List of epidemics and pandemics
The list of epidemics and pandemics includes events with epidemics or pandemics of infectious diseases .
|before the calendar|
|3500 BC Chr.||pest||throughout Europe, from Lake Baikal to the Iberian Peninsula||Yersinia pestis , detected in 2017 on the basis of tooth and bone finds|
|1st half of the 14th century||not identified||Egypt , Middle East||Epidemics at the time of Šuppiluliuma I. and Muršili II. And Amenophis III. It could have been the plague. The pathogen has not been clarified.|
|765||not identified||Assyria||Plague at the time of the reign of Aššur-dan III.|
(approx. 25 to 33%
|The causative agent of the Attic disease has not been clarified.|
|293||not identified||Rome||Plague in the Roman Republic. According to Titus Livius , the cult of Asklepios was adopted from Greece in Rome to ward off the danger .|
|according to the era|
(up to 190)
|not identified||Roman Empire||7-10 million||The causative agent of the Antonine plague has not been clarified, presumably it is smallpox .|
|250-271||not identified||Roman Empire||The Cyprian plague may be synonymous with smallpox .|
|541-770||pest||Europe and the Middle East||The Justinian plague occurred in about 15 to 17 waves every 15 to 25 years.|
|877||not identified||Italy||Italian fever - The annals of the Fulda monastery ( Annales Fuldenses ) mention the first outbreak of an unknown disease in Italy.|
||Italy||Italian fever - The annals of the Fulda monastery ( Annales Fuldenses ) mention a second outbreak of an unknown disease in Italy.|
|1346-53||pest||Old world||100–125 million||Second plague pandemic, around 30 other significantly smaller outbreaks up to the beginning of the 19th century.
The Black Death claimed a third of the European population at the time. An epidemic broke out on the Crimean peninsula during the siege by the Golden Horde . The great plague of 1348/49 in Norway alone claimed more than 200,000 deaths.
|1485/86||English sweat||England||First outbreak: the pathogen itself has not yet been identified.|
(until approx. 1550)
|syphilis||Europe||New to Europe, probably from America (brought in from the West Indies on Christopher Columbus' first trip )|
|1507||English sweat||England||Second outbreak|
|1517||English sweat||England, especially Oxford and Cambridge , also Calais and Antwerp||Third outbreak|
|1519/20||smallpox||Mexico||5-8 million||New to America, blamed for most of the decimation of the indigenous peoples ( Indians )|
|1528/29||English sweat||England, Netherlands , Switzerland , Germany , Denmark , Sweden and Norway , Lithuania , Poland and Russia||Fourth outbreak|
|1545/46||unidentified hemorrhagic fever||Mexico||more than 800,000||First outbreak: Cocoliztli|
|1551||English sweat||England||Fifth (and final) outbreak|
|1576/78||unidentified hemorrhagic fever||Mexico||more than 2 million||Second outbreak: Cocoliztli|
|1582/83||Plague of San Cristóbal de La Laguna||Tenerife||9,000||The plague caused between 5,000 and 9,000 deaths on an island with fewer than 20,000 inhabitants (approximately 25-45% of the island's population).|
|1665/66||pest||mainly England||100,000||The Great Plague of London claimed 70,000 deaths in London and around 100,000 deaths in the south of England.|
|1678/79||pest||Vienna||12,000||The number of victims of the plague in Vienna has not been clarified.|
|1708-14||pest||Northern and Eastern Europe||1 million||Plague epidemic during the Great Northern War|
|1718-1874||Picard's sweat fever||France , Germany a. a.||194 epidemics were counted.|
|1775-78||smallpox||Pacific coast of North America||11,000||The smallpox epidemic on the Pacific coast of North America from 1775 was the first smallpox epidemic on the west coast of North America.|
|1780||smallpox||Australia||During the smallpox epidemic in Australia in 1789, the indigenous peoples of Australia fell ill.|
(16,000 ± 1,000
soldiers, about the
same number of
|Napoleon's Grande Armée made her first major rest in Mainz in autumn 1813 on her retreat from her Russian campaign in 1812 . This is where the epidemic peaked.|
|May 1820 to 1821||bubonic plague||Mallorca||Extensive quarantine measures|
|1831||cholera||Berlin, Prussian Provinces, Posen , Prussia, Silesia .|
|1847/48||typhus||Canada||20,000||The epidemic was brought in by emigrants as a result of the great famine in Ireland .|
|1852-60||cholera||Parts of Asia, the Maghreb (especially Algeria ) and Europe||Third cholera pandemic|
|1862||smallpox||Pacific coast of North America||more than 14,000||In the epidemic , parts of the indigenous peoples mainly died because they were not immunized - around half of the total population died.|
|1889/90||Virus flu: Russian flu (possibly equine influenza virus A / H3N8)||worldwide||up to 1 million|
|1892||cholera||Hamburg and the surrounding area||8605||The epidemic of 1892 was the last major cholera outbreak in Germany.|
