|Coordinates||43 ° 8 ' N , 13 ° 4' E|
|height||670 m slm|
|Residents||6,676 (Dec 31, 2019)|
|Population density||52 inhabitants / km²|
|Popular name||Camerinesi, Camerti|
|Patron saint||San Venanzio|
Look at Camerino
Camerino is a small town with 6676 inhabitants (as of December 31, 2019) in the province of Macerata , Marche region in Italy .
The city is located in the Apennines , not far from the border between the Marche and Umbria regions , between the valleys of the Potenza and Chienti rivers . The area of the municipality covers 129 km².
In the municipality there are approved vineyards for the production of the famous white wine Verdicchio di Matelica .
Camerino is the seat of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Camerino-San Severino Marche and the University of Camerino , which dates back to the 14th century and is one of the oldest universities in the world.
In 309 BC The city was first mentioned in a document as part of an agreement with Rome . In the vicinity of the city during the Third Samnite War around the year 295 BC The Battle of Camerinum took place in the 3rd century BC , in which the Romans were defeated by the opposing Samnite-Etruscan-Gallic coalition.
In 1377 the city was taken over by Pope Gregory XI. the university town declared after had been established since the beginning of the 13th century schools of law, medicine and literature. In 1444 the 16-year-old Giulio Cesare da Varano became ruler of Camerino, he developed the structure of the city that has not changed until today. In 1502 he was murdered by Cesare Borgia , who now took power and had the "Rocca dei Borgia" (Borgia Castle) built there. As early as 1503, however, Giovanni da Varano was able to take possession of the city again and rule the duchy until 1527.
After his death, the Duchy of Camerino fell to his heir, Giulia da Varano (1523–1547), who had been married to Guidobaldo II della Rovere , Duke of Urbino since 1534 . 1539 the Duchy of Camerino fell to the Papal States .
In 1540 the sixteen-year-old Ottavio Farnese was born by his grandfather Pope Paul III. raised in a secret consistory to the hereditary Duke of Camerino and Lord of Nepi . However, he had to renounce this duchy as early as 1545 - on the occasion of the elevation of his father Pier Luigi II Farnese to Duke of Parma and Piacenza - and was compensated by the cession of the Duchy of Castro .
After 1545, Camerino was under the direct control of the Holy See and became the residence of an Apostolic Delegation, which led to a long period of stability, but also to a slow decline in the importance of the city.
The earthquakes of the past centuries repeatedly caused great damage , as most recently with the earthquake in central Italy in 2016 ; Nevertheless, the former prosperity of the duchy can still be seen today.
Second World War
After the Allied troops broke the Gustav Line at the end of the Battle of Monte Cassino on May 18, 1944, Wehrmacht units committed several war crimes while retreating north . Members of the mountain troops murdered over 80 men, including many civilians , in the massacres in the Camerino area between June 20 and 24, 1944. On July 1, 1944, the area was liberated by Allied troops. To commemorate ten years of commemoration, a plaque with the names of the 84 victims was erected on Viale Giacomo Leopardi in 1954. In 1974 the memorial was extended by the 20-meter-long Monumento ai martiri della resistenza.
The center of Camerino is dominated by the Ducal Palace (Palazzo Ducale). It consists of three once independent building parts that were brought together by Giulio Cesare: the Palazzo Gentile from the 13th century, the Palazzo Venanzio from the 14th century and the Palazzo Nuovo from the 15th century. From 1489 to 1492 Cesare had the gardens laid out below the palace. When the da Varano family came to an end, the buildings were transferred to the city's university, and today the law school is located in the palace. The inner courtyard ("Quadriportico") with the monumental access to the Cathedral Square and some halls on the ground floor and basement are open to the public.
Opposite the palace is the Santa Maria Annunziata Cathedral . It was built in the 19th century in neoclassical style after the Romanesque - Gothic predecessor building was destroyed by an earthquake. In 1997 it was again badly damaged in an earthquake, but is now accessible again. The art gallery in the San Domenico monastery complex houses works from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance .
Camerino is surrounded by a ring of eye-catching castles, the Rocca d'Ajella in the north with its two characteristic towers with crenellated wreaths stands out. Under the rule of the da Varano, the castles were part of a military defense system, the roots of which date back to 1382.
sons and daughters of the town
- Venantius von Camerino (* 235; † 251, 253 or 254) is a saint and patron saint of the city of Camerino
- Answin von Camerino († 861), Bishop of Camerino, saint of the Catholic Church, feast day March 13th
- Camilla Battista Varano (1458–1524), mystic, abbess and saint of the Catholic Church
- Mariano Pierbenedetti (1538–1611), cardinal and bishop of the Catholic Church
- Giovanni Battista Borghi (1738–1796), classical composer
- Venanzio Rauzzini (1746–1810), opera singer (soprano / castrato), pianist, composer and singing teacher
- Giusto Recanati (1789–1861), religious and cardinal
- Osvaldo Casali (1824–1907), auxiliary bishop in Camerino
- Ugo Betti (1892–1953), playwright
- Jimmy Fontana (1934–2013), singer, composer and actor
- Antonio Napolioni (* 1957), Bishop of Cremona
Personalities associated with the city
- Guido of Spoleto (855–894), Margrave of Camerino
- John of Parma , Minister General of the Franciscan Order, Blessed of the Catholic Church, died on March 19, 1289 in Camerino
- ↑ Statistiche demografiche ISTAT. Monthly population statistics of the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica , as of December 31 of 2019.
- ↑ Bernd Marquardt: Universal History of the State . From pre-state society to the state of industrial society. In: The European special way . tape 3 . LIT Verlag , 2009, ISBN 978-3-643-90004-3 , pp. 270 f .
- ↑ Emilio Nadalli Rocca: "IFarnese"; dall´ Oglio, editore1969, p. 79 f.
- ↑ See article “Camerino” on Wikipedia in Italian.
- ^ Carlo Gentile: Wehrmacht and Waffen SS in partisan war. Italy 1943 - 1945. Ferdinand Schöningh Verlag, Paderborn 2012, ISBN 978-3-506-76520-8 .