II. Viennese mountain spring line

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Site plan of the Vienna high spring pipelines

The II. Wiener Hochquellenleitung (originally: II. Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Hochquellenleitung) was built until 1910 to reinforce the I. Wiener Hochquellenleitung and brings drinking water from the Hochschwab area in Styria to Vienna .

Reason for establishment

In the absence of a functioning sewer system in the city of Vienna, the quality of the groundwater that was used via domestic wells decreased more and more and caused epidemics again and again. Various water pipes from the south and west of Vienna, some of which were privately owned by aristocrats, were just as unable to meet the needs of the population of Vienna for safe drinking water as the Albertine water pipe or the later Kaiser Ferdinand water pipe .

Although this was the city's first area-wide water pipe and initially also offered drinking water of good quality, both the amount of water supplied and the quality of the water fell, so that this water itself became a health risk. Ultimately, the City of Vienna was forced to build a first high spring pipeline from the Rax and Schneeberg area , which was supposed to meet the requirements in terms of both quantity and quality.

The quality corresponded to the set requirements, but in terms of quantity, this I. Vienna High Spring Pipeline often fell far short of expectations, especially during the winter months, so that those responsible had to feverishly try to make the missing amount of water available to the population of Vienna.

Preliminary work

In addition to the plans to supply the 1st Viennese high spring pipeline with additional spring water and thus to remedy the water shortage in Vienna, the possibility of building a groundwater plant for the extraction of usable water in the Vienna area was also examined. These efforts were stopped in 1896.

Studies were also carried out on a second high spring line. Possible source areas were sought in Lower Austria in the catchment areas of the Traisen , Ybbs and Erlauf , in Styria the Enns and Salza were explored and in Upper Austria the upper reaches of the Steyr .

In order to be able to evaluate the productivity of the selected spring areas and compare them with one another, the discharge of the springs was measured regularly over several years. Based on the experience gained with the I. Vienna High Spring Pipeline, the main focus was on the winter months, as the high mountain springs - in contrast to the sources in the low mountain range - had the lowest productivity during this time.

A first report on the possibilities of expanding the first Viennese high spring pipeline or on the status of current studies on the construction of a second water pipeline was presented to the Vienna City Council in mid-June 1894.

After further productivity measurements, only the catchment area of ​​the Traisen and the Salza area remained in the shortlist.

The Traisen (Hohenberger Traisen, Türnitztraisen, Gölsen) was eliminated in spite of sufficient water supply and the relatively short pipeline length of around 135 kilometers to Vienna because of the numerous industrial plants that required the water itself and the associated legal disputes and severance payments, if this project is actually implemented wanted to enforce.

Wild Alps in Styria

In the Salza region, things were simpler from a legal point of view. Apart from the right to wood drift and the rafting practiced by Palfau downstream, the water of the Salza between Gußwerk and the confluence with the Enns was not used economically except by a few rural grinding and sawmills.

The Siebensee springs, the Kläffer spring, the Brunngraben spring, the Höllbach spring, the Schreierklamm and the Säusenstein spring were examined in detail with regard to their bedding, but also for their chemical composition.

With an expected lowest yield of 177,500 m³ drinking water per day, an economic calculation showed that despite the greater effort involved in building a water pipe from the Salza region, the water coming from here per unit of quantity would come more cheaply than that from the Traisen region.

After taking office, Karl Lueger put the previously more theoretical investigations into practical implementation. On June 28, 1898, the city council of Vienna dealt with the proposals and agreed to the construction of another high spring pipeline from the Salza region. However, since the city council demanded a minimum of 200,000 m³ of drinking water instead of the previously planned 177,500 m³ of drinking water, additional sources had to be found. The Pfannbauer spring was found to be the most powerful additional spring, but it was ultimately connected to the I. Vienna High Spring Pipeline by means of a tunnel to the east.

After the final technical preparatory work had been completed, the municipal council negotiated the general project. Three fundamental resolutions were passed on March 27, 1900:

  • A second high spring pipeline is to be built, with the help of which water from the springs located in the Salza region and from possible other springs should be conducted to Vienna.
  • The Viennese city building authority was commissioned to work out such a project with a capacity of 200,000 m³ of water per day.
  • The financing of the building had to be secured.

As a result of decisions in principle by the Vienna City Council on June 22, 1898 and in 1899 by the Vienna City Council to acquire the Siebensee area in Wildalpen , the “ Commission for the implementation of the construction of a second high spring pipeline and the Buildings for the completion of the Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Hochquellenleitung ”founded. Their task was to relieve the city council, which is concerned with current business and other important projects, in this complex matter.

After only three meetings, the commission was dissolved due to a change in the municipal statute and replaced by the “ Municipal Council Committee for the implementation of the construction of a second high spring pipeline and the buildings for the completion of the Kaiser Franz Josef high spring pipeline ” with similar powers.