|1894||poliomyelitis||Vermont (USA)||18th||The Otter Valley epidemic was the first polio epidemic in the United States.|
1894: China / Hong Kong
|12 million||Starting from China, the wave of infections moved via Asia, India via the USA and UK to South America, focus 1898–1900
see: Third plague pandemic
|1899 (approx.)||typhus||South Africa||58,000||9000||The epidemic among the British troops was so serious, among other things, because the immunization by Almroth Wright had met with great resistance.|
|1901||typhus||Gelsenkirchen||several hundred||The typhus epidemic in Gelsenkirchen in 1901 led to legal proceedings. The water supply company had added contaminated water to the drinking water, which had led to the spread of typhus.|
|1902/03||typhus||Lebach||more than 50||see: Typhus epidemic in Lebach|
|1910/11||(Lung) plague||Manchuria||45,000-60,000||see: Plague epidemic in Manchuria 1910–1911|
|1911||cholera||India, Venice||see: Death in Venice or Chiesa di San Domenico in Chioggia|
|1912-1927||European sleeping sickness||Europe||Pathogen unclear to this day|
|1916||poliomyelitis||Northeast USA||more than 6000||The Eastern State Polio Epidemic of 1916 was one of the first major polio epidemics in the United States.|
|1918-20||Virus flu: Spanish flu ( influenza virus A / H1N1 )||worldwide||approx. 500 million||27-50 million||The "Spanish" flu (reports of the extent of the disease have been suppressed in many affected countries) began at the end of the First World War. The determination of the exact pathogen remained unclear for a long time.|
|1925/26||diphtheria||Nome||up to 100||The diphtheria epidemic in Nome occurred during the winter in what was then Alaska's largest city. To prevent a major catastrophe, the village was supplied with antitoxin by dog sled.|
|1957/58||Virus flu: Asian flu (influenza virus A / H2N2)||worldwide||1-2 million|
|1961-90||cholera||worldwide||several million||Seventh and so far last cholera pandemic: subtype El Tor ; started in Indonesia; longest ongoing pandemic|
|1967||Marburg fever||Marburg , Frankfurt a. M. and Belgrade||7th||It is very likely that it was brought into the laboratories of a pharmaceutical company in Marburg, Hesse, with meerkats from Uganda.|
|1968-70||Virus flu: Hong Kong flu (influenza virus A / H3N2)||worldwide||1 million||The presumed total number of deaths worldwide fluctuate widely. Around 30,000 people died in Germany.|
|1977/78||Virus flu: Russian flu (influenza virus A / H1N1)||worldwide||around 700,000||Mainly people who were born after 1957 fell ill.|
|1979||anthrax||Ekaterinburg||about 100||The outbreak followed an accident in the manufacture of biological weapons .|
|1979-84||anthrax||Zimbabwe||10,000||Largest known anthrax epidemic to date|
|since 1980||AIDS ( HIV )||worldwide||36 million||HIV causes the immune deficiency AIDS in humans ; By the end of 2012, around 27,000 people in Germany had died as a result.|
|1995/96||Virus flu||worldwide||In Germany: an estimated 8.5 million sick people, 30,000 dead|
|1998-2000||Marburg fever||Democratic Republic of Congo||123||Second outbreak after 1967|
|from year 2000|
|2000||EHEC||Walkerton , Canada||2000||18th||The cause was drinking water contaminated with animal excrement .|
|Nov. 2002 to July 2003||SARS ( SARS-CoV )||worldwide : focus on China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Canada, Singapore||8096, 4% outside Asia||810, 6% outside of Asia||The SARS pandemic of 2002/2003 was the first pandemic of the 21st century. It was the first occurrence of a SARS coronavirus.|
|2004/05||Virus flu||worldwide||In the years 2004/05 in Germany:
• more than 6 million sick people
• up to 2.4 million influenza-related absence from work
• 32,000 hospital admissions
• 20,000 deaths
|since 2004||Marburg fever||
|210 in Angola
(2 in Uganda)
|Third outbreak: In 2007, the Marburg pathogen was found in cave flying foxes in Uganda .|
|since 2004||Virus flu: avian flu
( influenza virus A / H5N1 )
|worldwide||more than 800||more than 450||The main occurrence of the H5N1 bird flu took place from 2004 to 2016, after which it subsided.|
|since 2008||pest||Madagascar||since 2010:
more than 600
|2009/10||Virus flu: swine flu
( influenza virus A / H1N1 2009 )
|worldwide||at least 18,449||The maximum wave of swine flu infections in Germany was in November 2009; there were 258 deaths in Germany. One study assumes a significantly higher number of victims worldwide.|
|2009||Zika virus ( Zika virus )||Yap Islands||There was also a Zika virus epidemic in 2015/16|
|since 2010||cholera||Haiti, Dominican Republic, Cuba, Mexico, USA, Venezuela||10,075
(as of 2017)
Cholera epidemic in Haiti from 2010 : Part of the seventh cholera pandemic. The outbreak was a follow-up to the 2010 earthquake and led to the declaration of a nationwide sanitary emergency. 9,568 people died in Haiti.
