Manuscripts of the Lower Saxony State Library Hanover . Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 1982–1989.
  • Reinhard Oberschelp: copperplate engraving in the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz library . Niemeyer, Hameln 2005.
  • Reinhard Oberschelp: Old Bird Pictures. From the old holdings of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library. Niemeyer, Hameln 2010.
  • Georg Ruppelt (ed.): The golden letter of the Bormanian king Alaungphaya to King Georg II. Hanover 2011.
  • Karl-Heinz Weimann, Irmhild Zühlsdorff: Hanover 1: Lower Saxony State Library. In: Handbook of the historical book inventory in Germany. Volume 2.2: Lower Saxony H – Z. Olms-Weidmann, Hildesheim 1998, pp. 18-47. ( online )

Web links

Commons : Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library Lower Saxony State Library  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. . (accessed on May 13, 2020).
  2. Note: the general spelling does not apply to the name of the library (see coupling ), the spelling without hyphens is the official, own spelling
  3. Otto Heinrich May: On the history of the formerly royal and provincial library in Hanover. Reprint from Sixty Years of Hanover Provincial Administration. Hanover 1928, p. 3.
  4. ^ Werner Ohnsorge: Two hundred years of history of the Royal Library in Hanover (1665–1866). Göttingen 1962, p. 56.
  5. ^ Karl-Heinz Weimann: Holdings, collections, bequests in the Lower Saxony State Library. In: Wilhelm Totok, Karl-Heinz Weimann (ed.): The Lower Saxony State Library in Hanover. Development and tasks. Frankfurt am Main 1976, pp. 116-122.
  6. Hermann Boockhoff and Jürgen Knotz: Architecture in Hanover since 1900 , Callwey-Verlag, Munich 1981, ISBN 3-7667-0599-7 , S. E 12
  7. ^ Website of the architects bmp Göttingen , accessed on August 15, 2017
  8. Göttinger Tageblatt, article from September 1, 2011, digitized version
  9. Reinhard Oberschelp: copperplate engraving in the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz library. Niemeyer, Hameln 2005.
  10. ^ Hans-Jürgen Kernchen: Family name register for the coat of arms collection Külp. Lax, Hildesheim 1988.
  11. Björn Schreier: World Atlas by Joan Blaeu (Atlas Blaeu), 1667. In: Georg Ruppelt et al. (Hrsg.): Bookmarks / Knowledge Worlds from Cuneiform to YouTube, on the occasion of the exhibition of the same name from January 16 to February 15, 2009. Kehrer, Hanover 2009, pp. 38–39.
  12. Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library (Ed.): Royal Garden Library Herrenhausen. A precious collection, its history and its objects, with contributions by Heike Palm, Susanne Schilling, Lidia Ludwig, Hubert Rettich, Matthias Wehry, Gerhard Wagenitz, Michael Schwahn . Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library, Hanover 2016, ISBN 978-3-943922-16-5 .
  13. Nina Otto: Monseer Fragments. In: Georg Ruppelt et al. (Ed.): Bookmarks. Worlds of knowledge from cuneiform to YouTube. Kehrer, Hannover 2009, pp. 12-13.
  14. Nina Otto: Esther Rolle, early 17th century. In: Georg Ruppelt et al. (Ed.): Bookmarks. Worlds of knowledge from cuneiform to YouTube. Kehrer, Hannover 2009, pp. 32–33.
  15. Jorunn Wissmann (ed.), Georg Ruppelt, Thomas Fuchs (edit.): Defense sector library II. In this: Treasures, information, encounters. The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library introduces itself (= writings. Volume 3), [Hameln]: CW Niemeyer Buchverlage, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8271-8903-5 , p. 59.
  16. Nina Otto: Funeral procession for Tsar Alexander I, 1826. In: Georg Ruppelt et al. (Ed.): Bookmarks. Worlds of knowledge from cuneiform to YouTube. Kehrer, Hannover 2009, pp. 52–53.
  17. Siegfried Schildmacher (Ed.): Freemasons - Secret Society or Ethics School? History and current work of the Freemasons in Hanover. Accompanying volume to the exhibition in the Historical Museum Hannover from September 4, 2012 to January 6, 2013, Hannover 2012: Verlag der Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library, ISBN 978-3-943922-01-1 , p. 77 ff.
  18. ^ Georg Ruppelt: The Freemason Library Association Hanover - an address of thanks. In: Siegfried Schildmacher (Ed.): Freemasons - Secret Society or Ethics School? P. 8 f.
  19. Reinhard Oberschelp: Anthologies in the old holdings of the Lower Saxony State Library. An overview directory. Niemeyer, Hameln 1996.
  20. Jorunn Wissmann (ed.), Georg Ruppelt , Thomas Fuchs (arrangement): Wappensammlung , in this: valuable items, information, encounters. The Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library introduces itself (= Writings , Volume 3), [Hameln]: CW Niemeyer Buchverlage, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8271-8903-5 , p. 56.
  21. Digital collections
  22. ^ Bibliography of Lower Saxony
  23. Lower Saxon people
  24. Leibniz Bibliography
  25. Leibniz Central
  26. ^ Lower Saxony online archive
  27. Werner Kraft Bibliography
  28. Georg Ruppelt (Director): Eduard Bodemann ( Memento from September 8, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), short biography on a subpage of the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Library - Lower Saxony State Library, last accessed on August 6, 2012.
  29. ^ Ernst Kelchner:  Baring, Daniel Eberhard . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 2, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1875, p. 65 f.

Coordinates: 52 ° 21 ′ 55 "  N , 9 ° 43 ′ 51"  E