Rural community town of Großbreitenbach
|542 (December 31, 2017)
|Population density :
|88 inhabitants / km²
|1st January 2019
|Postal code :
|Area code :
Böhlen is a district of the rural municipality of Großbreitenbach in the Ilm district in Thuringia in Germany . Böhlen is located about 13 km southeast of Ilmenau in the Thuringian Slate Mountains on a plateau of the left Schwarzaufer .
Böhlen is located on a plateau between Langem Berg and Schwarzatal at an altitude of about 610 meters in the southeastern Ilm district at the transition between the Thuringian Forest in the west and the Thuringian Slate Mountains in the east. The plateau itself is formed between the elevations “Milchberg” (in the north; 676 m), “Große Grube” (in the east; 648 m) and “Kirchberg” (in the south; 632 m). Like all the rest of the region, the plateau is inclined towards the northeast and forms the slope of the Thuringian Slate Mountains towards the Thuringian Basin . The plateau falls rather flat in the northeast into the Kurautal, in the east steeply into the Schwarzatal and from southeast to west more or less steeply into the valley of the Breitenbach .
The highest point of the place is the Milchberg at 675.9 m. The lowest point is on the boundary in the Schwarzatal at approx. 395 m.
Around the entire place there is a strip of agricultural land of various widths to which a belt of forest stands is connected. The spruce is predominant. Only in the north is there no forest on the borders with neighboring communities. The forest belt is only a few meters wide in the west. A few hundred meters in the Kurau valley.
Böhlen is still one of the most densely wooded places in the area, because for centuries the communal forest alone has covered around 290 hectares . Today, however, the management of the community forest hardly covers the costs.
In Böhlen the brown earth is to be found as soil, which, however, lies only thinly over rock and is not very productive. The region represents the border between the Rotliegendem ( Zechstein ) in the northwest and clay slate in the southeast of the district . The place is characterized by the location within the Schwarzburger saddle . Precambrian slate and greywacke are primarily found as rocks . In the bare rock on the road between Böhlen and Schwarzmühle , the core zone rocks of the Thuringian Slate Mountains are exposed, in particular phyllites and quartzites . These rocks are among the oldest in the Thuringian Slate Mountains and are over 600 million years old. There are copper veins in the slate rock .
Böhlen lies in an area of a spring horizon . This is proven by the many former cattle troughs and springs in the village itself and on the outskirts. Some springs are still used today to obtain process water. All of Böhlen's springs and streams drain into the Breitenbach and Schwarza rivers.
The district of Böhlen is located in the southeast corner of the Ilmkreis and borders in the south, west, north and northeast of three other places in this district, namely Großbreitenbach , Friedersdorf and Wildenspring . In the east the area borders on Mellenbach-Glasbach and Meuselbach-Schwarzmühle in the Saalfeld-Rudolstadt district .
The climate in Böhlen is quite rough due to the altitude. The prevailing type of climate is the low mountain range with cool summers and snowy winters. The mean annual temperature is around 5.5 ° C. Böhlen is located in a region with high annual rainfall. These are on average between 900 and 1000 liters. Due to the two dams Schönbrunn and Goldisthal there is increased fog that sticks between Langem Berg and the mountain ranges along the Rennsteig .
The first settlements can be assumed in the center of the village, where the first chapel or church of the place stood. Originally, Böhlen was a typical street perch village where the buildings expanded from the town center towards Viehreibe and Mühlberg, two valley hollows. At the end of the 19th century, the first further streets were built across the typical town line, the development of which came to an end for the time being at the end of the 20th century. After the introduction of stable feeding, the pasture area on the Anger was less important, so that in the 18th and 19th centuries. Century this was also used for building, individual houses are still in the so-called "middle row" and divide the village green.