The epidemic spread to the Dominican Republic with 503 deaths, Cuba with 3 deaths, and Mexico with 1 death, as well as the USA (Florida) and Venezuela with no deaths.
|2011||EHEC||Northern Germany||approx. 4000||53||The cause of the 2011 HUS epidemic in northern Germany was not germ-contaminated cucumbers, as was initially assumed, but probably fenugreek sprouts from a farm in Egypt.|
|since 2012||MERS ( MERS-CoV )||Arabian Peninsula||approx. 2500||at least 850||Coronavirus transitions from bats to camels to humans|
|2013||Legionnaires||Warstein (Germany)||September 2013: 165 illnesses and suspected cases||3||The outbreak of legionnaires in Warstein was the most extensive in Germany to date. The pathogen was spread via sewage treatment plants and cooling towers .|
|since December 2013||Chikungunya fever||Central America, South America, Florida Islands||875,000||November 2014: at least 138||In Germany there were (as of November 2014) 18 Chikungunya diseases, including 9 of people returning from the Caribbean.|
|2014–16||Ebola fever||West Africa||28,639||11,314||The Ebola epidemic from 2014 to 2016 consisted of an epidemic outbreak in West Africa that had developed into a persistent endemic.|
|2015/16||Zika virus (Zika virus)||South America||The 2015/2016 Zika virus epidemic led to microcephaly in newborns , among other things . The pathogen now occurs in tropical areas around the world.|
|since 2016||cholera||Yemen||more than 1.7 million
||more than 3430||The cholera in Yemen since 2016 is part of the seventh cholera pandemic. A distinction is made between two epidemic waves: the cholera outbreak is considered the world's largest known outbreak in history (as of April 30, 2019).|
|since 2017||Dengue fever||Sri Lanka||more than 130,000||more than 300||Mosquitoes that are mainly active during the day have been transmitting the dengue virus in Sri Lanka since 2017, which can cause dengue fever.|
|2017/18||Virus flu: flu wave 2017/2018
(influenza virus B / Yam and A / H1N1)
|worldwide||approx. 290,000 to 650,000||In Germany, according to the excess method, an estimated 25,100 deaths, the highest number of deaths in the past 30 years, the deaths confirmed in the laboratory according to IfSG amounted to 1674.
The worldwide estimate of the dead is based on a study by the CDC published on Dec. 13, 2017.
|2018-20||Ebola fever||Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda||3414||2237||The Ebola fever epidemic from 2018 to 2020 was historically the second most serious outbreak of Ebola fever.|
|since 2018||measles||Madagascar||more than 146,000||at least 910|
|since 2019||measles||Samoa||more than 1800||at least 22|
|since 2019||measles||Democratic Republic of Congo||approx. 250,000||more than 6000
||The measles epidemic in the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 2019 arose in early 2019 and mainly affects children.|
|2019/20||Virus flu: flu wave 2019/2020
(influenza virus A and B)
|worldwide||It is known that 460 people died in Germany. 85% of the deceased were over 60 years old.|
|since Nov. 2019||COVID-19 ( SARS-CoV-2 )||worldwide||approx. 25.33 million
confirmed infected (Aug. 31, 2020)
confirmed deaths (Aug 31, 2020)
|The COVID-19 pandemic began in the Chinese city of Wuhan in autumn 2019 .
On March 11, 2020, the WHO officially declared the spread of the virus a pandemic.
On April 2, 2020, the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases reached one million, and on June 28, 2020, there were more than 10 million confirmed infections and over 500,000 deaths, according to Johns Hopkins University. Experts assume a considerable number of unreported cases, which varies from region to region. Based on the excess mortality figures available for individual countries, it can be deduced that the actual deaths are considerably higher.
