|Voivodeship :||West Pomerania|
|Area :||12.00 km²|
|Geographic location :|
|Height :||18 m npm|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Postal code :||72-300 to 72-302|
|Telephone code :||(+48) 91|
|License plate :||ZGY|
|Economy and Transport|
|Street :||Voivodship Road (DW) 105 : Świerzno – Gryfice – Rzesznikowo|
|Ext. 109 : Płoty - Trzebiatów - Mrzeżyno|
|Ext. 110 : Lędzin – Cerkwica – Gryfice|
|Rail route :||PKP route 402: Koszalin – Kołobrzeg↔Płoty – Goleniów|
|Next international airport :||Szczecin-Goleniów|
|Gminatype:||Urban and rural municipality|
|Gmina structure:||51 localities|
|31 school authorities|
(Jun. 30, 2019)
|Population density :||91 inhabitants / km²|
|Community number ( GUS ):||3205023|
|Administration (as of 2009)|
|Mayor :||Andrzej Szczygieł|
|Address:||pl. Zwycięstwa 37
|Website :||Gmina Gryfice. Retrieved September 24, 2017 (Polish).|
Gryfice (German Greifenberg in Pommern , formerly Greiffenberg ) is a city in the Polish West Pomeranian Voivodeship . It is the county seat of the Powiat Gryficki and the seat of an urban and rural municipality .
In the middle of the 13th century, the griffin dukes Barnim I and Wartislaw III ruled Pomerania . They called Germans into the country to strengthen their dominion, Barnim primarily settled Germans in the eastern areas, while Wartislaw recruited Dutch and Danish settlers in the western area he ruled. Both dukes competed to found cities from 1234 onwards. Wartislaw's founding cities include Greifswald , Demmin and Kolberg . It was only two years before his death in 1262 that he issued a town charter under Luebian law for a settlement on the central reaches of the Rega River, to which he gave 100 Hufen land. The future governor Jakob von Trebetow received 20 Hufen from them and was commissioned to promote the founding of the city. All of this happened without a name being determined for the future city. It was only after Wartislaw's death that his heir Barnim I gave the city the name Griphenberch .
After the Rega was granted the right of free navigation, the city quickly grew to prosperity. Trade continued to flourish after joining the Hanseatic League in 1365 . Greifenberg surrounded itself with a city wall, broken through by three gates, of which the high and the stone gate are still preserved today. At the end of the 13th century, construction of the three-aisled brick church of St. Mary began. A document from 1386 mentions a Latin school in Greifenberg, which is one of the oldest in Pomerania. In the 15th century there were several disputes with Treptow in the north , which tried to demand customs from the Greifenberg ships sailing on Rega. The conflict escalated when Treptow tried in 1449 to close the river to all ships coming from the south.
In 1658 a devastating city fire broke out, which also destroyed the Marienkirche. It took ten years to rebuild. At that time, as a result of the Peace of Westphalia , Greifenberg was already under the rule of Brandenburg and had been incorporated administratively into the Greifenberger Kreis. During the 18th century, the city expanded through the establishment of the Camminer and Triglaffer suburbs, and the sources of income were shifted. If sea trade had been dominant up to now, it was gradually replaced by linen weaving, with which the city later made a name for itself.
With the Prussian administrative reform of 1818, Greifenberg became the district town of the Greifenberg district . The Greifenberger Neustadt was created as part of a city expansion. About 5,000 people lived in the city at that time. In 1852 the city received a grammar school, the Friedrich-Wilhelms-Gymnasium . In 1882 there was a connection to the Altdamm - ( Kolberg) railway line , and the Greifenberger Kleinbahn , a narrow-gauge railway, was opened on July 1, 1896. As a result, new industrial operations such as sugar, oven and pottery factories were established. Around 1900 Greifenberg had two Protestant churches (including St. Mary's Church from the 13th century), a synagogue , a grammar school, a non-commissioned school and was the seat of a local court .
When the Soviet troops conquered the city at the end of the Second World War , the city center fell victim to a major fire, and by the end of the fighting, about 40 percent of Greifenberg was destroyed. The city was placed under Polish administration after the end of the war, and Poles and Ukrainians began to immigrate, mainly from areas east of the Curzon Line . The remaining German citizens were driven from their homes and their evictions began , which was completed in 1946. The town of Greifenberg was renamed Gryfice .
|1791||2016||including 19 Jews|
|1867||5854||on December 3rd|
|1871||5619||on December 1st, including 5,474 Evangelicals, 16 Catholics, four other Christians and 125 Jews|
|1890||5293||including 21 Catholics and 135 Jews|
|1939||10,426||of which 9705 Protestants, 242 Catholics, 224 other Christians and 16 Jews|
Museums and sights
- The Catholic St. Marien Church was built in the brick Gothic style at the end of the 13th century and was rebuilt several times in the following years. The tower with the Welsh dome dates from the 15th century.
