Austrian energy industry
The Austrian energy industry is understood to mean energy consumption , energy conversion , energy trading as well as the depletion of and reserves of energy sources , which are important for the Republic of Austria .
According to the Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, Environment and Water Management , gross inland consumption in 2010 was exactly 404,906 GWh or 1,458 petajoules, of which around 502 PJ were generated domestically. The share of renewable energy in gross inland consumption is 30.8%.
Austria is dependent on the import of energy and energy sources; above all, natural gas and oil are required to operate almost all internal combustion engines . In the international energy trade, the country plays an important role as a transit country within Europe , as a large part of the imports of Western Europe from the Middle East, the deposits in the Caucasus region and the deposits in Russia cross Austria, especially through the transalpine oil pipeline .
Oil played a major role. After the connection of Austria to Germany (1938), the Erdölaufsuchung and promotion was intensified immediately, making the oil production in the years of World War II increased to a never since seen before in Austria extent. At that time there were various small refineries such as the one in Korneuburg or the Vösendorf refinery . It was not until 1958-1961 that was OMV - Schwechat refinery expanded into a large refinery. During the occupation period after the war by the great Allied powers, domestic oil became a political issue, as the Soviet Union wanted to incorporate most of the oil deposits in its zone into the Soviet economy for the period after the occupation .
As part of the EU climate and energy package 2020, Austria has committed itself to increasing the share of renewable energy in the national energy mix to 34.0%. According to Statistics Austria (2018), however, the share of renewable energy in Austria according to EU Directive 2009/28 / EC fell by 0.5 percentage points to 32.6% in 2017, as the consumption of fossil energy grew significantly more this year than the advent of renewable energy. The total energy consumption in Austria in 2017 was 400,515 GWh or 1,442 PJ and was thus 2.0% higher than in 2016.
The energy mix of the total energy consumption was made up as follows:
|Energy source||proportion of|
|Gross inland consumption in
|Wood and combustible waste||6.4%||6.7%||6.3%||6.2%||5.9%||6.3%||6.4%||5.9%||5.9%|
|Electrical energy import surplus||0.6%||2.1%||0.7%||1.8%||2.4%||2.6%||1.8%||1.6%||2.3%|
The domestic generation (35.7% of total consumption) continued in 2009 as follows:
- 43.3% renewable energies (mainly biomass), excluding hydropower
- 30% hydropower
- 12.6% natural gas
- 9.3% petroleum
- 0% coal (coal production stopped in 2005)
- 4.8% waste
In 2009, the share of renewable energies in domestic energy generation was 73.3%.
In the period from 1970 to 2004, Austrian energy consumption (in transport, for power generation, for heat generation ...) almost doubled. In the same period, natural gas consumption has quadrupled, and that of electrical energy almost tripled. Renewable energy increased 157% and oil increased 62%. After a decline in consumption in the 1980s and stagnation until the beginning of the 1990s, oil consumption has increased by around 30% since 1973, mainly due to the sharp increase around the turn of the millennium. In contrast, coal consumption fell by 74%.
In 2004, the share of Russian natural gas in the Austrian supply was 58.6%. Almost a fifth (19.7%) was able to support Austria itself, 12.6% came from Germany, and the remaining 9.1% were imported from Norway . In the event of a delivery failure of foreign natural gas, Austria can, according to OMV and RAG, secure the gas supply for two to three months through its own natural gas storage facility .
The final energy consumption - domestic electricity consumption - was 59,354 gigawatt hours (GWh) in 2003 . This was 5.3 terawatt hours (TWh) or around 10% higher than in 2002, which after a 7.1% increase from 2000 to 2001 made the second largest increase within a year. This is almost exclusively due to increases in consumption in the manufacturing sector, which, compared to 1970, still has 23% less share of total electricity consumption in Austria, as consumption in industry did not increase as strongly as consumption in private households and service companies.
