Velika Salonta / велика салонта
|Historical region :||Screeching area|
|Time zone :||EET ( UTC +2)|
|Area :||170.04 km²|
|Residents :||17,735 (October 20, 2011)|
|Population density :||104 inhabitants per km²|
|Postal code :||415500 (formerly 3650)|
|Telephone code :||(+40) 02 59|
|License plate :||bra|
|Structure and administration (as of 2017)|
|Community type :||Municipality|
|Mayor :||László Török ( UDMR )|
|Postal address :||St. Republicii, no. 1
loc. Salonta, jud. Bihor, RO-415500
|City Festival :||Arany János Festival , March 2nd every year|
Salonta is located in the east of the Great Hungarian Plain , only a few kilometers from the Hungarian border. The district capital Oradea is 38 km northeast. The two-meter-wide Culişer River, which is connected to the Corhana Canal (Canalul Corhana) , flows through Salonta .
Salonta borders in the north on the community Madaras , in the east on the community Tulca , in the southeast on the community Batar , in the south on the community Ciumeghui and on the west by Hungary ( Újszalonta , Méhkerék and Kötegyán ).
As early as 324 AD and 337 AD Salonta and the surrounding area were inhabited by Sarmatians (an ancient Turkish people). The oldest archaeological finds in the region date from the Stone Age and the Bronze Age . In 1214 the place was first mentioned under the name Zolonta . In 1587 the present Hungarian form of Szalonta is attested.
In 1332 the papal decimal places mentioned Zalancha as Zalanta as the church square. Until the 16th century Salonta was a rather insignificant village, which was in the shadow of the nearby Kölcsér ( Romanian Culișer ) castle . Salonta then belonged to the Toldy family . In 1433 Salonta belonged to the Toldy family as well as the Nadaby family . However, in 1558 the castle was destroyed by the Turks . In 1598, however, the Turks withdrew to Oradea. In 1606 300 soldiers were resettled by the Transylvanian Prince Stephan Bocskai . In 1658 the residents of the castle and the village received news that Turks were approaching the city. From 1660 Salonta was under Ottoman rule for a few decades and was the center of a sanjak . Then the city belonged to the Habsburg Empire for more than 200 years . Industry began to settle at the end of the 19th century, helped by the commissioning of the railway line from Fiume via Szeged and Békéscsaba to Oradea ( Nagyvarad ) . This line ( Alföld-Fiumei vasútvonal , dt .: Railway Line Plain-Fiume) was the longest and most important railway line in Hungary at that time.
At the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries, around 200 noble families lived in Salonta. As a change of frontier after the Treaty of Trianon , Salonta was divided in the early 1920s after World War I. The outer part of the settlement (today Újszalonta ) remained with Hungary and the rest came to Romania despite a clear Hungarian majority. That is why in Hungarian Salonta is still called Nagyszalonta , obsolete Nagy Szalonta , (“nagy” for large) to avoid confusion with Újszalonta (“új” for new).
The city was temporarily reunited from 1940 to 1944 through the Second Vienna Arbitration and again became part of Hungary. When Salonta finally fell to Romania, the place was called “Salonta Mare” (“mare” for large).
Until 1989 there was a synagogue in Salonta on today's Strada Oradiei next to the Arany János Elméleti Líceum School . The Jews in Salonta, including Markowitsch , sold the property and it was then torn down. Today a memorial can be found on the sidewalk that is supposed to remember the synagogue. The land is not used to this day in the future should a school yard of the adjacent Arany János elméleti Liceum (about János Arany Theory Applied Sciences ) are.
|Socialist Republic of Romania||1965||1989|
|People's Republic of Romania||1947||1965|
|Kingdom of Romania||1944||1947|
|Kingdom of Hungary||1940||1944|
|Kingdom of Romania||1919||1940|
|Republic of Hungary||1918||1919|
|Empire of Austria||1804||1867|
|Principality of Transylvania||1692||1711|
|Principality of Transylvania||1570||1660|
|Eastern Kingdom of Hungary||1526||1570|
|Kingdom of Hungary||(1000)||1526|
In 2006 the city set a record by boiling 5045 liters of goulash at once. This record was then entered in the Guinness Book of World Records . The record of the largest bowl of soup is 5045 liters and is a goulash soup and saved by the Town hall of Salonta in Salonta Romania on June 3, 2006 it was on June 3, 2006 for Salonta. Nu e meritul meu, e meritul comunității (“It is not my merit, it is the merit of the community”), said László Török.