- The St. George's Chapel was built around 1500 in the brick Gothic style as a hospital chapel and is now used as a cemetery chapel.
- The present (since 1954) Orthodox Church of the Holy Mother of God was built from 1911 to 1913 in neo-Gothic style as St. John's Church for the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Prussia .
From the medieval city wall from the 13th / 14th centuries In the 19th century, fragments with the Hohen Track , the stone gate and the powder tower have been preserved.
- Gryfów Śląski (Poland)
- Güstrow (Germany, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania)
- Meldorf (Germany, Schleswig-Holstein)
sons and daughters of the town
- Johann Boldewan (1485–1533), German Protestant theologian of the Reformation period
- August von Hanow (1591–1661), German officer, most recently a colonel in the service of Electoral Saxony and captain in Thuringia
- David Christiani (1610–1688), German Lutheran theologian, philologist and mathematician
- Johann Möller (1623–1680), German poet, lawyer and mayor of Greifenberg
- Matthias Möller (1658–1705), Mayor of Greifenberg
- Friedrich von Dreger (1699–1750), German lawyer and historical researcher
- Christian Gottlieb Georg von Zschock (1737–1809), Prussian major general and commander of the von Manstein infantry regiment
- Georg Karl Philipp von Struensee (1774–1833), Prussian administrative officer, police chief in Cologne
- Karl Wilhelm Gottlob Kastner (1783–1857), German chemist and university professor
- Heinrich Schmückert (1790–1862), German post office clerk, General Post Director of the Kingdom of Prussia
- Gustav von Struensee (1803–1875), novelist (pseudonym Gustav vom See )
- Wilhelm Francke (1812–1878), German merchant, manor owner and member of the Reichstag
- Hermann von der Marwitz (1814–1885), German manor owner and district administrator of the Greifenberg i. Pom.
- Albert Wangerin (1844–1933), German mathematician
- Franz Strauch (1846–1928), German naval officer, most recently Rear Admiral, and Executive Vice President of the German Colonial Society
- Conrad Pochhammer (1873–1932), German physician, Prussian chief medical officer
- Fritz Wilke (1879–1957), German Protestant theologian, professor in Vienna
- Hans von Normann (1880–1918), German lawyer, district administrator of the Regenwalde district
- Emil Jahn (1886–?), German politician (SPD)
- Otto Kuphal (1890–1946), German politician (SPD), Lord Mayor of the Hanseatic City of Rostock (1945–1946)
- Moritz Seeler (1896–1942), German director, Holocaust victim
- Ehrengard Schramm (1900–1985), German politician (SPD)
- Walter Ohm (1915–1997), German radio play and theater director
- Wolfgang Lindow (1932–2020), German philologist and folklorist
- Johann Gottlob von Wrochem (* 1938), German pianist and composer
- Ernst-Peter Rabenhorst (* 1940), German diplomat, former ambassador of the GDR to the VDR Yemen
- Cezary Tomczyk (* 1984), Polish politician (citizens' platform)
- Grzegorz Krychowiak (* 1990), Polish football player
Personalities who have worked in the city
- Margarete Lucia von Manteuffel (1651–1726), founder of the Osten-Manteuffel scholarship in Greifenberg
- Friedrich George Born (1757–1807), German lawyer, First Mayor of Greifenberg and district administrator from 1791 to 1807
- Walter Goehtz (1878–1946), German civil servant , Mayor of Greifenberg from 1911 to 1935
The urban and rural community Gryfice covers an area of 261.30 km² and thus occupies 25.7% of the area of the Powiat Gryficki (district of Greifenberg ). With more than 23,500 inhabitants, it is the twelfth largest municipality in the West Pomeranian Voivodeship, which comprises 114 municipalities .
The entire municipality is crossed by the Rega ( Rega ) in a south-north direction, which here receives numerous tributaries (including Mołstowa ( Molstow ), Lubieszowa ( Lübsow Bach ), Gardominka ( Kardeminer Bach )).
Neighboring communities are:
- Brojce ( Broitz ), Karnice ( Karnitz ), Płoty ( Plathe ) and Trzebiatów ( Treptow ad Rega ) in the Powiat Gryficki ,
- Golczewo ( Gülzow ) and Świerzno ( Schwirsen ) in the Powiat Kamieński ( Cammin district ).
Gmina Gryfice includes 51 localities, which are subdivided into the city of Gryfice and 31 districts:
- Borzyszewo ( Friedrich Will ), Brodniki ( Gram Bergenhusen ) Grębocin ( Adolfshof ) Grochów ( Gruchow ) Jabłonowo, Kowalewo, Krakowice ( Charles Hoff ), Lubin ( Lebbin ) Lubkow ( Sprengel Berg ), Mierzyn ( Laurin ), Niekładź ( Neklatz ) Podłęcze ( Rüchelsruh ), Popiele ( Chausseehaus ), Raduń ( Radduhn ), Rzęsin ( Rensin ), Skowrony ( Lerche ), Sokołów ( Dankelmannshof ), Wołczyno ( Völzin ), Zacisze ( Ruhleben ) and Zagórcze ( Eleonorenhof )
In the powiat Gryficki there are some popular seaside resorts, including Pobierowo ( Poberow ), Rewal ( Rewahl ), Niechorze ( Seebad Horst ) and Mrzeżyno ( Deep ).