- List of disasters
- Infection epidemiology
- The plague of Albert Camus
- Mary Dobson: Plagues That Changed the World. From cholera to SARS. Translated from the English by Meike Grow and Ute Mareik. G + J, Hamburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-86690-094-3 .
- Jens Jacobsen: Shadow of Death. The story of the epidemics. Philipp von Zabern, Darmstadt 2012, ISBN 978-3-8053-4538-5 .
- Karl-Heinz Leven : The History of Infectious Diseases. From antiquity to the 20th century. (= Advances in preventive and occupational medicine. Volume 6). ecomed, Landsberg am Lech 1997, ISBN 3-609-51220-2 .
- Jacques Ruffié, Jean-Charles Sournia: The epidemics in human history. 4th enlarged edition. Translated from the French by Brunhild Seeler. Klett-Cotta, Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-608-94001-4 .
- Malte Thießen (ed.): Infected Europe. Epidemics in the long 20th century. De Gruyter Oldenbourg, Munich 2014, ISBN 978-3-11-036434-7 .
- Manfred Vasold: Plague, hardship and severe plagues. Plagues and epidemics from the Middle Ages to the present day. CH Beck, Munich 1991, ISBN 3-406-35401-7 .
- Manfred Vasold: flu, plague and cholera. A history of epidemics in Europe. Steiner, Stuttgart 2015, ISBN 978-3-515-11025-9 .
- Carl Christian Wahrmann, Martin Buchsteiner, Antje Strahl (eds.): Epidemic and human. Challenge over the centuries. (= Historical Research. Volume 95). Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-428-13701-5 .
- Stefan Winkle : Cultural history of epidemics. Komet, Düsseldorf / Zurich 1997, ISBN 3-933366-54-2 (3rd, improved and expanded edition under the title Scourges of mankind. Cultural history of epidemics. Artemis & Winkler, Düsseldorf / Zurich 2005, ISBN 978-3-538- 07159-9 ).
- Disease outbreaks on the website of WHO (English)
- Pandemics and other plagues on SWR2 archive radio
- ↑ https://www.spektrum.de/news/die-erste-pandemie-der-menschheitsgeschichte/1750058
- ↑ https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdfExtended/S0960-9822(17)31328-3
- ↑ Karl-Heinz Leven (Ed.): Ancient medicine. A lexicon. CH Beck, Munich 2005, p. 572, ISBN 978-3-406-52891-0 .
- ↑ Unearthed: Macabre Fuel. On: spiegel.de from June 22, 2014.
- ↑ Heinrich Haeser ( online )
- ↑ During this time the world population will decrease from 475 million to 350 to 375 million Historical Estimates of World Population . Census.gov. Accessed April 28, 2019. Other sources come up with similar values (a quarter of 440 million)
- ^ A b R. Acuna-Soto, DW Stahle, MK Cleaveland, MD Therrell: Megadrought and megadeath in 16th century Mexico. In: Emerging infectious diseases. Vol. 8, No. 4, April 2002, pp. 360-362, doi: 10.3201 / eid0804.010175 , PMID 11971767 , PMC 2730237 (free full text) (English).
- ↑ La Peste. El cuarto jinete.
- ↑ Overview: The greatest worldwide epidemics. On: tagesspiegel.de of October 21, 2005.
- ↑ weather.com
- ↑ Barbara Dettke: The Asian Hydra , de Gruyter 1995.
- ↑ Christina Steinlein, Ann-Christin Müller: Smallpox (18th century). In: Focus Online . April 28, 2009. Retrieved October 14, 2018 .
- ^ Alain-Jacques Valleron et al .: Transmissibility and geographic spread of the 1889 influenza pandemic. In: PNAS . Vol. 107, No. 19, 2010, pp. 8778-8781, doi: 10.1073 / pnas.1000886107 (English).
- ^ William C. Summers: The Great Manchurian Plague of 1910-1911. New Haven, 2012, p. 1 (English).
- ^ World health group issues alert Mexican president tries to isolate those with swine flu , Associated Press. April 25, 2009. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
- ↑ Michael Mandel: No need to panic… yet Ontario officials are worried swine flu could be pandemic, killing thousands , Toronto Sun. April 26, 2009. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
- ^ Anthrax: The disease and its pathogens , www.sueddeutsche.de, May 17, 2010.