The Austrian electricity market is very much shaped by the majority of the publicly owned electricity suppliers. Each federal state has its own electricity supply company, which for several years have been increasingly interlinked through mutual participation through alliances (e.g. EnergieAllianz). In addition, there is the listed operator of the Danube power plants , Verbund AG , which operates throughout Austria , as well as numerous small power plants and several private companies, which, however, still have little market share, as the Austrian electricity market was only liberalized a few years ago and thus opened to private competitors. The supervisory authority E-Control was founded to monitor and promote competition on the electricity market . For several years now, cross-border leasing has been very popular among electricity suppliers . Power plants and pipeline networks are sold to a US financial company and leased back for several decades. At the end of such a contract there is the buyback option. The meaning behind this is that both contracting parties benefit from American tax laws and business support programs, which only become effective if investments are made in other US countries. This business practice is known to be used by Linz AG, Energie AG, BEWAG and BEGAS, Verbund AG and also by TIWAG , which, however, denied this for a long time and sued against such allegations, but lost the suits in all instances.
The state-owned electricity suppliers are (in brackets the ownership structure):
- Burgenland : BEWAG (51% Land Burgenland, 49% Burgenland Holding with EVN )
- Carinthia : KELAG (51% Kärntner Energieholding (51% Province of Carinthia, 49% RWE ), 35.12% Verbund AG , 12.85%, RWE 1% free float )
- Lower Austria : EVN (51% Province of Lower Austria, almost 30% Wien Energie, 5% Raiffeisenlandesbank Upper Austria , <14% free float)
- Upper Austria : Energie AG (OÖ. Landesholding GmbH: 52.50%, Raiffeisenlandesbank Oberösterreich AG (consortium): 13.92%, Linz AG: 10.31%, TIWAG: 8.25%, VERBUND AG: 5.18%, Oberbank AG (consortium): 5.16%, Energie AG employees: 0.43%, voestalpine: 2.06%)
- Salzburg : Salzburg AG (74% State and City of Salzburg, 26% Energie AG)
- Styria : Energie Steiermark (75% Land Steiermark, 25% SEU Holdings S.à rl in Luxembourg, a subsidiary of Macquarie Group Ltd., Australia)
- Tyrol : TIWAG (100% State of Tyrol)
- Vorarlberg : illwerke vkw (100% State of Vorarlberg)
- Vienna : Wien Energie (100% City of Vienna)
Organization of the electricity industry
Since January 1, 2012, Austria has only consisted of the APG control area ( Austrian Power Grid , a subsidiary of Verbund AG ), in which the formerly three control areas of Austria are combined. Until December 31, 2011, Vorarlberg belonged to the VKW-Netz control area , until December 31, 2010 the state of Tyrol belonged to the " TIWAG Netz" control area. Both control areas have now been integrated into the APG control area. From an economic point of view, the suppliers are organized in balance groups. The APCS is the settlement agent for the APG control area. Company A & B was responsible for the control areas VKW and TIWAG (until February 2012 for the control area TIWAG and until February 2013 for the control area VKW, as the last second clearing for December 2010 and December 2011 is carried out in these months or has been).
Between 40 and 50% of Austria's electricity generation can be covered by run-of- river power plants and around 20% by storage power plants (a total of 64.1 TWh per year). Small hydropower plants contribute around 8% of this. The largest hydropower plant operator is Verbund Hydro Power AG . There are currently 552 run-of-river power plants, the largest of which, which contribute around 75% to electricity generation by run-of-river power plants, are located on the Danube and the Drava. 102 storage power plants dominate the generation of electricity in the high alpine region in central and western Austria, and due to the greater fluctuations in generation, they also make a significant contribution to domestic electricity exports.
Pump storage power plants , which as storage power plants are not classified as renewable energies , produced around 2.5 TWh of electricity in 2004 (3.9% of total energy generation). In total, 60.7% of the electrical energy generated in Austria was generated by hydropower during this period.
In addition, wind energy covers an increasingly large proportion of the electricity demand. At the end of 2014 , a total of 1,016 wind turbines with a total output of 2,095 MW were in operation. The standard energy capacity of these systems is more than 4.5 TWh, which corresponds to about 7.2% of Austria's electricity demand.