Planning work

Even in the first project drafts by the Vienna City Building Authority , it was assumed that the end point of the new high spring pipeline in Vienna should be as high as possible in order to be able to supply the higher-lying districts of Vienna with as few lifts as possible. This initially resulted in an altitude of around 320 meters, so that the Kreuzbühel near the Rohrerhütte in Neuwaldegg was initially considered as the location for the final reservoir.

In order to be able to combine this goal with the desire for a purely gravitational pipeline, the planners were forced not to run the route in the valley, but along the slopes. In order to avoid long journeys through transverse valleys, numerous culverts and aqueducts had to be built. In order to get from one valley to the next, so-called watershed tunnels were built.

After a thorough survey of the route through the k. u. k. The military geography institute and various civil engineers, some of whom had no idea about these multiple measurements, were able to start the alignment in April 1900. In the autumn of 1901, work began on marking out the route determined on the basis of the land survey.

A cost estimate prepared on the basis of the work that had gone so far resulted in a total of 90 million crowns. In May 1903 the finished plans were exhibited to the public in the ballroom of the Vienna City Hall .

The planning supervision and later the overhead management of the construction was carried out by the Viennese city building authority Karl Sykora .

Land acquisition

Already with the first Kaiser-Franz-Josef-Hochspellwasserleitung it had proven to be worthwhile not only to acquire the springs and the water rights, but also the associated catchment and precipitation areas in order not to have to rely on the cooperation and benevolence of the landowners for spring protection .

The first such purchase agreement was signed between the City of Vienna and the Admont Benedictine Abbey on May 1, 1899 and approved by the City Council of Vienna on May 5 of the same year. The subject of the contract was the acquisition of the Siebensee area near Wildalpen (Rollersee, Lindnersee, Kesselsee, Hartlsee, ... including numerous water-rich source veins).

Further properties and springs followed by 1902. Contract partners were small farmers, from whom the entire property often had to be bought, as well as prominent large landowners (e.g. Johann Graf von Meran, Robert Herzog von Parma , the Steiermärkische Religionsfonds and the kuk Ärar ).

In the numerous land transactions , the many associated pasture and forest servitute as well as forest deletion rights had to be taken into account. Three properties acquired in Brunngraben, Weichselboden and Wildalpen were so extensive that they were self-hunted. The City of Vienna also had to take over the maintenance of three local water pipes in Wildalpen and one in Weichselboden .

The property in the Salzatal was initially still administered by the organs of the Arar and the St. Lambrecht Abbey against reimbursement of costs. After setting up its own forest administration based in Weichselboden, the City of Vienna took on this task itself.


The source of the well
Kläfferquelle near Wildalpen

These sources are among the best known and most productive sources of the Second Vienna High Spring Line:

  • Brunngrabenquelle : The version of the Brunngrabenquelle in the municipality of Gußwerk (until the name of the municipality was changed in 1908: Aschbach) and its connection to the Second Vienna High Spring Pipeline was completed in 1919. The minimum daily pouring is around 21,600 m³ of water per day.
  • Höllbachquelle : It is located in the so-called "Vorderen Hölle", a valley between the Zeller Staritzen, the Ringkamp and the Mieskogel. The minimum daily pouring is around 25,600 m³ per day. It was completely connected to the Second Vienna High Spring Pipeline in 1912.
  • Kläffer spring (also: Kläfferbrünne spring): The Kläffer spring in the Salzatal, about 13 km from Wildalpen, is the most productive spring of the Viennese waterworks and one of the largest karst springs in Central Europe. The mean spring discharge is around 4790 l / s, at the time the snow melts it is around 10,000 liters of water per second. The minimum daily discharge is around 54,000 m³. To get to the source, a tunnel was driven about 90 meters deep into the mountain.
  • Siebenseequellen : The minimum daily pouring is about 37,000 m³.
  • Schreierklamm springs : The minimum daily pouring is around 13,000 m³ daily.
  • Seisensteinquelle : The Seisensteinquelle rises at the foot of the 1306 meter high Seisenstein. The introduction of the spring with a minimum daily pouring of 8,000 to 10,000 m³ of spring water, for which the water law permit had been in place since 1906, took place on the occasion of the arid winter of 1928/1929. It was the first source of the Second Vienna High Spring Pipeline that had to be artificially lifted.

Consensus on water law

The granting of the water law consensus necessary for the operation of the high spring pipeline became a complicated process due to the participation of two states (Styria and Lower Austria) with two partly very different state water law laws. This process began on May 17, 1899 after the conclusion of the sales negotiations with the Admont Abbey. With the purchase of the other sources, further preliminary projects were submitted to the district authorities in Liezen and Bruck an der Mur .

In order to speed up the process, the procedure was initially analogous to the Railway Act and the fundamental question was clarified as to whether the construction of a water pipe for 200,000 m³ per day is even permissible from the public point of view.

