|Benedict VIII, Emperor Heinrich II moves against Byzantine Apulia .||
Genji Monogatari of
the Murasaki Shikibu
is mentioned for the first time.
|Byzantium annexes the independent kingdom of Vaspurakan .|
|1021 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||469/470 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1564/65 (southern Buddhism); 1563/64 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||61st (62nd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||383/384 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||411/412 (turn of the year April 16/17)|
|Jewish calendar||4781/82 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1331/32 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1332/33 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1077/78 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Empire of the Fatimids
- February 13th : al-Hākim bi-amr Allāh , sixth caliph of the Fatimids and sixteenth imam of the Shiite Ismailis , disappears under unexplained circumstances. It is believed that he was murdered while riding. His successor will be his 15-year-old son az-Zāhir li-iʿzāz dīn Allāh, ignoring the succession plan provided by al-Hākim. The affairs of state are for the time being carried out by his aunt Sitt al-Mulk . This has several Suwaidī Bedouins executed for their alleged involvement in the murder of al-Hākim. It was not until March 27 , the festival of the sacrifice, that al-Hākim's disappearance was announced to the public and the new caliph was proclaimed. al-Hākim is later deified by the Druze .
Byzantine Empire / Italy
- September 11th : The battle of Shirimni between a Byzantine and a Georgian army near Shirimni on the banks of the Palakazio Lake ends with a victory of the Byzantines under Emperor Basil II , who holds the Georgians and their King Giorgi I deep within them Pushing back land.
- Autumn: At the request of Pope Benedict VIII , who feels oppressed by the Byzantine Empire under Basil II , Emperor Heinrich II undertakes another expedition to Italy . Three army groups, commanding the bishops Pilgrim of Cologne and Poppo of Aquileia in addition to the emperor , moved to southern Italy. Pandulf of Capua, Waimar of Salerno and other Italian princes who joined Byzantine rule surrender to Pilgrim. Pandulf is sentenced to death by the Princely Court and is supposed to be drowned in public in Bari . At Pilgrim's intercession, however, Heinrich ordered his exile in chains to the empire north of the Alps, an unusual punishment for that time. Heinrch moves on to Nordapulien and besieged the Byzantine fortress of Troy . But he cannot force the Byzantine troops into an open field battle.
- The Byzantine Empire annexed after negotiations in Trebizond the independent kingdom Vaspurakan in exchange for territories in Central Anatolia under Byzantine rule. Vaspurakan's last king, Seneqerim Johannes, moved to Sebasteia with 14,000 families in 1023 and founded the cities of Arapgir and Akn in Cappadocia . Seneqerim Johannes, as strategist of Cappadocia and titular king, manages his fiefdom in Cappadocia and Lesser Armenia from Sebasteia.
Other events in Europe
- Yahya al-Muzaffar from the Tujibid dynasty succeeds his father al-Mundir I after his death as the second emir in the Taifa kingdom of Saragossa . He continues the consolidation policy begun by his father in the emirate and promotes literature and the arts.
- Brno Castle is built.
First documentary mentions
- November 13 : Emperor Heinrich II donates all goods belonging to the Uraha ( Aurach ) court to the Bamberg Monastery , including the villages of Altrihesdorf ( Eltersdorf ), Crintilaha ( Gründlach ) and Waltgeresbrunnun ( Walkersbrunn ), which are mentioned for the first time on this occasion.
- The German towns of Hahausen , Hamersleben , Konradsburg , Mering , Wommen and Zamdorf are mentioned for the first time in various documents by Emperor Heinrich.
- The Apulian city of Modugno is mentioned for the first time in a document.
- Vitebsk is first mentioned in a document.
Culture and society
- March 16 : After almost four years, the Japanese era ( Nengō ) Kannin ends . It will be replaced by the Jian era the following day .
The psychological novel Genji Monogatari ( The Tale of Prince Genji ) receives its first mention. The Monogatari - a collective term for novelistic, fictional narratives - which has a firm position in the Japanese has literature and occasionally as the first novel is considered at all, is the Japanese court lady Murasaki Shikibu (ca. 978-1014) from the Heian period attributed .
- April 21 : Wolbodo dies. Durand succeeds him as Bishop of Liege .
- June 29th : Pilgrim becomes Archbishop of Cologne . He succeeds Heribert , who died on March 16 .
- September: Aribo becomes Archbishop of Mainz, succeeding Erkanbald , who died on August 17th .
- October 1 : The Merseburg Cathedral is inaugurated after six years of construction in the presence of the imperial couple Heinrich II and Kunigunde .
- Anastasia of Kiev , Queen of Hungary († 1096 )
- Eudokia Makrembolitissa , Byzantine Empress († 1096 )
- Wang Anshi , Chinese poet, philosopher, reformer, statesman and chancellor († 1086 )
- 1020 /1021: Solomon ibn Gabirol , Jewish philosopher in al-Andalus (died at. 1070 )
- around 1021: Otto , Count of Savoy and Margrave of Susa-Turin († 1060 )
Date of death secured
- February 13 : al-Hākim bi-amr Allāh , caliph of the Egyptian Fatimids (* 985 )
- March 5th : Arnulf of Reims , Archbishop of Reims
- March 16 : Heribert von Köln , Archbishop of Cologne, Chancellor of Germany and Italy (* around 970 )
- April 21 : Wolbodo , Bishop of Liège
- June 5th : Balderich von Drenthe , Graf im Düffelgau and Graf von Drenthe (* around 965 )
- August 17th : Erkanbald , Archbishop of Mainz
- November 3 : Abū ʿAbd ar-Rahmān as-Sulamī , Persian Islamic mystic (* 937 )
- December 20 : Walther , Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt
Exact date of death unknown
- Fujiwara no Akimitsu , Japanese civil servant (* 944 )
- Irmentraud , abbess of the free worldly women's monastery in Buchau
- al-Mundir I , Emir of the Taifa Kingdom of Saragossa and founder of the Tujibid dynasty