There has been evidence of mining in Böhlen since 1533. In addition to bismuth and lead , copper gravel was mined and processed into copper in the village (other pits in and around Böhlen: a gold washing plant on Kuraubach is mentioned in 1616 as "goldt seufen an der Schwartze"; in 1615 and 1688 an existing sulfur and Vitriolwerk with hut renewed). In the 16th century there was even a mining office in Böhlen . The copper was mined at Kirchberg. Due to the mining industry, the community experienced a not inconsiderable boom, which can be proven in a document from 1533 in which Count Heinrich XXXIV . von Schwarzburg grants the citizens of Böhlen considerable benefits and privileges. These were varied and in particular allowed hunting, fishing in the Breitenbach river, brewing, baking, licensing and market rights . Half of the Steinberg was released for wood use. In addition, the mines received coal for smelting for free for 2 years. The right to use the forest meadows in Steinberg probably also dates from this time. The Böhlener Shepherd carried the cattle there until the 1960s. With the benefits in mining, many immigrants probably came to Böhlen, which is reflected in the names, some of which still exist today: Holland, Höland and Hauke. But it would also be possible that the names with the journeys of Böhlener hauliers, who traded in weaving products far across Europe, immigrated. In addition to mining , the weaving trade played a major role in the village.
In the years 1610 and 1611 in the area raged the plague , from the Bohlen, but especially Wildenspring, were severely affected. The Thirty Years War hit the place very hard. Although the Böhlen residents avoided their place for 14 days during a phase of the war in order to protect it from discovery and the associated destruction, they were unsuccessful. Hunger, disease and looting caused the population to shrink to 27, who shared the remaining goods. The previous phase of prosperity in the mining era was thereby ended. The place then recovered quickly due to the silver and copper mining and weaving.
In 1778 the place was ravaged by a fire, which killed 4 houses and 5 barns . Just 24 years later, in 1802, another fire disaster struck the place where 4 houses with back buildings and 7 barns burned down. On October 2nd, 1867, the place suffered the biggest fire accident to date. A little girl caused a barn fire while playing near the center of the village. The flames raged into the night and destroyed a total of 95 buildings in the village, including 31 residential buildings. Further fires occurred in 1905 in the former furniture factory, in 1913 when four residential buildings in the upper town were destroyed and in 1921 when most of the plywood factory was destroyed.
Due to industrialization and the consequences of the political upheavals of 1848/49, Böhlen experienced several waves of emigration in the 19th century. In the period between 1834 and 1870, hundreds of people in Brazil and North America were looking for a new home and a better future. The group emigration of March 8, 1852, represents an extraordinary and nationally unique chapter. After “tumults and unrest” in the summer of 1851, 155 people, 13.6% of the village population, left the village. Spread over three ships, they sailed from Hamburg to Rio de Janeiro in 53 days . In Brazil, the emigrants were housed on coffee plantations in the state of Rio de Janeiro. As employees of a plantation owner, they worked as coffee pickers to replace slaves.
In addition to mining and weaving , there was still a large number of different trades and traders who traded in the entire German-speaking area. There are interesting reports in the church registers about traders who died abroad.
In 1856 there were verifiably 2 grinding mills for the mines in Böhlen. In 1862 Berthold Sigismund mentions 3 mills, 1 cutting mill and an inn in Böhlen. There were also 104 craftsmen, 2 dye works, 2 shopkeepers, a sack factory and a laboratory assistant.
In 1910 the central drinking water supply for the town was completed by the Gockenbach company from Arnstadt . Since then, the community has been supplied with sources from the Long Mountain. From 1911, Albert Voigt generated the first electricity on his property, Ortsstrasse 26, and gradually supplied the entire town until 1918. In 1928 the community was supplied with town gas, which was particularly beneficial for glass blowing and the manufacture of thermometers.
In 1910 the school building was built in just 6½ months. The masonry work was carried out by Italian migrant workers. It was equipped with a low-pressure steam heater . There were bathtubs and showers for the population in the basement. In the years 1972 to 1975 the building was used as part of the Beautiful our cities and municipalities - join in! -Movement extended by a multi-purpose hall with intermediate building. In 1994 the school was closed and the building now houses the municipal administration, a day-care center and club rooms.
With the forced collectivization of smallholders between 1958 and 1960, the hedges typical of the region and very often found disappeared into striped meadows. Some of these structures are still preserved as examples. You can see that large parts of these hedges probably grew up spontaneously on reading stone walls along the old corridor borders.
