City of Lindenfels
|Height :||439 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||6.35 km²|
|Residents :||690 (December 31, 2012)|
|Population density :||109 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation :||December 31, 1971|
|Postal code :||64678|
|Area code :||06255|
Winter box seen from the Birkenberg
Winterkasten is located in the Vorderen Odenwald north of the core town of Lindenfels on the upper reaches of the Mergbach , one of the two source brooks of the Gersprenz . The place is at the foot of the wooded Neunkircher Höhe (605 m), which rises in the northwest of the village. The district reaches its highest point at 590 meters on the elongated ridge of the Neunkircher Höhe near the Kaiserturm . To the north of this it extends to the vicinity of the radar tower with the parabolic antenna ( ) of the German Air Traffic Control (DFS) . The source of the Mergbach (formerly the Gersprenz source ) is also up here in the forest area of Winterkasten. The Eleonorenklinik is located at the edge of the forest at an altitude of 490 meters. To the northeast of the Neunkircher Höhe, an extension of the district extends over the Germannshöhe to the western slope of the Rimdidim ( ). In the west, the district extends to the summit of the Raupenstein ( ) and in the southwest to the Buch ( ).
The closest localities are the core town of Lindenfels in the south, Winkel in the south-west, Kolmbach in the west, Neunkirchen in the north-west, Laudenau in the north-east, Klein-Gumpen in the east and Gumpen in the south-east.
From the beginning to the 18th century
The name Wintercasten or Winterchasto was used as early as 773 in the border description of the Mark Heppenheim , which designated an administrative district of the Franconian Empire . However, this meant the Neunkircher Höhe and not the present-day Winterkasten.
The earliest known mention of the place Winterkasten comes from 1354, when Count Palatine Rupprecht I gave Heinrich von Rodenstein an estate to Winterkasten as a Lindenfels castle fief. In the 14th to 16th centuries, the Electoral Palatinate gave fiefs over Winterkasten and sovereign rights changed several times between the Lords of Rodenstein, the Ulners of Dieburg , the Counts of Katzenelnbogen , the taverns of Erbach and the Count Palatine. For the 17th century it is then handed down that under the rule of Erbach eight, the Rodensteiner nine and the Ulner seven residents lived. The administration was carried out by the Erbachisches Amt Reichenberg .
Jurisdiction was also given to fief several times by the Palatinate. Winterkasten belonged to the Reichelsheim center, whose lower court belonged to the Erbachers and Rodensteiners each. The manorial lordship was exercised for the Erbachische Hubengüter in Laudenau, while the Ulnerchengut together with Klein-Gumpen formed a lower court. It is documented for 1443 that Count Palatine Ludwig IV enfeoffed the donor Otto von Erbach with half the village, court, tithes , etc. In the 17th century, the Erbachische Zent Reichelsheim included the eight Erbachische and new Rothensteiner house-sitters, while the court zu Gumpen bei der Mühle was responsible for the seven Ulner-sitters . Georg Friedrich von Rodenstein died as the last male Rodensteiner in 1671. Parts of the inheritance initially fell to Johann Rudolf Victor Freiherr von Pretlack , whose descendants sold it to the Barons of Gemmingen-Hornberg in 1802 . Thus, the Rodensteiner rights to Winterkasten came to the barons of Gemmingen . In 1826 the Baroness of Gemmingen ceded the patrimonial jurisdiction to which she was entitled to the Grand Duchy of Hesse, which in 1828 handed it over to the Counts of Erbach-Erbach. The remaining prerogatives of the class were not abolished until 1848 after the March Revolution with the "Law on the Conditions of the Classes and Noble Court Lords".
The Count Palatinate also gave the tithes to Winterkasten as a fief. Here, too, the taverns of Erbach, the lords of Rodenstein and the districts of Lindenfels appear in the 14th and 15th centuries , with the latter having the tithe as an afterfief . For the 17th century it is handed down that the Ulner, Rodensteiner and Erbacher get the big and small tithe "as far as their goods go" and the pastor of Neunkirchen has 1/3 of the tithe.
Late 18th century belonged to Winterkasten gräflich erbachischen Office Reichenberg .