Hard coal power plants produce a further 12% of domestic electricity consumption, heating oil contributes 2%. Depending on the fluctuations in the electricity production of the run-of-river power plants, natural gas contributes around 15 to 20% to domestic electricity generation. Other biogenic energy sources ( green electricity ) contributed just over 1% to electricity generation in 2003.
Austrian electricity mix
The national electricity mix consists of the following components:
|Energy source||proportion of|
|Known renewable energy sources||67.40%||74.53%||78.58%||89.10%||86.73%||86.74%||83.71%||76.57%|
|Known fossil fuels||17.60%||17.91%||14.35%||10.36%||12.89%||12.86%||16.11%||23.00%|
|Known other primary energy sources||0.30%||0.31%||0.27%||0.26%||0.38%||0.40%||0.19%||0.42%|
|Electricity of unknown origin, ENTSO-E||14.70%||7.25%||6.80%||0.27%||-||-||-||-|
The electricity share of unknown origin consists of the following items:
|Energy source||proportion of|
|Renewable energy sources||7.21%||10.95%||30.32%||32.84%|
|Other primary energy sources||0.32%||0.35%||0.35%||0.3%|
This roughly results in the following detailed list of the Austrian electricity mix:
|Energy source||proportion of|
|Solid or liquid biomass||3.27%||3.5%||3.8%||3.90%||3.76%||3.70%||3.61%||3.83%||4.02%||4.72%||5.99%|
|Landfill and sewage gas||-||-||-||-||0.06%||0.05%||0.04%||0.03%||0.03%||0.03%||0.03%|
|other eco-energy||1 %||0.94%||1 %||2.16%||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Petroleum and its products||0.89%||0.74%||0.6%||0.30%||0.04%||0.01%||-||0.01%||0.01%||0.00%||0.00%|
|Known other energy sources||0.38%||0.37%||0.3%||0.30%||0.31%||0.27%||0.26%||0.38%||0.40%||0.19%||0.42%|
|calculate Allocation of fossil fuels||-||-||-||7.19%||4.63%||4.22%||0.16%||-||-||-||-|
|calculate Assignment of nuclear energy||-||-||-||3.91%||2.59%||2.55%||0.11%||-||-||-||-|
|calculate Allocation of other primary energy sources||-||-||-||0.05%||0.03%||0.03%||-||-||-||-||-|
Green electricity systems
In 2007, a total of 56% of the electrical energy generated in Austria came from hydropower, 5% from wind power and 4% from biomass. Around 35% come from fossil energy sources. Across Europe, only Iceland and Norway achieve higher values for the share of renewable energy.
According to a more detailed breakdown from 2003, around 40 to 50% of the energy comes from run-of- river power plants , another 20% from storage power plants (a total of 64.1 TWh per year or 230.76 PJ) and 8% from small hydropower plants . Other biogenic energy sources contributed a little more than 1%. The rest was accounted for by natural gas (depending on the fluctuations in the electricity production of the run-of-river power plants between 15 and 20%), hard coal and lignite power plants (12%) and heating oil (2%). The thermal power plants (mainly gas) are used to cover peak power. Due to the Atomic Barrier Act, there are no nuclear power plants in Austria .
In recent years, however, the share of green electricity in Austria has decreased and, according to plans by the Austrian electricity industry, new gas and steam power plants are to be built in the future. The proportion of planned new water and waste incineration plants is relatively low with a planned output of 1300 MW. This puts Austria at the bottom of the list when it comes to the implementation of Directive 2001/77 / EC. In Directive 2001/77 / EC, the EU set targets for the share of renewable energies in (gross) electricity consumption for each country. A target of 78.1% has been set for Austria. When the target was set in 1997, the total consumption of electricity was 56.1 TWh, of which electricity generation by hydropower had a share of 37 TWh (66%). For 2010, electricity consumption will be 74.6 TWh and the share of green electricity will then be 45.4 TWh (E-Control). In Austria, the target is presented as achieved because the targeted 45.4 TWh is related to the 56.1 TWh generated in 1997. In fact, the proportion in 2010 was 61%, i.e. H. the share of renewable energies in total electricity consumption is below that in 1997. In 2007, the EU Commission consequently counted Austria - once again - among the bottom of the EU.