In the years 2006 to 2009 the through traffic was renovated and rebuilt. The course of this through-town, which is characteristic of Böhlen, in which the street becomes wider and narrower, with less emphasis on traffic management, was partially lost. The smooth transition between public and private areas is only partially there. The living and working space, often in front of the houses, gave way to streets and sidewalks.
Until 1920, Böhlen belonged to the Königsee office of the sovereignty of the Principality or Free State of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt . Between 1920 and 1952 the place belonged to the district of Arnstadt , from 1952 to 1994 to the district of Ilmenau and finally since 1994 to the Ilm district .
From 1994, Böhlen belonged to the Großbreitenbach administrative association . With the dissolution of this on January 1, 2019, Böhlen became a district of the rural municipality of Großbreitenbach.
About 50% of the population belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church . The remaining part is predominantly non-denominational.
It is not known when the first church was built in Böhlen. According to Hannappel, Count von Schwarzburg is mentioned in 1472 as the patron saint of a first parish in Böhlen, belonging to the Sedes (Latin seat) Alkersleben . It is not known when Saint Anne was named as the church patron. She is considered the mother of Mary, the Mother of God. As the first Pope named Innocent III. (died 1216) the names of Maria's parents: Anna and Joachim. In the fine arts, the depiction of the saints in devotional pictures spread as Anna stepped on her own. During the pre-Reformation period, the veneration of Anne played a major role. Among other things, the use of the so-called “water of Anne” testifies to the popularity of the saints in the everyday life of believers. In connection with the end of the 15th / beginning of the 16th century mining operated in the village is the fact that Anna also appears as the patroness of mining brotherhoods. A Christian Meltzer reports in a Schneeberger Chronik that Anna was taken for an "Ertzmaker" (Dörfler-Dierken). A contemporary Saxon mining saying was: “S. Annam shouted at the Sachs / See, then straight away / The Silberberg still today / Whoever wants to deny the truth, the wags ”(Dörfler-Dierken). During the Peasants' War, under the leadership of Jacob Scherff from Stadtilm, insurgents from Böhlen, among others, organized themselves in an "evangelical fraternal league" (EINICKE). They moved to Stadtilm on April 23, 1525 to have Count Günther XXXIX lead away the valuable treasures of the Stadtilm monastery. from Schwarzburg to prevent. On April 24th and 26th, 1525, they asked the town of Blankenburg, which belonged to both the Schwarzburg suzerainty, and the Henneberg town of Ilmenau to accept the "twelve items, so the Swartzwallen pauren" (GRAUPNER). The moderate forces of the Arnstädter Haufen succeeded under the leadership of their captains Hans Baur from Ilmenau and Jacob Scherff to prevent radical influences as much as possible. Despite this conciliatory attitude, after the battle of Frankenhausen (May 15, 1525) and the execution of Thomas Müntzer (May 27, 1525), a terrible criminal court of the territorial rulers was inevitable. Interrogations, numerous executions in Arnstadt and Rudolstadt and impositions on fines were the methods used by the feudal lords to force the rebellious masses to obey and to secure their submission to secular and clerical authorities again (KOBUCH). In the middle of the 16th century, the Reformation reached the place in 1542 with the first Protestant pastor. The church gained in importance beyond the town, recognizable by the fact that in 1535 the communities Gillersdorf and Friedersdorf became the parish of Böhlen. Friedersdorf and Gillersdorf only became independent parishes in 1756, while Wildenspring is still part of the Böhlen parish today.
The previous building of today's massive baroque church (DEHIO) (presumably the chapel of St. Anne) was demolished in 1821. The current single-nave aisle church was built between 1821 and 1822 and consecrated in autumn 1823. According to Lehfeldt and Sigismund, the late Gothic winged altar with its remains of holy figures is attributed to the master of the Meckfeld altar in the Saalfeld carving workshop. The furnishings of the first church also included liturgical implements such as a plague chalice and the busts on the gallery behind the altar. The tower was completed in 1862. The original bronze bells were removed in 1915 and melted down for armament purposes. In 1922 the ringing was replaced by steel bells, which, however, damage the church building due to their higher weight during their operation . From 1993 to 1997 extensive renovation work was carried out on the building fabric. The listed Holland organ on the second gallery was thoroughly restored in 2001. It is worth mentioning that the organ is still tuned to g 1 = 447.5 Hz today. After the church tower had already been refurbished and re-supplied in 1950, further refurbishments of the upper part of the tower took place in 2006/07. In addition to a new slate, parts of the framework and wooden structures were renewed. At the same time, a new tower button with a new weather vane was put on and new dials were attached for the clock. Today the church is in urgent need of renovation. The costs for this are estimated at around 275,000 euros.
