Colliery Hermann (Selm)
|General information about the mine|
Hermann colliery yard 2005
|Funding / year||Max. 528,991 t|
|Information about the mining company|
|Employees||up to 3359|
|Start of operation||1909|
|End of operation||1926|
|Funded raw materials|
|Degradation of||Hard coal|
|Location||On the Buddenberg, Selm bycatch|
|District ( NUTS3 )||Unna|
|country||State of North Rhine-Westphalia|
The Hermann colliery was a hard coal mine in Selm - bycatch in the Unna district . The mine was popularly known as Zeche Elend. The reasons for this name were the high temperatures underground and the water inflows.
In the period from 1898 to 1907, test bores were carried out in the former district of Lüdinghausen . Larger hard coal deposits were suspected in this area. The content of the deposit was estimated at 380 million tons of hard coal . In the period from March 15, 1905 to April 11, 1906, the mining company Hermann mbH was founded. The seat of the company was in Bork. The Berechtsame the mine covered an area of 37.5 km 2 . Sinking of the first two shafts began in 1907. The sinking work for shaft Hermann 1 began in February and for shaft 2 in May. Both shafts were sunk in the village of Selm-Bycatch. Well 2 was next shaft 1 attached . In July of the same year, work began on building a colliery connection line on the Dortmund – Gronau line. The colliery connection line was to connect the mine with Bork station. In 1908, the shaft 1 reached at a depth of 799 meters - (732 m NN the) carbon . In the same year, the first level was set at a depth of 850 meters (- 783 m above sea level). The second level was set at a depth of 950 meters (-883 m above sea level). In the following year, shaft 2 reached the Carboniferous at a depth of 798 meters.
Operation of the mine
In 1909, coal mining began in shaft 1 . In the course of the year, an extensive workers' settlement , the so-called old colony, began to be built near the mine . In July of the same year there was a strike at the Hermann mine . With this strike, the workforce wanted to achieve better working conditions for bricklayers, construction workers and woodworkers in the mine. In 1910, shaft 2 reached a depth of 975 meters. With this depth, the shaft was now the deepest shaft in the entire Ruhr area. In 1911 the construction of a coking plant began. The coking plant was equipped with 80 coke ovens. In the same year the coking plant was put into operation. The coking plant produced up to 117,000 tons of coke . In 1912 the construction of two new shafts was planned. These shafts 3 and 4 were to be sunk in the Selm-Netteberge farming community. Due to the outbreak of the First World War , the shafts were not built. From 11 to 23 March there was another strike by the miners and there was unrest over wages. By 1914, the coking plant had been expanded by another 80 coke ovens to 160 coke ovens.
On January 11, 1915, five miners were killed in an illegal cable ride . In 1916 a die was sunk from the 2nd level. In 1918 the third level was set in the Gesenk at a depth of 1050 meters (- 983 m above sea level). Due to the war, the workforce was greatly reduced. To compensate for these losses, the workforce was increased with Russian and French prisoners of war. In addition, women were deployed to strengthen the workforce in day-to-day operations and in the coking plant. In 1919 the digging of shaft 1 began. Due to high water inflows, the western field was dammed in 1920 . In 1922, mining started again in the western field.
The last few years until the shutdown
In 1923, shaft 1 was penetrated with the third level . The shaft reached a final depth of 1078 meters. In its time, the Hermann colliery was the deepest conveyor system in the Ruhr area with the most difficult operating and mining conditions . The mining operations of the mine sometimes reached down to a depth of 1100 meters. The pit was very hot and humid, which resulted in extreme working conditions for the miners. The extreme heat in particular put a lot of strain on the miners. In addition to the high temperatures, there were also strong water inflows. All of this ultimately led to the mine becoming uneconomical. On May 14, 1926, an application was made to close the plant. On July 15 of the same year the mine was shut down. The shafts were covered in 1927, but they were never filled. Most of the daytime facilities were demolished. With the closure, over 3,300 people lost their jobs. For the municipality of Selm, this meant that 90% of the able-bodied people in the municipality became unemployed. As a result, Selm was a so-called “emergency community” for several years. The miners found a new job at the mines in Lünen , especially at the Minister Achenbach colliery . It was not until the 1950s that the town of Selm was able to recover from the economic catastrophe caused by the closure of the Hermann colliery.
Promotion and workforce
The first known production and workforce figures date from 1909, at that time 449 people were employed in the mine, producing 7248 tons of hard coal. In 1910, 78,730 tons of hard coal were extracted and the workforce was 755. In 1913 there were 2194 employees in the mine, the production in that year was 455,000 tons of hard coal. In 1914, 455,000 tons of hard coal were extracted and the workforce was 2,668. In 1915, 1547 employees produced 363,432 tons of hard coal. In 1918 this reduced workforce was increased by 240 prisoners of war. In 1920 the workforce had meanwhile increased again to 2,759 employees, and this year 426,391 tons of hard coal were extracted. The maximum production of the mine was achieved in 1925. This year the mine reached the half-million-ton mark for the first time. With a workforce of 3359 employees, a production of 528,991 tons of hard coal was produced this year. These are also the last known production and workforce figures for the mine.
Today the Hermann colliery is part of the route of industrial culture .
- Joachim Huske : The coal mines in the Ruhr area. Data and facts from the beginning to 2005 (= publications from the German Mining Museum Bochum 144) 3rd revised and expanded edition. Self-published by the German Mining Museum, Bochum 2006, ISBN 3-937203-24-9 .
- Peter Voss: The mines in the Unna district. Picture chronicle of the mines Freiberg, Caroline, Massener Tiefbau, Alter Hellweg, Königsborn, Monopol, Haus Aden, Prussia, Victoria, Minister Achenbach, Hermann, Werne, Stollen- und Kleinzechen . Regio-Verlag, Werne 1995, ISBN 3-929158-05-1 .
- Wilhelm Hermann, Gertrude Hermann: The old collieries on the Ruhr. 4th edition. Publishing house Karl Robert Langewiesche, successor Hans Köster, Königstein i. Taunus 1994, ISBN 3-7845-6992-7 .
- BGVR eV Accessed on October 24, 2018 .
- Joachim Nierhoff: Historical forays through the Kleinmünsterland. Sutton Verlag GmbH, Erfurt 2012, ISBN 978-3-95400-053-1 .
- Colliery Hermann and Old Colony on Route Industrial Culture (accessed on March 5, 2013)