Over 65 people were involved in the project. The cooks and volunteers peeled the onions , potatoes and carrots . Then they cooked the 60 kg of onions, carrots and celery fried, and with 700 kg of meat , 40 kg of hot peppers , 40 kg of spice paste (Cremă Gulaș) , 20 kg of dumplings and 750 kg of potatoes. It took almost 10 hours to prepare.
On September 29, 2007, however, this record was increased in Baia Mare (Frauenbach) by a good 2000 to 7200 liters.
In the 16th century Salonta had about 50 houses and 250-300 inhabitants. In 1880 10,403 people lived in the city, of whom 9593 Hungarians , 257 Romanians , 65 Germans and 62 Slovaks . In the 2002 census, the city registered 18,074 inhabitants, including 10,335 Hungarians, 7267 Romanians, 379 Roma and 29 Germans. Almost 40% of the population are over 60 years old.
There is a lot of agriculture in Salonta. Salonta also offers 9,313 hectares of arable land, 5,813 hectares of pasture, 245 hectares of meadows, 51 hectares of vineyards and 18 hectares of fruit growing. In addition, the city has 889.4 hectares of forest.
Salonta is located on today's main line from Arad to Oradea; There are connections to both cities several times a day. The line leading to Hungary is also still in operation; it leads over the border town of Kötegyán to Békéscsaba . There are three passenger trains per day on this route. The European route 671 runs through the city from Satu Mare to Timișoara . From Salonta, a border crossing on the Drum național 79B leads to Méhkerék .
- Csonka Torony ( Piața Libertății nr. 4 )
- Arany János birthplace ( Strada Arany Janos nr. 46 )
- Sinka István Birthplace ( Strada Sinka Istvan nr. 1 )
- Statue of István Bocskai , the founder of the city (in Parcul Mare ) around 2000 by Kolozci Tibor
- Statue of Kossuth Lajos , next to the Reformed Church (in Parcul Mare ) from June 30, 1901 by Tóth András
- Bust of Avram Iancu (in Parcul Mare ) from March 1, 1992 by Kiss István
- Statue of Arany János (in the bust park )
- Bust park ( György Kulin , Sinka István, Kiss István, Zilahy Lajos)
- Vasmariska tér (in German "Eisenmariechen Brunnen") from 1891 by the caster Antoine Durenne (from Sommevoire, France)
- Bust of Teodor Neș ( Strada Oradiei ) from 2001 by Cornel Durgheu
- Róth Ház ( Piața Libertății nr. 8 )
- City Hall ( Strada Republicii nr. 1 )
- Local History Museum ( Strada Avram Iancu )
- City Park (Roman Parcul Mare)
- Lajos Zilahy Culture House ( Strada Gyorgy Kulin )
- Stadional Liberty ( Strada Sportului nr. 2 )
- Train station ( Strada Republicii )
- Hotel Slavia ( Strada Decembrie 1 )
The " Arany János főgimnázium" high school from 1913.
There are 7 churches in Salonta :
- Orthodox Church ( Strada Gyorgy Kulin )
- Orthodox Church ( Strada Aradului )
- Reformed Church ( Strada Corneliu Coposu )
- Catholic Church ( Strada Kossuth Lajo s)
- Babtist Church ( Strada Moricz Zsigmond )
- Pentecostal Church Salem ( Strada Republicii )
- Hungarian Baptist Church from 1903 ( Strada Petofi Sandor )
In Salonta there are 9118 Reformed , 6592 Orthodox , 1398 Roman Catholics , 615 Baptists , 121 Greek Catholics , 94 Pentecostals , 24 Evangelists , 22 Adventists , 15 Unitarians , Atheists and others 137.
