City of Offenbach am Main
|Height :||99 m above sea level NHN|
|Residents :||10,032 (Sep 30, 2017)|
|Incorporation :||April 1, 1908|
|Postal code :||63075|
|Area code :||069|
Location of Bürgel in Offenbach am Main
Another Offenbach district is located north of Bürgel, Rumpenheim. The Schultheis-Weiher located between the two places is a popular swimming lake in summer. On the other side of the Main in the west is Frankfurt-Fechenheim . In the west and south, Bürgel is surrounded by Offenbacher residential areas, partly on the Bürgel district. In the north, in the direction of Rumpenheim, there is the Hans-Böckler settlement, a small district. The Arthur-von-Weinberg-Steg , completed in 1981, connects Bürgel with Frankfurt-Fechenheim. The Hessian apple wine and orchard route leads through Bürgel.
In the past few decades, the settlement area has increased significantly, especially to the north towards the neighboring district of Rumpenheim. In 2004, the redevelopment of the new building area "Bürgel-Ost" began and the "Mainzer Ring" was developed as a bypass road.
Schultheis-Weiher nature reserve
The Schultheis-Weiher was handed over by the Cassella company to the surrounding area of Frankfurt at the end of the 1970s . The area was subsequently rededicated as a nature reserve and leisure area. The north-eastern half of the lake is classified as a nature reserve, the remaining part can be used by bathers, model boaters and anglers.
A number of rare species of birds can be seen here. For example, great crested grebes , gray herons , cormorants and little grebes can be found. Also loons have been observed. The kingfisher is an annual winter guest.
Numerous finds from Celtic times suggest that the present place was settled for a long time before the Romans , and the place name is also of Celtic origin. The local history researcher Karl Nahrgang puts the origin of the name already in pre-Roman times ( Bergilla Bürgel, Biberaha, hence: Bieber , Limares villa Lämmerspiel ). Later on, other places were added that emerged from the Franconian military colonies around 500: these were all places that are composed of personal names and the ending ‑heim , such as in the area around Rumpenheim , Dietesheim and today's deserted Meielsheim . Under the Merovingians at the end of the 6th and beginning of the 7th century, the places were added as new foundations, which connected personal names with landscape names such as Offenbach .
In Bürgel there are numerous references to a Roman prehistory. There was a larger Roman burial site on Mittelweg. Many grave goods could be found in the graves. The associated settlement is suspected further south, probably on the site of the later monastery courtyard. In the south of Bürgel, a row of stakes was found in the Main, which could have served as a ship landing stage. In the north of the village, on the current grounds of the Bürgel water sports club, at the height of the boathouse, a Roman bridge was suspected over the Main , but the evidence of a bridge in the more recent literature is not certain due to a lack of dating finds.
Various Roman roads converged here. One road came from Höchst via the Frankfurt Cathedral Hill and Fechenheim to Bürgel, a second came from Friedberg via Vilbel , Bergen and Enkheim to the Mainkur (= Mainkehre). The course of both roads is unsafe and has not yet been secured by excavations. In Bürgel the roads to Hanau and south of the Main in the direction of Frankfurt were divided. Based on the finds, the settlement has certainly existed until at least the third century. The area was part of the Civitas Auderiensium in the province of Upper Germany .
790 to 1619
The oldest known written mention, "Birgelen" , goes back to the donation of a Salacho to the Lorsch Monastery and, according to a copy of the deed of donation in Codex Laureshamensis , dated June 12, 790. This donation did not affect Bürgel as a whole, but only individual ones Goods. Another donation to Lorsch was made by a Meizolf 793.
In the period that followed, further documents were issued, which, however, favored a certain division of territory through royal donations. 880 goods in Bürgel with a church were transferred to the Salvatorstift in Frankfurt (later the Bartholomäusstift, known as the Frankfurt Cathedral). This shows that the long-spread legend of a sister of Charlemagne , which Bürgel is said to have bequeathed to St. Peter's Abbey in Mainz around 800 , cannot be true. In the document of the year 977, which Offenbach mentioned for the first time, the affiliation to the Salvatorstift is again expressly confirmed.