Most of the inhabitants of Böhlen are older than 40 years. The proportion of people over 60 is over a third. An aging of the lagging population is underway due to the emigration of young people. In 2007, according to a statistical survey, Böhlen was characterized by a high proportion of pensioners and unemployed.
The council of the municipality of Böhlen consisted of 8 council women and councilors. The local elections on May 25, 2014 produced the following results:
Of the valid votes, were accounted for
|Markus Hauke CDU
|Ricardo Bergmann CDU
|Uwe Kister CDU
|Jens Grossmann CDU
|Marcel Neitzke CDU
|Christine Lange CDU
|Andreas Heinz CDU
|Bernd Staude CDU
In the municipality of Böhlen, the election of the municipal council members was carried out as a majority vote without being bound by the proposed applicants and without the right to accumulate votes on one applicant.
The honorary mayor Bernd Staude (CDU) was elected on June 5, 2016 with 67.8% of the valid votes.
The choice produced the following result:
Of the valid votes, were accounted for
|Bernd Staude (CDU)
The former municipal council and the former mayor will remain in office until May 26, 2019.
coat of arms
The coat of arms was approved on April 3, 1995 by the Thuringian State Administration Office.
Blazon : "In green, a naked golden woman standing on a growing silver globe, swinging a silver ribbon over her head and around her body, each accompanied by a silver spruce."
The golden Fortuna on the silver globe is accompanied by two silver spruce trees. While the representation of Fortuna as a seal motif in the community goes back at least to the 18th century, the trees indicate the location of the community in the Thuringian Forest.
The coat of arms was designed by the heraldist Frank Diemar .
The official colors of the place are green and white. These can be found on the municipality flag in the following vertical order: green - white - green, the widths are approx. 1/4 - 2/4 - 1/4. The coat of arms is on the white background.
Culture and sights
The village church of St. Anna is worth seeing.
The 648 m high, unwooded "Great Pit" is easy to reach via footpaths and offers a good view of the village and the region.
Evidently there has been a lively club life in the village since the end of the 19th century. Even in difficult times, the people of Böhling came together to do sports, play theater, etc.
Today there are the following clubs in Böhlen:
Abendsonne eV, Bellre Kärmse eV, Blauer Anker eV, Böhlener Carneval-Verein eV (BCV), Citizens for Böhlen eV, Computer Club Böhlen (CCB), German Red Cross Local Group Böhlen (German Red Cross District Association Arnstadt eV), Voluntary Fire Brigade Böhlen eV , Bohlen Tourist Association, Bohlen Singing Association, Allotment Gardeners Association Plant Lands Bohlen eV, Breed Poultry Breeding Association Bohlen eV, SV “Fortuna” Bohlen eV, Thuringian Forest Association 1880, Böhlen Branch Association, Thuringian Summer Academy eV
At the end of the 19th century, two gymnastics clubs were founded in Böhlen: the “Frei Heil” club and the “Rot Sport” workers' sports club. In 1920 the cycling club "Waldeslust" was founded. In 1928 (1938?) The ski jump of the Böhlener winter sports club was built in the Kurau valley. A soccer and a handball club were founded in 1929/30. After the Second World War , sporting activities were first brought together in the “Einheit Böhlen” sports community, and later in the “Aufbau Böhlen” company sports association . After the reunification , the sports club "Fortuna Böhlen" was founded in 1997, with the sections football, bowling and gymnastics. The bowling section no longer exists today. There was a bowling alley in the Gasthaus zur "Schönen Aussicht" and one in the Gasthaus "Zur Linde". In 1962 the latter was renovated and reopened. After the fall of the Wall, the building was owned by the Treuhand and became increasingly dilapidated. Today it is privately owned and the bowling alley is no longer used.
