Reichsstraßen in Western Pomerania
The imperial roads in Western Pomerania were wide-meshed and had insufficient points of connection to the rest of the road network of the German Empire, as the Prussian province of Pomerania, due to its geographical location between the Oder , Baltic Sea and the Polish border (after the Polish corridor was separated in 1920), only had access to supra-regional traffic flows little was touched.
The numbers 123 to 125, which were already assigned to the numbering of the trunk road network in Germany in 1932, were adopted in 1934 for the Reichsstraßen in Western Pomerania . There are few sensational streets in Pomerania, because the sparsely populated landscape of Pomerania is characterized by glacial moraines , which reach a maximum height of 239 m (castle wall between Baldenburg and Rummelsburg ).
In the Middle Ages, two important trade routes ran east-west. An east-west connection ( Hansestrasse ) led along the Baltic Sea coast from the Hamburg and Lübeck area from Greifswald via Wollin , Kolberg and Köslin to Danzig . The other trade route led from Stettin via Stargard to Thorn .
At that time, two important trunk roads connected the interior of the country with the Baltic coast. The Königstrasse led from Posen via Filehne, Schloppe and Märkisch Friedland to Kolberg. The salt road led from Kolberg via Neustettin to Thorn.
The stagecoach service established in 1654 between Berlin and Danzig led via Küstrin , Pyritz , Stargard, Naugard and Köslin. This postal connection used five later imperial roads: the R 1 (Berlin - Küstrin), R 112 (Küstrin - Pyritz), R 158 (Pyritz - Stargard), R 163 (Stargard - Naugard) and R 2 (Naugard - Danzig).
Chronological development of road construction
Until 1822 there were no developed roads in all of Western Pomerania, only sandy dirt roads. The first developed art roads led from Berlin along the express mail routes to Bromberg , to Königsberg in East Prussia (later as R 1) and to Stettin (later as R 2). These roads were completed by 1828. Between 1830 and 1835, the routes from Stettin to Gdansk (as the main traffic artery in Western Pomerania) and Stralsund (as the main traffic artery in Western Pomerania) were expanded into roads. In the following years until 1848, only short branches were built from Altdamm to Stargard and to the Baltic ports of Kolberg, Rügenwalde , Stolpmünde and Wolgast . The planned road from Stettin to Bromberg was only completed as far as Reetz, because the construction of the railway from 1848 onwards shifted traffic flows.
From 1848 the country roads were built to open up rural areas. Until the completion of the Szczecin – Gdansk railway line in 1870, the road remained the most important mode of transport in Western Pomerania. Accordingly, the most important country roads were built in the 1850s and 1860s, they were called "artificial roads" and stone railways, they were initiated by the Pomeranian estates. After 1875, the small towns of Western Pomerania were opened up by railroad lines, and the road network was mainly used to close existing gaps. They mainly consisted of cube-shaped stones (small = up to 10 centimeters or large = up to 25 centimeters).
Due to the relatively flat landscape of Pomerania, almost all cities could be connected to the railway network. Therefore, relatively few bus routes have been set up in Western Pomerania.
Most of the lines were in good condition in 1938; however, some of them, especially Reichsstrasse 159 and 160, were classified as mediocre. For example, the 100 kilometer long section of the R 1 through the Polish corridor towards Danzig - Marienburg was classified as bad.
Reichsstraßen (since 1934)
The National Highway 2 resulted in an important road Pomerania from Berlin via Szczecin , Koszalin and Slupsk to Gdansk . This route has been used by the Brandenburg stagecoach Berlin - Danzig since 1654 . The country road between Berlin and Stettin was expanded into a paved art road by 1828. Between 1830 and 1835 the remaining route between Stettin and Danzig was expanded to the Chaussee as the most important traffic artery in Pomerania, upgraded to trunk road 2 (FVS 2) in 1932 and renamed Reichsstraße 2 (R 2) in 1934. The R 2 also ran through the 49-kilometer Polish corridor between Groß Boschpol and Sopot, but unlike the R 1 corridor, it was tarred (asphalt). It was 500 kilometers long in Section I (Berlin – Danzig).
The National Highway 104 began in Lübeck and led in west-east direction of Szczecin on Stargard and German crown after Schneidemühl . This trade route was already an important trunk road in the Middle Ages and was used by a regular stagecoach from 1713. From 1846 this road connection (initially only to Reetz ) was expanded to become an art road. After the opening of the railway between Stettin and Posen , the street layout was changed so that the Kunststraße, completed in 1856, led from Kallies to the train station in Arnswalde . Strangely enough, the section between Deutsch Krone and Märkisch Friedland was not expanded into a paved art road until 1879, the last section between Märkisch Friedland and Kallies only in 1896. The R 104 was 478 kilometers long.
The National Highway 111 joined by Gützkow in Vorpommern coming, the islands Usedom (Wolgast to Swinemiinde) and Wolin with the rear Pomeranian mainland and resulted in Gollnow in the realm Straße 2 . The Reichsstraße 165 (see below) led as a branch of this Reichsstraße via Cammin and Misdroy . The road from Gollnow to Cammin and Wollin was built between 1857 and 1860.
The Reichsstraße 123 led as a junction of the Reichsstraße 1 from Ruschendorf to Schneidemühl ( R 104 ) and from there on to the then German-Polish border at the Plottke customs office. After the occupation of Poland in 1939, this Reichsstraße was extended via Bromberg (R 380) and Thorn (R 129/382) to Pultusk (renamed Ostenburg in 1941 ). As the shortest connection between Berlin and Bromberg, this route was expanded to Chaussee in 1825.