From the 19th century until today
Winterkasten becomes Hessian
The late 18th and early 19th centuries brought far-reaching changes to Europe. As a result of the Napoleonic Wars , the Holy Roman Empire (German Nation) was reorganized by the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803. This last set of laws of the old empire implemented the provisions of the Peace of Luneville and ushered in the end of the old empire. Under pressure from Napoléon , the Confederation of the Rhine was founded in 1806 , this happened with the simultaneous withdrawal of the member territories from the Reich. This led to the laying down of the imperial crown on August 6, 1806, with which the old empire ceased to exist. On August 14, 1806, Napoleon elevated the Landgraviate of Hessen-Darmstadt to the Grand Duchy , against joining the Confederation of the Rhine and placing high military contingents in France , otherwise he threatened an invasion. The County of Erbach was mediated by the Rhine Federation Act and was largely incorporated into the newly founded Grand Duchy of Hesse, including the "Reichenberg Office". The office was initially retained as a civil office.
After Napoleon's final defeat, the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15 also regulated the territorial situation for Hesse, and in 1816 provinces were established in the Grand Duchy. The area previously known as the “Principality of Starkenburg”, which consisted of the old Hessian territories south of the Main and the territories on the right bank of the Rhine that was added in 1803, was renamed “Province of Starkenburg” . In 1821/22, as part of a comprehensive administrative reform, the district bailiffs in the provinces of Starkenburg and Upper Hesse of the Grand Duchy were dissolved and district councils were introduced, with Winterkasten joining the district of Erbach in 1822 . As part of this reform, regional courts were also created, which were now independent of the administration. In view of the ownership structure, two district courts were created for the district council. The Freienstein Regional Court , based in Beerfelden, and the Michelstadt Regional Court , which also included Winterkasten. This reform also arranged the administrative administration at the municipal level. The mayor's office in Laudenau was also responsible for Winterkasten. According to the municipal ordinance of June 30, 1821, there were no longer appointments of mayors , but an elected local council, which was composed of a mayor, aldermen and council.
The statistical, topographical and historical description of the Grand Duchy of Hesse reports on Winterkasten in 1829:
“Winterkasten (L. Bez. Erbach) Lutheran Filialdorf; is 4 St. from Erbach in a very high valley, and belongs to the Count of Erbach-Erbach. The place has 60 houses and 480 inhabitants, the except 15 reform. are Lutheran. There are 3 grinding, 2 oil and 1 cutting mill. The area is usually covered with snow well into May. - The place appears in 773 in the Heppenheimer mark description, as well as in 1012 in the description of the Lorsch Wildbann in the Odenwald. It belonged partly to the Count of Erbach-Erbach and partly to the Baron von Gemmingen family. In 1826 the Baroness von Gemmingen ceded the patrimonial jurisdiction that had been granted to her to the state, and the latter again in 1828 to the Count of Erbach-Erbach. The latter part used to belong to the knightly canton of Odenwald. The whole thing was under Hess in 1806. Your Highness come. "
In 1832 the administrative units were further enlarged and districts were created, although the districts with territorial lordship places, such as the district of Erbach, were left out. In 1842 the tax system in the Grand Duchy was reformed and the tithe and the basic pensions (income from property) were replaced by a tax system of the kind that still exists today.
The latest and most thorough alphabetical lexicon of all localities in the German federal states from 1845 states:
"Winter box b. Erbach. - village, for evangel. Parish Neunkirchen, resp. Catholic parish Lindenfels belonging. 60 H. 480 evangel. E. - Grand Duchy of Hesse. - Starkenburg Province. - Erbach district council. - Michelstadt District Court. - Darmstadt Court of Justice. - The village of Winterkasten, located in a very high valley, belongs to the rulership of the Count of Erbach-Erbach. The place has 2 oil, 1 cutting and 3 grinding mills, and is not wrongly named, because the area is usually covered with snow until well into May. Incidentally, Winterkasten has only been part of the Grand Duchy since 1806. "
As a result of the March Revolution of 1848, with the "Law on the Relationships of the Classes and Noble Court Lords" of April 15, 1848, the special rights of the class were finally repealed. In addition, in the provinces, the districts and the district administration districts of the Grand Duchy were abolished on July 31, 1848 and replaced by "administrative districts", with Winterkasten coming to the administrative district of Erbach . Just four years later, in the course of the reaction era, they returned to the division into circles and Winterkasten became part of the newly created Lindenfels district .
The population and cadastral lists for Winterkasten recorded in December 1852 : Two public buildings (school and town hall); 60 houses with 84 families and 570 souls, 561 of them were Lutheran, 6 were Reformed and 3 were Catholic. The population also included children with 125 boys and 130 girls and adults with 148 men and 167 women. The employment was given as 21 farmers, 25 tradesmen, 6 with both at the same time, 30 day laborers and 33 servants. The district consisted of 2358 acres , of which 1130 acres were arable land, 454 acres of meadows and 644 acres of forest.