- ↑ RKI: HIV / AIDS in Germany - key data of the estimate. Status: End of 2012 ( Memento from November 17, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ Influenza (historical). In: lungenaerzte-im-netz.de. Retrieved August 4, 2020 .
- ↑ a b Free State of Saxony: Infections and Pandemics.
- ↑ a b Summary of probable SARS cases with onset of illness from November 1, 2002 to July 31, 2003 . World Health Organization (WHO). Retrieved December 28, 2015.
- ↑ The plague: The plague has broken out in Madagascar. ( Memento from November 25, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- ↑ WHO: "Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 - update 112" (English).
- ↑ First Global Estimates of 2009 H1N1 Pandemic Mortality Released by CDC-Led Collaboration .
- ↑ a b Epidemiological Update Cholera 28 Dec 2017 . (English)
- ↑ a b Epidemiological Update Cholera October 19, 2013 . WHO. Archived from the original on December 24, 2016. Retrieved October 19, 2013. (English)
- ↑ Caribbean: Hundreds of thousands contracted Chikungunya fever. On: spiegel.de from November 23, 2014.
- ^ WHO: Ebola Response Roadmap Situation Report. (PDF; 1.55 MB) World Health Organization (WHO): Situation reports: Ebola response roadmap , December 3, 2014, accessed on January 24, 2016 (English).
- ^ Cholera situation in Yemen. (PDF) April 2019. (No longer available online.) WHO , archived from the original on July 5, 2019 ; accessed on August 11, 2020 (English).
- ↑ Dengue fever - Sri Lanka. WHO, Disease Outbreak News, July 19, 2017.
- ↑ Epidemiology Unit, Ministry of Health, Colombo: Dengue fever case numbers (as of August 11, 2017; English).
- ↑ More than 300 dead: Sri Lanka experiences severe dengue outbreak. In: Spiegel Online . August 1, 2017, accessed June 9, 2018 .
- ↑ Destination Sri Lanka: Protect against mosquitoes from dengue fever nationwide. In: MedMix. February 12, 2020, accessed August 4, 2020 .
- ↑ Influenza Weekly Report. RKI, April 6, 2018, accessed August 2020 .
- ↑ Influenza was deadliest in 30 years. In: Editorial Office Deutsches Ärzteblatt. Deutscher Ärzteverlag GmbH, September 30, 2019, accessed on August 4, 2020 .
- ↑ Report on the epidemiology of influenza in Germany 2018/19 season. (PDF) Robert Koch Institute , 2019, accessed on July 2, 2020 .
- ↑ Report on the epidemiology of influenza in Germany 2018/19 season. (PDF) Robert Koch Institute , 2019, accessed on May 5, 2020 .
- ^ A. Danielle Iuliano, Katherine M. Roguski, Howard H. Chang, David J. Muscatello, Rakhee Palekar: Estimates of global seasonal influenza-associated respiratory mortality: a modeling study . In: The Lancet . tape 391 , no. 10127 , March 31, 2018, ISSN 0140-6736 , p. 1285-1300 , doi : 10.1016 / S0140-6736 (17) 33293-2 , PMID 29248255 ( thelancet.com [accessed August 4, 2020]).
- ^ Weekly Bulletin on Outbreak and other Emergencies. (PDF; 5.60 MB) WHO , June 9, 2019, p. 15 , accessed on June 14, 2019 (English).
- ↑ Measles epidemic: 22 dead and 1,800 infected in Samoa. aerzteblatt.de, November 25, 2019, accessed on November 27, 2019 .
- ^ Weekly Bulletin on Outbreak and other Emergencies. (PDF; 5.60 MB) WHO , June 9, 2019, p. 12 , accessed on June 14, 2019 (English).
- ↑ DR Congo measles: Nearly 5,000 dead in major outbreak. BBC , November 21, 2019, accessed December 26, 2019 .
- ↑ www.sueddeutsche.de
- ↑ Influenza numbers 2019/20. (PDF; 358.19 kB) Robert Koch Institute, April 26, 2020, accessed on April 24, 2020 .
- ↑ a b Operations Dashboard for ArcGIS. In: arcgis.com. Retrieved on August 4, 2020 .
- ↑ China's first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17 , March 13, 2020, accessed on March 21, 2020 .
- ↑ Barbie Latza Nadeau: China's First Confirmed COVID-19 Case Traced Back to Mid-November. March 13, 2020, accessed on March 21, 2020 .
- ↑ Situation reports. In: Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) situation reports. WHO , January 21, 2020, accessed February 29, 2020 .
- ↑ More than 10 million people infected with corona worldwide. On: berliner-zeitung.de from June 28, 2020.