For a long time it belonged to the St. Peter's Monastery in Mainz only in the middle of the 13th century through the acquisition of various possessions in Bürgel. Every now and then tithe rights were given in fiefdoms , but the place belonged to the Petersstift zu Mainz from that time until the abolition of the monastery in 1802.
In 1018 an imperial assembly was held in Bürgel under Emperor Heinrich II . It was not a real Reichstag, although the place where this meeting is said to have taken place still bears the name “Reichstag” in the population today, but it turns out that Bürgel was even more important at that time. There are even reports of a Carolingian castle that was destroyed during the capture of Bürgels by William of Holland in 1250.
After a church was already occupied in 880, the patronage of St. Pankratius was assigned to the Ottonian period , i.e. towards the end of the 10th century. The division as an independent parish under the administration of the mother church in Mühlheim was recorded as early as 1297.
Due to a special tax regulation for the cultivation of Rumpenheimer fields by Bürgel residents, there were major disputes with the Lords of Rumpenheim in 1456, which led to the arbitrary capture of some Bürgel residents. These had to be released immediately, but the community had to pay Jakob von Cronberg an amount. In 1497 the Petersstift complained that, among other things, Bürgel was the victim of several violent attacks and arson by some nobles. Thereupon those affected came under the suzerainty of the Archbishop of Mainz. A contract was signed which made far-reaching new legal and economic regulations. However, the place remained the property of the monastery.
In spite of this, a large number of violent incidents occurred in the 16th century, especially by the legally responsible gentlemen of the Steinheim office . Corresponding countermeasures were then the task of the newly appointed bailiffs to support the mayor "as best as possible" and to ensure that the fortifications are maintained and the whole place is surrounded with a wall. During this time (1552) Bürgel lost his castle rights in Frankfurt, which had existed at least since the 14th century, which granted the residents protection in the event of war. The castle rights were given through repair work on the Frankfurt fortifications, but could also be retained through monetary payments instead. However, Bürgel did not comply with these in a corresponding time, especially since it was also affected during the siege by Moritz von Sachsen himself.
1620 to 1878
Much greater misfortune, however, lay ahead of Bürgel, like the entire Old Kingdom , from the Thirty Years' War . As early as 1620 there was a devastating incursion by the margrave's troops from Baden to Steinheim. More battles followed, but in 1629 Bürgel still had enough funds to erect a new high altar in the church . But in the 1630s Bürgel was hit by the catastrophic conditions. In addition to the war, there was famine and plague . As early as 1638, the population of Bürgel was only 85, making it one of the most populated places in the vicinity. Others, like Dietzenbach , were completely depopulated. The Steinheim office was almost extinct. Another reason was that precisely in this region the denominational orientation was quite different, depending on the respective territorial affiliation. Because the sovereign determined the denomination of his subjects ( Cuius regio, eius religio ). The communities of the Kurmainzer Amt Steinheim remained Catholic , while large parts of the area such as the counties of Isenburg-Offenbach , Hanau and the free imperial city of Frankfurt introduced the Reformation . In addition, it was precisely at this time that the madness of witch hunts emerged, which came over both Catholic and Protestant places alike. In Bürgel, too, some people are said to have fallen victim to this hustle and bustle.
Bürgel was razed to the ground in the Thirty Years War. Most of the houses in the old town center that still exist today date from the late 17th century.
In 1664, troops from the Electorate of Trier again violently tried to snatch food from Bürgel, but were driven away by the residents. The community and the mayor Ohlig himself were then sentenced to fines, which were later massively reduced and even these were probably never paid.
In 1773, the dean of St. Peter's Monastery was paid homage for the last time in the traditional way, and in 1802 the Archbishop of Mainz left the “Dorf Bürgel” to the Prince of Isenburg .
French troops besieged the area from 1796 to 1816. With the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte , the Principality of Isenburg south of the Main, and with it Bürgel, goes to the Grand Duchy of Hesse (-Darmstadt) . In 1819 the area was redistributed, Bürgel now corresponds in its boundaries to the "district area" east of the Offenbacher Grenzstraße to Heusenstamm .