In the statistics of the Grand Duchy of Hesse, based on December 1867, the branch village Winterkasten with its own mayor's office, 64 houses, 513 inhabitants, the Lindenfels district, the Fürth district court, the Protestant parish Neunkirchen of the Reinheim deanery and the Catholic parish Lindenfels of the Heppenheim deanery specified. The mayor's office in Winterkasten was also responsible for the Schleich residential area (5 houses, 41 inhabitants).
After the Grand Duchy of Hesse had been part of the German Empire from 1871, a series of administrative reforms were decided in 1874. The state-specific rules of procedure as well as the administration of the districts and provinces were regulated by district and provincial assemblies. The new regulation came into force on July 12, 1874 and also decreed the dissolution of the Lindenfels and Wimpfen districts and the incorporation of Winterkasten into the Bensheim district .
Time of world wars
On August 1, 1914, the First World War broke out, which put an end to the positive economic development throughout the German Empire . When the armistice was signed after the German defeat on November 11, 1918, Winterkasten also had many casualties to mourn, while the war cost a total of around 17 million human lives. The end of the German Empire was thus sealed and the troubled times of the Weimar Republic followed, in which between 1921 and 1930 around 566,000 emigrants tried to escape the difficult conditions in Germany.
On January 30, 1933, Adolf Hitler became Chancellor, which marked the end of the Weimar Republic and the beginning of the National Socialist dictatorship. From November 9th to 10th, 1938, synagogues were burned down during the so-called Reichskristallnacht and the homes and businesses of Jewish families were devastated.
The Hessian provinces of Starkenburg, Rheinhessen and Upper Hesse were abolished in 1937 after the provincial and district assemblies were dissolved in 1936. On November 1, 1938, a comprehensive regional reform came into force at the district level. In the former province of Starkenburg, the Bensheim district was particularly affected, as it was dissolved and most of it was added to the Heppenheim district. The district of Heppenheim also took over the legal successor to the district of Bensheim and was given the new name Landkreis Bergstrasse .
On September 1, 1939, when German troops marched into Poland, the Second World War began , the effects of which were even more dramatic than the First World War and the number of victims estimated at 60 to 70 million people. In the final phase of the Second World War in Europe, the American units reached the Rhine between Mainz and Mannheim in mid-March 1945. On March 22nd, the 3rd US Army crossed the Rhine near Oppenheim and occupied Darmstadt on March 25th. In the first hours of March 26, 1945, American units crossed the Rhine near Hamm and south of Worms, from where they advanced on a broad front towards the Bergstrasse. On March 27, the American troops were in Lorsch, Bensheim and Heppenheim and a day later Aschaffenburg am Main and the western and northern parts of the Odenwald were occupied. The war in Europe ended with the unconditional surrender of all German troops, which came into effect on May 8, 1945 at 11:01 p.m. Central European Time.
The Grand Duchy of Hesse was a member state of the German Confederation from 1815 to 1866 and then a federal state of the German Empire . It existed until 1919, after the First World War, the Grand Duchy for was republican written People's State of Hesse . In 1945 after the end of the Second World War , the area of today's Hesse was in the American zone of occupation and by order of the military government, Greater Hesse was created , from which the state of Hesse emerged in its current borders.
Post-war and present
As the population figures from 1939 to 1950 show, Winterkasten also had to cope with many refugees and displaced persons from the former German eastern regions after the war .
In 1961 the size of the district was given as 635 hectares , of which 196 hectares were forest.
As part of the regional reform in Hesse , the previously independent municipality of Winterkasten was incorporated into Lindenfels on December 31, 1971 on a voluntary basis . For Winterkasten, as for all the towns incorporated into Lindenfels, a local district with a local advisory board and mayor was set up in accordance with the Hessian municipal code.
Courts in Hessen
With the formation of the regional courts in the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Michelstadt regional court was the court of first instance from 1822 . The patrimonial jurisdiction remained with the Baroness of Gemmingen until 1828, who then handed it over to the Grand Duchy of Hesse, which passed it on to the Counts of Erbach-Erbach. It was not until 1848, as a result of the March Revolution , that these rights were abolished with the “Law on the Relationships of Classes and Noble Court Lords” and passed to the Hessian state.
In the course of the reorganization of the judicial districts in the Starkenburg Province, which came into force on June 1, 1853 , extensive changes were made to the Michelstädter district court district and Winterkasten was assigned to the district court district of Fürth .