On April 24, 2009 the EU Commission presented the new progress report. With a 16.5% missed target, Austria is now at the bottom of the European league. The target value of 78.1% share of green electricity was therefore no longer achieved in 2010. Austria is therefore threatened with infringement proceedings. Austria lags behind other European countries, particularly in solar power generation. While 5300 MWp of photovoltaic capacity are installed in Germany, it is just under 30MWp in Austria. The amount of solar power generated in Germany in 2008 roughly corresponds to the power demand in the state of Salzburg (4.3 billion kWh).
EU countries with clearly defined expansion targets, such as Germany, have the strongest growth rates for green electricity. One example of this is the German expansion strategy for renewable energy. This strategy sets the growth targets for each energy source in 5-year periods up to 2050 (wind, photovoltaics, hydropower, biomass and geothermal energy). There is no corresponding Austrian expansion strategy for all renewable energy sources such as in Germany.
Combined heat and power plants (CHP) make waste heat usable as district heating when burning energy sources. Power generation is only minimally reduced, which increases overall efficiency . 52% of these plants are in gas-fired power plants, 15% in plants for the combustion of crude oil, plants for the combustion of biogenic fuels account for 21% of the district heating production, and 6% is responsible for combustible waste. Lignite and hard coal power plants contribute 6% to district heating production. One percent of district heating from CHP-capable systems also comes from the incineration of industrial and urban waste, such as B. from the plant of the disposal company Simmering which is connected to the main sewage treatment plant in Vienna .
The district heating pipeline network was around 3,430 km long in 2003 and is still being expanded. 16.6% of all households in Austria, or around 549,000, were supplied with district heating in 2003.
Transport and trade
Energy imports and exports - both in the form of electrical energy and energy sources such as oil - are steadily increasing, with energy imports amounting to just under 1,100 petajoules (Pj) making up over 7 times as much as energy exports of 150 Pj ( 2003). If the electrical energy demand can be met for the most part from in-house production, the overall balance shows a dependency of 69% on energy imports.
In 2003 , 39.4% of energy exports accounted for petroleum products (mainly diesel and gasoline, crude oil only minimally), 31.4% electricity and 5.1% renewable energy sources. Natural gas, first exported in 2000, already accounted for 24.1% of energy exports.
The energy imports consisted of 55% crude oil (60% of which from OPEC countries), 25.8% natural gas, 12.5% coal, 6.1% electrical energy and 0.6% from renewable energy sources.
In 2003, EUR 6.46 billion was spent on energy imports, while energy exports generated EUR 2.0 billion, of which, contrary to the quantitative distribution of exports, around 75% of the proceeds come from electricity exports. As the only energy source, the consumption of coal fell by around a third.
Electrical energy is transported in a 10,000 km long power line network with different voltages of 380 kV , 220 kV and 110 kV. Distribution to the end user takes place via medium (6 kV to 36 kV) and low voltage networks with usually 230 V / 400 V. Austria is part of the European ENTSO-E network thanks to its connection to foreign electricity networks .
Electricity exports are mainly from western Austria to Switzerland and Germany. There, peak electricity is exchanged with Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg in a ratio of 1: 4 (1 kW peak load for 4 kW base load ). Through this exchange of electricity, nuclear power also reaches Austria and is used, among other things, in pumped storage power plants to compensate for peak loads. The export volumes to Germany fluctuate. Electricity exports to Switzerland have risen sharply since 1990 in particular and, instead of less than 10%, overtook Germany (28%) with almost 36% in 2012. Exports to Slovenia (2012: 20%) and Hungary (2012: 11%) also show an upward trend, while exports to Italy (2012: 5%) are largely constant. In 2015, a total of 19,403 GWh of electrical energy was exported.