The Stiftshof was the seat of the bailiff of the St. Petersstift in Mainz and thus, politically and socially, the center of the place for centuries. From here the tithe was taken to Mainz. The monastery courtyard consisted of two main buildings located directly at the church, which were built in 1712. The ground floor of the front of these two buildings dates back to the early 14th century and was pulled down by the city of Offenbach in 1964 for no apparent reason. It housed a chapel, the entrance to which was designed with a pointed arch according to the Gothic period of origin and showed the oldest remaining coat of arms of the place in the keystone, which was also that of St. Peter's Monastery in Mainz. Furthermore, the “yard”, as it was called by the citizens, consisted of the tithe barn, which was rebuilt in its last form when the older tithe barn at the mayor's office was converted into a school building. Other small farm buildings were spread across the property. The entrance was formed by a well-known archway, which, like the rebuilt parts of the building, dates back to 1712. This also had the coat of arms of St. Peter's monastery in its apex, but in a baroque shape with a round key. This baroque keystone is now reconditioned in the churchyard.
After the mayor's office was established in today's Stiftstrasse 11 (half-timbered house, built in 1748), the building was used privately, partly as a restaurant with a dance hall set up on the north edge of the property.
In June 1018 a Reichstag was held in Bürgel on the banks of the Main by Emperor Heinrich II . In his entourage was next to Empress Kunigunde and the Imperial Chancellor and Archbishop of Mainz Erkanbald a large number of princes . Among other things, the marriage of the wealthy Count Otto von Hammerstein with Irmingard von Verdun , which according to canonical counting supposedly belonged to his closest relatives, was discussed. Because Otto had already ignored the archbishop's summons several times, the couple had been excommunicated shortly beforehand in Nijmegen . After Otto attacked the Bishop of Mainz, the illegality of the marriage was dealt with and the couple threatened with banishment from the Reich . Otto bowed to the Reichstag and consented to the annulment of his marriage ; in reality he never separated from Irmengard. After the successful siege and destruction of his Hammerstein Castle by the emperor on Christmas Day 1020, the couple was able to flee. Irmengard then made a pilgrimage to Pope Benedict VIII , who declared the marriage valid again and at the same time suspended the Archbishop of Mainz Aribo , Erkanbald's successor. Emperor Konrad II finally put down the process in 1027, he himself was married to Gisela von Schwaben in "close relatives" and had no interest in further persecution of the Hammerstein couple
In 1964, a poplar tree was planted on the banks of the Main in memory of the Reichstag.
see also Hammerstein marriage
In 1906, Bürgel signed a contract with Offenbach that the incorporation to Offenbach should take place “on April 1st following the opening of the electric railway”. After Bürgel was connected to the Offenbach am Main tram network on October 20, 1907 with the commissioning of line 26 , it was incorporated on April 1, 1908.
Even after the Reformation, Bürgel remained Catholic. In 1829 there were only 38 Protestants in Bürgel. The Catholic Church of St. Pankratius Jewish community . In 1822 a synagogue was built and there is a Jewish cemetery , near the aforementioned Schultheis pond.was rebuilt in 1897 except for the preserved medieval tower. From 1876 to 1914 Bürgel is a subsidiary of the Bieber parish. The Protestant Gustav Adolf Church was built in 1884 as a house of prayer. Bürgel had a large
- Caspar Lammert: History of Bürgel am Main. Self-published, Bürgel am Main 1899, online .
- P. Johannes Eugen Hau: Bürgel around the year 800. Mainzer Presse, Mainz 1948.
- Karl Nahrgang : City and District Offenbach a. M. Atlas for settlement studies, traffic, administration, economy and culture. Kramer, Frankfurt am Main 1963.
- Karl Nahrgang: The archaeological finds of prehistory and early history in the city and district of Offenbach am Main. Kramer, Frankfurt am Main 1967.
- Offenbacher Geschichtsverein: On the history of the Offenbach suburbs (= Offenbacher Geschichtsblätter. 20, ). Offenbach History Association, Offenbach am Main 1970.
- Literature on Offenbach-Bürgel in the Hessian Bibliography
- Bürgel district. In: Website of the city of Offenbach am Main.
- Bürgel, City of Offenbach am Main. Historical local dictionary for Hessen. In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- List of historical monuments at Lederwerke Becker
- Jewish community of Bürgel
- Residents of the city of Offenbach am Main according to statistical districts on September 30, 2017. (PDF; 29 kB) City of Offenbach am Main, accessed on November 26, 2017 .