On the occasion of the introduction of the Courts Constitution Act with effect from October 1, 1879, as a result of which the previous grand-ducal Hessian regional courts were replaced by local courts in the same place, while the newly created regional courts now functioned as higher courts, the name was changed to the Fürth Local Court and assigned to the district of the Regional Court Darmstadt .
With effect from April 1, 1904 the districts Bockenrod, Eberbach, Erzbach, Frohnhofen, Groß-Gumpen, Klein-Gumpen, Laudenau, Ober-Klein-Gumpen, Ober-Easter, Pfaffen-Beerfurth, Reichelsheim, Rohrbach, Unter-Easter and Winterkasten separated from the district court district of Fürth and formed the basis of the district court district of Reichelsheim established at the same time . On July 1, 1968, the Reichelsheim District Court was dissolved and the Winterkasten community was added to the Fürth District Court district.
Territorial history and administration
The following list gives an overview of the territories in which Winterkasten was located and the administrative units to which it was subject:
- before 1806: Holy Roman Empire , County Erbach-Erbach , share in County Erbach, Reichenberg Office
- from 1806: Grand Duchy of Hesse , Principality of Starkenburg , Reichenberg Office (civil rule Erbach)
- from 1815: German Confederation , Grand Duchy of Hesse, Province of Starkenburg , Reichenberg Office
- from 1820: German Confederation, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Province of Starkenburg, Reichenberg Office (Patrimonial Court of Gemmingen)
- from 1822: German Confederation, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Starkenburg Province, Erbach district (Gemminger share 1827 Reinheim district , 1828 Erbach district)
- from 1848: German Confederation, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Erbach district
- from 1852: German Confederation, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Starkenburg Province, Lindenfels District
- from 1867: Grand Duchy of Hesse, Province of Starkenburg, Lindenfels district
- from 1871: German Empire , Grand Duchy of Hesse, Province of Starkenburg, Lindenfels district
- from 1874: German Empire, Grand Duchy of Hesse, Starkenburg Province, Bensheim district
- from 1918: German Empire, People's State of Hesse , Starkenburg Province, Bensheim district
- from 1938: German Empire, People's State of Hesse , Bergstrasse district (In the course of the regional reform in 1938 , the three Hessian provinces of Starkenburg, Rheinhessen and Upper Hesse are dissolved.)
- From 1945: American occupation zone , Greater Hesse , Darmstadt Region , Kreis Bergstraße
- from 1949: Federal Republic of Germany , State of Hesse , Darmstadt district, Bergstrasse district
- on December 31, 1970, Winterkasten was incorporated into the city of Lindenfels as a district.
|• 1829:||480 inhabitants, 60 houses|
|• 1867:||513 inhabitants, 64 houses|
|Winter box: Population figures from 1829 to 2012|
|Data source: Historical municipality register for Hesse: The population of the municipalities from 1834 to 1967. Wiesbaden: Hessisches Statistisches Landesamt, 1968. |
Further sources:; 2000 ; 2006 ; 2012 : City of Lindenfels from web archive. 2011 census
|• 1829:||465 Lutheran (= 96.88%) and 15 Reformed (= 3.12%) residents|
|• 1961:||657 Protestant (= 80.22%), 157 Catholic (= 19.17%) residents|
Local advisory board
There is a local district for Winterkasten (areas of the former municipality of Winterkasten) with a local advisory board and local mayor according to the Hessian municipal code . The local advisory board consists of nine members. After the local elections in 2016, it consists of five representatives from the LWG / CDU and four from the SPD . Alfons Moritz (CDU) has been the mayor since 1982.
coat of arms
On July 30, 1971, the municipality of Winterkasten was given a coat of arms with the following blazon : Under a red shield head covered with three silver six-pointed stars, a black barn (stylized) in gold.
Culture and sights
The "Evangelical Community Center Waldhufenkirche" of the Evangelical Church Community Winterkasten / Laudenau is located a little off the main road. It was completed in 1973 and includes a church hall on the upper floor and several meeting and function rooms. The main attraction is the "Resurrection Window" designed by Manfred Stumpf from the Peter Hermans glass workshop, which was created in 2005.
The annual snow race takes place on the sports field in Winterkasten. The task is to steer self-built racing cars and cars over an obstacle course and to survive it safely. The event attracts many spectators and visitors to the small town every year.
Economy and Infrastructure
On the premises of the Eleonorenklinik there is also an education center of the German Pension Insurance Hesse, which is used for training and further education purposes for employees of the German Pension Insurance Hesse.
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