In the area of Gmina Gryfice, three voivodship roads (DW) meet, which connect the urban and rural municipality in all directions with the neighboring regions:
- DW 105 : Świerzno ( Schwirsen ) - Gryfice - Rzesznikowo ( Reselkow )
- DW 109 : Płoty ( Plathe ) - Gryfice - Trzebiatów ( Treptow ad Rega ) - Mrzeżno ( (Treptower) Deep )
- Ext. 110 : Gryfice - Karnice ( Karnitz ) - Lędzin ( Lensin )
The DW 109 establishes the most important connections to Landesstraße 6 ( Stettin - Danzig , former German Reichsstraße 2 , today also Europastraße 28 ) at Płoty ( Plathe ) on the one hand, and to the Baltic Sea coast on the other.
Line 402 of the Polish State Railways (PKP) runs within the Gryfice municipality Koszalin ( Köslin ) - Kołobrzeg ( Kolberg ) - Trzebiatów ( Treptow ad Rega ) - Gryfice - Płoty ( Plathe ) - Goleniów ( Gollnow ) with three stations: Baszewice ( Batzwitz ) , Gryfice and Górzyca Reska ( Görke ad Rega ).
The railway network of the Greifenberger Kleinbahn with stations in Gryfice (small train station), Popiele ( Chausseehaus ), Rybokarty ( Ribbekardt ), Wilczkowo ( Völschenhagen ) and Niedźwiedziska ( Medewitz ) ran through the entire municipality area since 1896 . In the town of Greifenberg (Gryfice) the routes met:
- Greifenberg - Horst (Niechorze) - Treptow ad Rega (Trzebiatów),
- Greifenberg - Dummadel (Tapadły) - Treptow ad Rega,
- Greifenberg - Gülzow (Golczewo) - Kantreck (Łożnica) - Stepenitz (Stepnica).
- Ludwig Wilhelm Brüggemann : Detailed description of the current state of the Königl. Prussian Duchy of Vor and Hinter Pomerania . Stettin 1784, pp. 390-403 ( online ).
- H. Riemann: History of the city of Greifenberg in Pomerania - A commemorative publication for the six hundred year anniversary of the city . Toepler, Greifenberg i. Pom. 1862, 279 pages, detailed city chronicle up to approx. 1860 ( online ).
- Martin Wehrmann : History of the country and town of Greifenberg . Weichert, Hamburg 1988, ISBN 3-926033-01-0 (unchanged reprint of the first edition Greifenberg 1927).
- Our Pommerland , vol. 18, vol. 7–8: City and district of Greifenberg .
- Gustav Kratz : The cities of the province of Pomerania - an outline of their history, mostly according to documents . Berlin 1865, pp. 165–179, city chronicle with numerous sources ( online ).
- Heinrich Berghaus : Land book of the Duchy of Pomerania and the Principality of Rügen . Part II, Volume 6: Kreise Kamin and Greifenberg , Anklam 1870, pp. 567-729 ( online ).
- Johann Ernst Fabri : Geography for all classes . Part I, Volume 4, Leipzig 1793, pp. 496-498 ( online ).
- Gmina Gryfice. Retrieved September 24, 2017 (Polish).
- population. Size and Structure by Territorial Division. As of June 30, 2019. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (GUS) (PDF files; 0.99 MiB), accessed December 24, 2019 .
- The higher school system in Prussia - historical-statistical representation . Published by L. Wiese on behalf of the Minister for Spiritual, Educational and Medicinal Affairs. Wiegandt and Grieben, Berlin 1864, pp. 146-147, online ).
- Meyer's Large Conversation Lexicon . 6th edition, 8th volume, Bibliographisches Institut Leipzig and Vienna 1907, p. 272 ( Zeno.org ).
- Friedrich von Restorff : Topographical description of the province of Pomerania with a statistical overview . Berlin and Stettin 1827, pp. 170-171 ( online ).
- Christian Friedrich Wutstrack (ed.): Brief historical-geographical-statistical description of the royal Prussian duchy of Western and Western Pomerania . Stettin 1793, overview table on p. 736.
- Royal Statistical Bureau: The communities and manor districts of the Prussian state and their population . Part III: Province of Pomerania , Berlin 1874, pp. 68-69, No. 1 ( online ).
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Province of Pomerania - district of Greifenberg. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- Meyer's encyclopaedic lexicon . 9th edition, 10th volume, Bibliographisches Institut, Mannheim Vienna Zurich 1974, p. 734.
- Brockhaus - Encyclopedia in 30 volumes . 21st edition, Volume 11, Leipzig Mannheim 2006, p. 536.