Famous athletes do not come from Böhlen. However, sports clubs in the region could and can count on good athletes from Böhlen. The Olympic runner-up in the javelin throw in 1976 in Montreal Marion Becker , b. Ebert, spent her childhood in Böhlen.
Every year, usually in the 3rd week in October, the Kärmse (dialect for parish fair ) takes place in town. It is an interesting custom of the Böhlener to hold a so-called potato roast on the Monday after the first weekend of the fair . Associations, groups of friends or families make a potato fire in traditional places, into the embers of which raw potatoes are thrown and which are then consumed.
Furthermore, the traditional carnival of the Böhlener Carneval Verein eV takes place annually on the weekend before Ash Wednesday. The association is one of the few carnival associations in the region that conducts a program followed by a dance on Rose Monday.
Since 1992, art courses have been held every summer in the former thermometer factory, organized by the Thuringian Summer Academy. The courses focus on music and the fine arts, supplemented by other workshops .
The Böhlener Church is the annual concert hall of the Thuringian Organ Summer .
In earlier times the Böhlener lived from mining, agriculture, cattle breeding and logging. With the cultivation of flax, which grew well on the plateaus , linen weaving gained enormous momentum. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the region's linen weavers delivered large quantities to Großbreitenbach. On August 19, 1739, the Böhlener, Wildenspringer and Friedersdorfer finally won their own guild rights . This likely led to further expansion of the industry. The industrialization that began in the 19th century, however, led to a rapid impoverishment of the weaving trade (see also: History).
Up until the 19th century there were a large number of craftsmen in Böhlen. Particularly noteworthy are the woodworking and processing, as well as a number of blacksmiths that also made axes, weapons and saws , among other things .
Agriculture no longer played an important role for the place since the middle of the 19th century. This only served as a sideline and was partly geared towards subsistence . Today the arable land is cultivated by cooperatives under lease or it lies fallow.
The first plywood factory in the world was founded in Böhlen by Mr. Bruno Harras in 1858. In addition to plywood, a special form of chipboard was produced here, into which ornaments and pictures were pressed and could hardly be distinguished from carving. The company participated in the Chicago World's Fair in 1893. Not only were the company's own developments presented, but the reception hall of the German pavilion was also equipped and built. A fire in 1921 destroyed this factory; the mayor at the time was killed. It was then rebuilt and on strike for over 20 weeks in 1930, which meant that it had to close. In 1937 plywood production was resumed. In 1948 the company was nationalized.
At the fire site of an older company (south of the plywood factory) a furniture factory was built at the end of the 19th century. Toys and dolls' furniture were first made under different owners, later seating furniture was made. The company was owned by the trust after the war and was nationalized and merged with the plywood factory a few years after the war. The plate production was outsourced. A wide variety of bedroom furniture was produced. The state-owned company used various names until 1990. In April 1989, 164 people worked in the plywood and furniture factory. After 1990 it was closed. The company was renovated in 1992 by a Bavarian company and today it manufactures children's furniture. The complex in the south was sold by the trust. Today it is privately owned, the former factory has almost been demolished.
An accountant founded a clothing company in Böhlen in the 1930s and initially produced uniforms . After the war, the company had several owners and produced outerwear, most recently corsetry . This company was closed after the fall of the Wall.
The thermometer factory emerged from a wooden wire weaving mill that had existed since 1868 at the same location. So-called "showcases" were woven here, which were painted and a substitute for curtains . In 1903 the production of household thermometers began. In 1972 this until then privately owned company was expropriated and incorporated into the VEB Thermometerwerk Geraberg . In 1990 this company withdrew completely from Böhlen, so that the women and men employed there were the first unemployed in the community after the fall of the Wall . The building complex is now home to the Thuringian Summer Academy.
On June 12, 1958, some small farmers joined the Agricultural Production Cooperative (LPG) under the name "Banner of Peace". By the spring of 1960, all remaining farmers were forced into this production community. Those who refused to " collectivize " or did not immediately join were publicly denounced and slandered by the party agitators. The cultural landscape, which had grown over centuries, lost its structures with "large-scale cultivation". Historically, the “full collectivization”, which was officially declared ended on April 25, 1960, turned out to be a failure.