Traditionally, most electricity imports come from the Czech Republic (40% as of 2012) and Germany (58%), although these are higher than exports. In 2015, imports totaled 31,006 GWh.
- Foreign trade
Oil imports and exports take place via the Transalpine Oil Pipeline (TAL), which has its exit in the port of Trieste and reaches Germany through Carinthia and Tyrol near Kufstein . Of around 34 million tons of crude oil throughput per year, 77% went to Germany, 18% to Austria and 5% to the Czech Republic in 2016. The TAL thus covers 100% of the crude oil demand of Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg (or 40% of the German demand), 90% of the Austrian demand and 50% of the Czech oil demand. Shortly after the Italian-Austrian border near Arnoldstein , the Adria-Wien Pipeline (AWP) branches off, which leads to the Schwechat refinery , the only refinery in Austria. The total length of the oil pipelines in Austria is 663 kilometers.
(in million t)
|Transalpine Oil Pipeline (TAL)||Trieste ( port ) - Arnoldstein - Ingolstadt (connection to the MERO pipeline) - Karlsruhe||465||34.5|
|Adria-Vienna Pipeline (AWP)||Arnoldstein - Schwechat ( refinery )||420||7.3|
There are also plans to build a crude oil pipeline between Bratislava (Slovakia) and the Schwechat refinery, as agreed by OMV and the Slovakian pipeline operator Transpetrol (100% owned by the Slovak state) in December 2003. The 60 km long Bratislava-Schwechat Pipeline (BSP) would have a total capacity of 2.5 million tons per year. By connecting it to the existing 3,000-kilometer Russian pipeline network (“Druzhba”), this line would enable the direct import of Russian crude oil into the Schwechat refinery. However, the implementation of the project seems to have failed due to resistance from the Slovak population.
|country||Quantity (in t)||Percentage ownership %)|
As of 2003, 74.4% of natural gas imports came from the CIS , which is handled entirely by OMV. 12.4% came from Norway and 13.2% from Germany, with OMV working together with Austria Ferngas GmbH . A natural gas supply contract with Russia has existed since 1968 . Austria was the first country outside of COMECON with which the former Soviet Union concluded such a treaty. Gasexport , a subsidiary of Gazprom, is responsible for export . A contract between OMV and Austria Ferngas GmbH and the Norwegian Troll consortium has existed since 1986 . The German import contracts were concluded with Ruhrgas by the Austrian regional companies (Vorarlberg, Tyrol, Salzburg and Upper Austria) . Since 1970 Austria’s total natural gas imports have increased from 1 million m³ to 8 million m³ in 2003.
The hub for the most important natural gas pipelines in Austria is Baumgarten an der March in Lower Austria, where since 1959, when the Zwerndorf production site was opened, natural gas originating from the east (mainly Russia) for domestic consumption as well as to Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Germany, France and Hungary is branched off. The total length of the natural gas pipelines in Austria is 2,722 kilometers. Together with OMV and Gazprom , the storage facilities near Baumgarten are being greatly expanded, which means that Gazprom would like to enter the end customer business in Western Europe directly.
The following natural gas pipelines run through Austria:
(in m³ / h)
|Trans-Austria-Gasleitung (TAG)||Baumgarten an der March - Weitendorf (connection to the south-east line to Slovenia ) - Arnoldstein (to Italy )||380||4.77 million|
|West Austria Gas Pipeline (WAG)||Baumgarten an der March - Wald- and Mühlviertel - Oberkappel (connection to Penta-West to Germany)||245|
|Hungaria Austria Gas Pipeline (HAG)||Baumgarten an der March - Kittsee (connection to the Kittsee-Petrzalka gas pipeline ) - Hungary||46|
|Southeast Line (SOL)||Weitendorf - Straß - Slovenia||29|
|Penta West (PW)||Oberkappel - Innviertel - Burghausen (Germany)||95|
- Another pipeline connects the natural gas fields and storage facilities of Auersthal and Tallesbrunn and the Baumgarten transfer station by means of a route south of the Danube via Tulln and Amstetten with Linz, where the line to the network of Netz Oberösterreich GmbH (formerly OÖ. FerngasAG was opened in March Integrated into Energie AG in 2015).