- see Werner Schwarz: Prehistoric finds in Offenbach and its suburbs in: Offenbacher Geschichtsverein: Offenbacher Geschichtsblätter No. 20 , 1970, pp. 10-12
- Karl Nahrgang: The archaeological finds of prehistory and early history in the city and district of Offenbach am Main . Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt 1967, DNB 456145052 , p. 163-172 .
- See Karl Nahrgang: Stadt und Landkreis Offenbach am Main - Atlas for settlement studies, transport, administration, economy and culture , 1963, panel III 4/28
- Archaeological finds in Offenbach am Main. ( Memento from May 15, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) The map gives the locations only approximately in order to avoid damage by self-declared but inexperienced archaeologists. PDF, 45 kB
- Karl Nahrgang: The archaeological finds of prehistory and early history in the city and district of Offenbach am Main . Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt 1967, DNB 456145052 , p. 168 .
- Karl Nahrgang: The archaeological finds of prehistory and early history in the city and district of Offenbach am Main . Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt 1967, DNB 456145052 , p. 169 f .
- see Johann Grieß: “The prehistory on the track” in Offenbacher Geschichtsverein: “Offenbacher Geschichtsblätter No. 32”, 1982, p. 70
- Karl Nahrgang: The archaeological finds of prehistory and early history in the city and district of Offenbach am Main . Waldemar Kramer Verlag, Frankfurt 1967, DNB 456145052 , p. 170 .
Glöckner, Karl, Codex Laureshamensis 2nd volume - copy book, Part I Upper Rhine, Lobden, Worms, Nahe and Speiergau , Darmstadt 1933, p. 251, no. 857 (Reg 2209): “Donatio Salachonis, in Birgelen "
- German translation: Minst, Karl Josef (translator), Lorscher Codex: German; Document book of the former prince abbey Lorsch, after d. lat. text d. Original reproduced by Lamey (1768–1770) and Glöckner (1929–1936), in Dt. transfer by Karl Josef Minst, (Volume 3): Donation documents No. 819 - 1999, Wormsgau , Lorsch, 1970, p. 26:
- “Donation from Salacho in Bürgel
- In Christ's name I, Salacho, make a gift to the holy martyr Nazarius, whose body rests in the Lorsch monastery in the Upper Rhine region on the river Wischoz (Weschnitz); which the venerable Richbodo presides as abbot. I determine that my award will be valid for all time. In Birgelen (Offenbach / M.-Bürgel), which is located on the Rhine (correct: on the Main) in pago worm (aciensi = in Wormsgau: error!), I am handing over a yard and the associated fields, fields, meadows, pastures, Paths, forests, standing and flowing water. I hand over and transfer everything under this day and in God's name for eternity. This concludes the contract. Done in the Lorsch Monastery on June 12th in the 22nd year of reign (790) of our Lord, the glorious Emperor (correct: King) Karl. Hand sign of the donor Salacho. Hand signals from the (witnesses) Enginbald, Amalrich and Leibolf. The scribe: Ruodolf. "
Glöckner, Karl, Codex Laureshamensis: 3rd volume Kopialbuch, Part II: The other Franconian and Swabian Gaue property lists, late donations and interest lists, general register , Darmstadt 1936, p. 135; No. 3456 (Reg. 2456),
- "Donatio Meizolfi in villa Bergilla curiam"
- In God's name I, Meizolf, give a gift to the holy martyr ~ N (azarius). The body of the saint rests in the Lorsch monastery, which the venerable Richbodo presides as abbot. The handover takes place at my request forever and, as I expressly emphasize, of my own free will. In pago Moynachgowe, in the village of Bergilla, I am giving a farm, half a hat and three serfs. Certificate of its subsequent production. Done in the Lorsch monastery on October 25th in the 26th year (793) of King Karl.
- Dieter Wolf , Count Otto von Hammerstein and the Konradin family . in: Anniversary publication on the occasion of the 1000th anniversary of the Bürgeler Reichstag 1018-2018, pp. 32–75, pp. 97–100.
- 1908: Bürgel is incorporated - a solid Vernuftehe. In: offenbach.de. Retrieved December 13, 2018.