The Csonka Torony (Hungarian for "the capped tower") is the symbol of the city of Salonta. It was part of Salontas Castle and served as a watchtower, in which gunpowder and weapons were stored at that time.
The construction of Salontas Castle was started in 1620 by Heiducken and finished with the help of Rákócozi György in 1636 and stood until 1658. At that time the Turks raged in the area and according to tradition, a large part of the castle was destroyed in an attack. According to other traditions, the castle and the settlement were deliberately destroyed by order of the rulers at the time, so that they could not come into Turkish possession. From 1658 on, only the three-story tower remained. It was not until 1899 that the tower was raised and given a roof.
The four-story tower has been renewed and now appears in a more modern light. When the museum opened, original furniture by Arany János was put in. Over the years pipes and many other things were stolen, after which the city tried to buy some back.
Every year on March 2nd, an Arany János festival is celebrated on the occasion of the birth of the Hungarian poet at the Csonka Torony . On the occasion of his 200th birthday there was a big anniversary celebration in 2017, and there was also a website until 2018.
The Róth Ház ( Romanian Casa Roth ) is a historic house in Salonta. The old house originally came from a prince named Ármin Róth. After the roof collapsed, the house was renovated in summer 2017 at the city's expense. The appearance was retained as much as possible according to the old design. In the future, it should also be made accessible.
flag and emblem
The coat of arms of Salonta is similar to the Hungarian state coat of arms . It is "split" in the middle and has a silver crown . In the left white field there is a golden lion and in the right red a black raven. When the lion and the raven touch their hands together, this is supposed to represent a "union".
The flag includes the coat of arms, only in this case it is black and white . As with the coat of arms, the flag is white on the left and red on the right and the coat of arms is in the middle. You can find them at the town hall or at the house where the Csonka Torony is responsible.
- János Földi (1755–1801), Hungarian physician, biologist, linguist and poet
- László Lovassy (1815–1892), Hungarian lawyer, politician and spiritual journalist
- János Arany (1817–1882), Hungarian poet
- László Arany (1844–1898), Hungarian writer
- László Székely (1877–1934), Hungarian architect
- Ferenc Kiss (1889–1966), Hungarian scientist and Kossuth Prize winner
- Lajos Zilahy (1891–1974), Hungarian writer
- István Sinka (1897–1969), Hungarian poet and novelist
- György Kulin (1905–1989), Hungarian astronomer
- Elemer Kocsis (1910–1981), Romanian football player
- Klára Bihari (1917–1997), Romanian writer and poet
- Ferenc Gábor (1923-2006), Romanian poet
- István Kiss (1927–1997), Romanian sculptor
- Olivér György Dely (1927–2003), Hungarian herpentologist
- Imre Fábián (1945–2005) Romanian poet, writer and fairy tale collector
- Nagykőrös , Hungary (1991)
- Túrkeve , Hungary
- Sarkad , Hungary (1992)
- Békéscsaba , Hungary (2002)
- Csepel , Hungary
- Hajdúböszörmény , Hungary
- Derecske , Hungary (2008)
- Rimavská Sobota , Slovakia
- 2011 census in Romania ( MS Excel ; 1.3 MB)
- City website, accessed December 6, 2008
- Cel mai mare gulas din lume. cartearecordurilor.ro, October 8, 2014, accessed August 25, 2020 (Romanian).
- Largest bowl of goulash. guinnessworldrecords.de, September 29, 2007, accessed on August 25, 2020 (English).
- 2002 census, accessed December 6, 2008
- Vendégváró | Aranyév. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017 ; Retrieved November 1, 2017 (Hungarian).
- In memoriam Dr. Olivér György Dely. (PDF; 616 kB) Retrieved April 19, 2020 (Hungarian).