Burgberg moated castle
The Burgberg Castle (or Wasserschloss Burgberg ) is a moated castle on the Burgberg in the northeast of the city of Überlingen in the Lake Constance district in Baden-Württemberg . The listed castle mostly dates from the last third of the 17th century, but is located on the site of an older moated castle that dates back to 1374. It is privately owned and not open to the public.
The first documented mention of the castle hill probably comes from the year 1116, when a gentleman von Burgberg from the Linzgau is mentioned, although it is not certain that the castle hill near Überlingen was meant. In the early 13th century, a castle in the Burgberger Hölzle near Überlingen was mentioned, which was owned by the noble family Schmalegg from Ravensburg . Allegedly, the castle hill (consisting of three hills) was the seat of two castles at that time. The Burgberg area was owned by the Überlinger Johanniterkommende from 1280 to 1337 , during this time the district extended to the Reutemühle near Bambergen. After the castle hill belonged to the Lords of Wolfurt in the meantime , it came into the possession of the Lords of Wil in the middle of the 14th century.
Around 1374 Ulrich von Wil had a farm building (the foundation walls of which probably went back to a medieval moated castle) converted into a moated castle. It was located between the three Burgberg hills ( Sonnenberg, Schatzberg and Grethalde ), on the site of today's moated castle. After further changes of ownership in the 15th century, the Reichsabtei Rot an der Rot finally acquired the castle hill (including moated castle, castle chapel , castle ruins, mills and vineyards ). For two hundred years the castle hill was owned by the imperial abbey . In the 1580s, the moated castle was fundamentally rebuilt. As a replacement for an old chapel, the castle chapel, which is still preserved today, was added. In 1588 it was dedicated to the founder of the Premonstratensian Order , Norbert von Xanten (who has been venerated as a saint since 1582) . In addition to a carved statue of Norbert von Xanten, one of St. Verena ( patroness of the Red Monastery) has a place in the small castle chapel, frescoes have also been installed inside. In 1932 one of these frescoes showing Norbert von Xanten as bishop was uncovered again.
Through a contract between the imperial city of Überlingen and the imperial abbey of Rot in 1680, the district of Burgberg gained independence (with its own lower jurisdiction ) from Überlingen (until 1888). After the moated castle was burned down in the Thirty Years' War , a new building of what is known as the pleasure house and is preserved today was largely built in the 1680s . This building was, among others, with a generous baroque staircase , several intricately designed stucco ceilings of Wessobrunner school , a majolica - tiled stove and two small rooflights with onion domes equipped (one on the roof of the chapel).
After two hundred years in the possession of the Red Imperial Abbey, the abbots sold the entire Burgberg area to the Reutlinger patrician family from Überlingen in 1692 . The change of ownership came about because there were frequent disputes with the citizens of Überlingen and above all with the city council over the rights of wine growing and serving on the castle hill. The wine trade was one of the most important sources of money for the imperial city (along with the grain trade ) and was threatened by Burgberger wine (there were similar differences of opinion at the same time with the wine bar in Spetzgart Castle , west of Überlingen). These disputes continued until the middle of the 19th century. To 1832 were the Überlinger Patrizierfamilie Reutlinger (to 1697), a among the owners of Castle Hill imperial Reichshofrat , the Überlinger mayor of Lenz (1790-1799) and a Obervogt from Randegg . In 1816 the castle property was foreclosed on the castle hill, but the new owner sold the castle hill again in the same year, as he felt threatened by the people of Überlingen.