The National Highway 124 led than 120 km link in north-south direction from the Baltic port Kolberg about Körlin ( R 2 ), Bad Polzin ( R 162 ) and Tempelburg ( R 158 ) until after German crown ( R 1 ). The northernmost section of the route between Kolberg, Körlin and Belgard served as a feeder to Reichsstraße 2 and was built in 1835. Between Kolberg and Bad Polzin, Reichsstraße 124 follows the former Königsstraße . The southernmost section from Deutsch-Krone to Tempelburg was expanded in 1866, the following section to Bad Polzin not until 1871. Due to the relatively unfavorable rail connections, bus routes from Bad Polzin to Belgard (1925) and Tempelburg (1924) were operated via the R 124 in the 1920s set up.
The National Highway 125 led initially in a north-south direction from Stolpmünde about Stolp ( R 2 ), Rummelsburg ( R 158 ) and Neustettin to Flederborn, a village on the Reich Straße 1 . Around 1937 this Reichsstraße was shortened and from then on only ran as far as Rummelsburg. The middle section between Rummelsburg and Neustettin belonged to Reichsstraße 158 , the southern section between Neustettin and Flederborn belonged to Reichsstraße 160 . The first section between Stolp and Rummelsburg was built between 1845 and 1849, the continuation to Baldenburg was built between 1854 and 1860.
Reichsstraßen (since 1937)
The National Highway 1 led since 1938 as the main east-west axis through the south of the province of Pomerania (administrative district Grenzmark poses) of Berlin Küstrin , Woldenberg , German crown , Pomerania , Polish Corridor, Free City of Danzig , Marienburg , Elbing to Konigsberg and further into the Baltic States. It was 737 kilometers long on this route (Section I) and was tarred (asphalt) or made of small pavement. The section of the “transit road” through the so-called Warthe corridor was poorly developed.
The national highway 158 led from Berlin-Weissensee for Lauenburg (Pomerania) . This Reichsstraße, established around 1937, was the third important east-west connection in Pomerania along with Reichsstraße 1 and 2. It began in Berlin-Weißensee as a junction of Reichsstraße 2 (today in Berlin-Biesdorf as a junction of Bundesstraße 1 ), crossed the Oder near Bad Freienwalde (Oder) ( B 167 ) and led via Königsberg , Bahn ( R 113 ) and Pyritz ( R 112 ) according to Stargard ( R 104 / R 163 ). From there, Reichsstrasse 158 continued as a well-developed main road via Wangerin ( R 162 ), Dramburg ( R 164 ), Tempelburg and Bärwalde to Neustettin ( R 160 ). From there, the course of the road led on the former Reichsstraße 125 (see above) to Rummelsburg and on via Bütow ( R 144 ) to Lauenburg ( R 2 ). The route from Stargard to Neustettin had been used as a postal route since 1713, but was only expanded as a road in the 19th century. The 45 km long connecting road from Stargard via Wangerin to Labes was built in 1846. However, Reichsstraße 158 was not led via Labes, but via Dramburg. The line from Wangerin to Dramburg was built in 1848/49. The following section between Dramburg and Neustettin was built in several stages and completed in 1859. The section between Rummelsburg and Bütow was completed in 1868 as the last section. At that time (1868/69) the side road between Königsberg and Bahn was also completed (see also: Bundesstraße 158 Berlin - Bad Freienwalde).
The Reichsstraße 159 led in a north-south direction via side streets from Schlawe ( R 2 ) via Pollnow and Bublitz ( R 160 ) to Tempelburg ( R 124 ). This line was apparently set up for strategic reasons, because it ran 20 km away parallel to Reichsstraße 125 established in 1932 , which in Rummelsburg (Pomerania) was only 15 km away from the then German-Polish border.
The National Highway 160 resulted in a north-south direction from the Baltic Sea Kolberg about Koslin ( R 2 ), Bublitz ( R 159 ) - Neustettin ( R 158 ) according to Flederborn, a village on the Reich Straße 1 . From there, Reichsstrasse 1 and 160 used the same route via Jastrow to Schönwalde. There, Reichsstraße 160 turned south and led via Schneidemühl to Usch, a small town across the former German-Polish border. The southernmost section between Schneidemühl and Jastrow was built in 1860, the middle section between Jastrow and Neustettin in 1880.
The Reichsstraße 161 led in a north-south direction from the Baltic resort of Kolberg via Greifenberg and Plathe ( R 2 ) to Labes ( R 162 ). The northern section between Treptow and Plathe was built in 1847-52, the southern section was completed in 1857.
The Reichsstraße 162 led as a junction of the Reichsstraße 158 from Wangerin via Labes ( R 161 ) and Schivelbein to the confluence with the R 124 at Bad Polzin . This road was 57 km long and was completed to Schivelbein in 1848. In 1887 the connecting road from Schivelbein to Polzin was completed.
The Reichsstraße 163 led in a north-south direction from Naugard ( R 2 ) via Massow to Stargard ( R 104 / R 158 ). The southern section between Stargard and Massow was expanded in 1867, the northern section between Massow and Naugard was expanded into an art road in 1877/78. In 1926 regular bus services between Naugard and Stargard were established on this road, as there is no direct rail link between the two cities.
The National Highway 165 led as a branch of the National Highway 111 to the seaside resorts Cammin , Dievenow and Misdroy . The connecting road from Cammin to Parlowkrug ( R 111 ) was built in 1855. Since there was no rail traffic to the Baltic seaside resorts, a regular bus line to Dievenow was set up in 1925.
- Baedeker's car guide German Empire. Verlag Karl Baedeker, Leipzig 1939, OCLC 886598051 . (with map system; describes in detail all the autobahns (completed and planned in 1939), all the imperial roads sorted by number and the most important city traffic plans. All routes are listed with tourist destinations and their descriptions, etc.)