Today, most of the residents commute to work in Großbreitenbach or the Ilmenau region.
From Böhlen roads lead to Großbreitenbach, Gillersdorf, Wildenspring and Meuselbach-Schwarzmühle. Böhlen can be reached by bus using public transport. The nearest train station is on the Schwarzatalbahn in Meuselbach-Schwarzmühle, three kilometers to the east.
- 1854: Construction of the Dorfstrasse
- 1861/1862: Construction of the road from Böhlen to Schwarzmühle
- 1909: The first houses are built in today's Schulstrasse
- 1919/1920; The road to Schwarzmühle is widened
- 1927: Start of development on Großbreitenbacher Straße
- 1951/1952: Start of construction on Karl-Marx-Straße (houses were already standing)
- 1995/1996: Renovation of the upper local road (colloquially: Spielstraße )
- 2006 to 2009: After years of postponement, the redevelopment of the through road from Großbreitenbach to Schwarzmühle was carried out
Sons and daughters of the place
Origin of name
The interpretation or derivation of the place name can only be guessed at. It is very likely that the name comes from the Sorbian word bely or belina meaning "white, bright place". But it can probably also be derived from Buhil or Bühl , which is synonymous with arch, hump or hill. This becomes clear in the location of the place between the surrounding hills. Berthold Sigismund called the place Böhlen in 1862, but also mentions the other names Bieln and Bäln . In the vernacular the name of the place is still today, almost as originally, "Belln".
About the school
In the old cemetery (between the village green and the church) there used to be a large grave of the allegedly wealthy Voigt family. Without any descendants, they set up a foundation to provide support to school children. Every year, on the anniversary of their death, the grave of this family was decorated and sung there. On that day, one of the town's bakers baked a small cake especially for each child. Presumably after the foundation's money was used up, this custom was forgotten. Only a few residents know this form of tradition through oral tradition.
Nickname of the Böhlener and his background
In the region, the people of Böhlingen are known by the nickname "Fossbsche" and are sometimes addressed directly as such. The Fossbsche are slippers that were made in Böhlen in the past. For this purpose, old fabric scraps were packed in many layers on top of each other and stitched together with large stitches. Then the shape of the foot was cut out with a chisel . The sole was also made from these scraps of fabric. Finally, the shoe was embellished, covered with fabric, the toe was protected with a piece of leather or the shaft was sewn around. There was even a little pompom for the kids. In the 1920s, the mayor is said to have traveled to Arnstadt with Fossbschen.
The Böhlener Carneval Verein eV uses the battle cry "Fossbsche Helau".
Distress of the linen weavers and emigration
In the year 1800 there was said to have been a loom in almost every second house in the village. The weavers suffered severe blows around 1850. Due to the invention of looms and industrialization, weavers were no longer competitive. All families who lived from the weaving mill were in great need. The families moved as far as Königsee to beg. In the Herschdorfer church book it can be read that two Böhlen children froze to death on their way home near Dröbischau . The distress of the weavers drove them to theft and break-ins. In 1848 a voluntary police force was set up by the townspeople . Around 1850 a Böhlener poacher was shot by a forest master from Gehren . In 1850 the hardship reached its peak. A wealthy Böhlener made the proposal to persuade the impoverished families to emigrate. He himself provided 300 thalers. The impoverished weavers were recruited to emigrate and they were reimbursed for all costs of emigration. The total cost for the 155 emigrants was 1200 thalers.
Emigration to Hamburg in brief:
- March 8th 7:00 am Start in Böhlen with four harnesses , each of which weighed 40 to 50 quintals
- 8:30 a.m. Möhrenbach brawl
- In Möhrenbach a wagon for the children who stayed behind
- By Miter to Stadtilm , lunch (pork, sausage)
- In Stadtilm the Möhrenbacher coachman is thrown into the Ilm
- New harnesses in Stadtilm
- In Tannroda Quartier, but all the pubs full of curious people
- From Weimar by train to Hamburg
Clean-up work in Kirchberg after Hurricane Kyrill moved through in February 2007
Seal mark from the 19th century.
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