In 1832, the castle hill and all of its buildings came to an innkeeper who took full advantage of the licensing rights and self-administration of the castle hill, despite warnings from the Überlingen city council. In the coming time, extensive renovations were carried out in the castle and it was converted into an inn (among other things, the castle chapel became a drinking room). Parts of the estate were sold and the old, uneconomical grapevines on the castle hill were largely removed and a considerable part of the land was cleared, the areas were then used for pasture . Only the approximately one-hectare castle park, which was created by the previous owner with (mainly) Canadian tree species as well as conifers and juniper species , was largely preserved. The new inn on the Burgberg developed into a popular excursion destination for the people of Überlingen in the middle of the 19th century . After the castle hill came into the possession of the Swedish - Swiss Count von Hallwyl , the independent administration was completely dissolved in 1888 and incorporated into the city of Überlingen. The count renounced the independent district of Burgberg .
In 1910 the moated castle was rebuilt, the inn had already been given up. Since then, changes of ownership increased again (one of them was a baron of the von Zedtwitz family ), until the Stuttgart industrialist Carl Valentin acquired the palace and garden in 1932.
A restoration followed, including the restoration of the baroque stucco ceilings. The wooded garden was also designed as a palace park. Another restoration and renovation took place at the end of the 1960s. The castle park could also be enlarged by demolishing the farm buildings.
The entire castle hill next to the castle was almost undeveloped until the 1960s, until the city of Überlingen acquired around 24 hectares around the moated castle in 1963 in order to carry out a demonstrative housing project there, which was supported by the federal government . The entire castle hill was converted into a residential area at the end of the 1960s / beginning of the 1970s and almost entirely built on with residential buildings (including high-rise buildings, row and terrace houses ) in the typical style of the time. More recently, some residential buildings have also been built in the castle park itself. For centuries, the moated castle Burgberg was far outside the city, but today it is located in the middle of this part of the city, which is inhabited by around 3000 people.
The castle and the castle park are still privately owned and are not open to the public. Due to the forest-like castle park and the generous walling, the castle looks very shielded, so that it is almost completely covered and hardly visible from the outside.
- Rolf Valentin: The Überlinger Burgberg . In: Writings of the Association for the History of Lake Constance and its Surroundings , 93rd year, Stettner, Lindau 1975, pp. 77-84 digitized accessed on May 23, 2020. ,
- City of Überlingen (ed.): Überlingen. Image of a city. Looking back on 1200 years of history in Überlingen. 770-1970. Konrad, Weißenhorn 1970.
- Eugen Schnering, Gesellschaft der Kunstfreunde Überlingen eV (Ed.): Überlingen - City History in Street Names , Verlag der Gesellschaft der Kunstfreunde Überlingen eV, 1993.
- Alois Schneider, Regional Council Stuttgart, State Office for Monument Preservation, City of Überlingen (ed.): Archaeological City Register Baden-Württemberg Volume 34 Überlingen. Regional Council Stuttgart State Office for Monument Preservation 2008, ISBN 978-3-927714-92-2 .
- Michael Losse (ed.): Castles, palaces, aristocratic residences and fortifications on northern Lake Constance, Volume 1.1: Western part around Sipplingen, Überlingen, Heiligenberg and Salem . Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2012, ISBN 978-3-86568-191-1 .
- Information on the castle hill and the castle on leo-bw.de
- Entry on Burgberg moated castle in the private database "Alle Burgen".
- Pictures of the castle at Photo Marburg
- Information on the castle hill on leo-bw.de
- Rolf Valentin: The Überlinger Burgberg . In: Writings of the Association for the History of Lake Constance and its Surroundings , 93rd year, Stettner, Lindau 1975, pp. 77-84, digitized retrieved on May 23, 2020.
- Michael Losse: Castles, palaces, aristocratic residences and fortifications on northern Lake Constance . Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2012
- Überlingen - city history in street names . Eugen Schnering: Pacemaker of the textile industry - Carl-Valentin-Weg in: Überlingen - City history in street names , Verlag der Gesellschaft der Kunstfreunde Überlingen eV, 1993. P. 107
- Überlingen - city history in street names . Eugen Schnering: Moated castle in a modern living environment - Burgbergring in: Überlingen - City history in street names , Verlag der Gesellschaft der Kunstfreunde Überlingen eV, 1993. P. 124