- Tyrol-Italy-Bavaria connection line (TIBAL): This line, which is currently being planned, is to be routed from Burghausen to Kufstein, where it is to be connected to the existing Tyrolean network, and further south through East Tyrol to Italy.
- Another natural gas pipeline, the BRUA pipeline, has been planned since 2016 , which will also supply the Baumgarten gas node from the Black Sea in Romania via Bulgaria and Hungary from 2020.
Depletion and reserves
mineral oil and natural gas
Two companies are active in Austria in the production of crude oil and natural gas ( natural gas , petroleum gas ). The OMV Aktiengesellschaft (OMV) and the crude oil prospecting AG (RAG) employ about 900 people, but now much of the drilling activity and probe maintenance is subcontracted. Crude oil production amounted to 0.81 million tons in 2016, after around 0.9 million tons in previous years. Around 3 million tons of crude oil were still being produced in 1970 and the production record of 3.67 million tons was achieved in 1955.
After a low in 1986, natural gas production increased every year, since since then new natural gas deposits have been regularly developed in Lower Austria and in the Molasse zone of Upper Austria and Salzburg. Since a high point in 2003 with 2.03 billion m³, however, natural gas production has been declining again. The production in 2016 was 1.25 billion m³.
90% of the oil production in 2006 came from OMV, the remaining 10% from RAG. In 2006, 71% of natural gas came from OMV and 29% from RAG.
Due to new finds every year, the amount of known oil reserves in Austria has remained relatively constant since 1995. As of 2003, deposits of 12 million t are known, which at the current production rate of around 1 million t per year would be sufficient for around twelve years, i.e. until 2015 if no further discoveries are made, but this is not assumed. In late autumn 2007, production of a 1.5 billion cubic meter natural gas deposit in Ebenthal is to begin. Only a few kilometers away, in Strasshof , a four billion cubic meter source of natural gas is to be used from the first quarter of 2008. Both deposits are part of the largest contiguous oil and natural gas deposit in Central Europe, the Matzen field, discovered in 1949 , northeast of Vienna.
Due to legal regulations, petroleum equivalents must be stored in a certain amount. In addition to OMV and RAG, this is also done by ELG (petroleum storage company) and petroleum importers, who have to maintain mandatory emergency reserves. In total, this resulted in storage of 1.86 million t of oil equivalents in 2003.
In order to compensate for seasonal fluctuations in the price and consumption of natural gas, natural gas is increasingly being stored in underground storage facilities, with Austria taking a leading position in Europe in terms of the proportion of annual demand stored. Depleted natural gas deposits are used as storage facilities. In 2008, around 4 billion m³ of natural gas could be stored in the five operational storage facilities, which corresponded to over 40% of the annual requirement. In 2014, more than an annual requirement was saved.
OMV operates underground storage facilities in Schönkirchen (Schönkirchen-Tief, 1.57 billion m³), Tallesbrunn (300 million m³) and Thann near Steyr (250 million m³). The central monitoring station for natural gas transport and storage is located in Auersthal . This includes a total storage volume of around 25 TWh.
RAG operates underground storage with a total of almost 6 billion m³ (66.5 TWh, 2018). They are located in Puchkirchen / Haag in the Innviertel (1.1 billion m³), in Haidach on the Upper Austria / Salzburg border near Straßwalchen (expansion to 2.7 billion m³ in 2011, with Gazprom and Wingas ), and a few other smaller ones in Border area of Upper Austria / Salzburg (Aigelsbrunn, Haidach 5, Nussdorf / Zagling, 7Fields with e.on ).
OMV serves around 30% of the storage rate, RAG itself around 20%, the other half is the - actually smaller - capacities of the Russian and German partners (Gazprom / GSA LLC, Wingas / Astora, e.on / Uniper), which serve more for transport buffering than for storage. Until 2014, Haidach could only be filled via the German gas network, and the Slovakian LAB storage complex is also directly connected to the Austrian trading network.
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