The greatest opposition to the construction project came on the occasion of the committee hearing held between January 29 and 31, 1902, from the municipality of Palfau and 48 small forest owners who floated their wood on the Salza to a cellulose factory, as well as the owner of that cellulose factory in Weißenbach an der Enns , who Alleged loss of earnings. The resulting legal dispute over the water consensus was only decided by a judgment of the Administrative Court on October 31, 1905 in favor of the City of Vienna.

The plans of the so-called “ Salzasyndikat ” caused additional problems during this period .

In 1901 it published plans for the construction of a small electric railway in the Salzatal. This should lead from Großreifling to Gußwerk, which would have led to some conflicts of interest. Another project of the Salzasyndikat in 1902 was the construction of 14 dams in the Salzatal and some side valleys between the Halltal and the Enns to generate electricity. Here, too, the city of Vienna was forced to protect its interests without being against the building in principle. Construction work at the same time would have caused problems here.

What was particularly delicate about both projects for the City of Vienna was the fact that the Styrian Religious Fund, with which they were still negotiating the purchase of sources and the associated source areas, was also very interested.

Building consensus

The first part of the second spring water pipeline, for which the city of Vienna in the kk Bezirkshauptmannschaft Scheibbs on October 24, 1901 the building permit petitioned was the studs in Göstling . The permit was granted on November 23rd of the same year with the condition that no rights were derived from it with regard to the ongoing procedure for the consensus under water law. Construction work on this tunnel began on December 7, 1901.

The issuing of building permits for further construction sections (undercutting the Kläfferbrünne, tunnel through the Grubberg, ...) were granted under the same conditions.

A key question when the building consensus was granted for the aqueduct section was which authority was actually responsible.

The political districts of the time were affected by the route

Since these two laws contradicted the question of competence, the Imperial and Royal Agriculture Ministry was asked for clarification. This assigned the case to the Liezen district authority, as most of the springs were located in their area and the connection of the main line with the branch lines from the Siebensee spring, the Schreyerklamm spring and the Säusenstein spring were also located here.

The land register surveys represented a lot of work

  • 2 land panels (Vienna and Graz ) and
  • 10 judicial districts (Mariazell, Sankt Gallen, Gaming, Scheibbs, Mank, Kirchberg an der Pielach, Sankt Pölten, Neulengbach, Purkersdorf and Liesing).

Edit who had to land registers of 74 Katastralgemeinden with 832 land registry deposits of approximately 2,500 Katastralparzellen.

After the problems affecting their district had been clarified in the respective district authorities, the representatives of the respective districts were able to meet in Liezen in February 1906 and conclude the license application in favor of the city of Vienna.


1900 to 1910

The laying of the foundation stone for the new high spring pipeline, for which Mayor Lueger had obtained permission in an audience with Emperor Franz Joseph I to name it II. Emperor Franz Josef high spring pipeline, took place on August 11, 1900, the 70th birthday of the Emperor. The location of the laying of the foundation stone was the Poschenhöhe in Wildalpen.

The second Kaiser Franz Josefs-Hochquellenleitung was not supposed to be completed until 1911, but in both winter 1908 and summer 1909 there was a great lack of water in Vienna. As a result, construction work was accelerated and on October 2, 1908, the Vienna City Council decided to allow the opening to take place on December 2, 1910 - the anniversary of the accession of Emperor Franz Joseph I.

For the construction of the high spring pipeline, in contrast to the planning phase, the route was divided into 12 sections with a total of 24 construction lots instead of 6 sections. Seats of the individual building sections were in

For economic reasons, the work on the source catchment was excluded from contracting out to construction companies, as were the pipeline sections, which mainly run in tunnels, and the watershed tunnels of more than one kilometer in length. These were built by the Viennese city building authority on their own, as were later various canal constructions , large aqueducts , the siphons under Salza, Ybbs and Erlauf and the culverts under the Lechnergraben and the Gamingbach. In total, all buildings between the Weichselboden and St. Georgen an der Leys were produced by directorial work.

Only the construction lots for the 86.8 kilometer stretch between St. Georgen an der Leys and Mauer were publicly tendered .

In addition to the work on the high spring pipeline itself, additional buildings were built. Roads had to be built repeatedly for the various construction phases. With the approval of Baron Albert Salomon Anselm von Rothschild, a temporary hydropower plant was built in the Steinbachtal , which supplied the electricity for the drilling machines of Siemens & Halske AG used in tunnel construction .

In addition, numerous field railways were built for the transport of building materials and the removal of overburden . These field railways with the various gauges of 500, 600 and 750 millimeters were driven electrically (when the tunnel was built through the Göstlinger Alpe), by steam and motor-driven locomotives, but also by horse-drawn trains and, over short distances, with human power. In order to be able to follow the water pipeline route, striking wooden bridges often had to be built, such as those over the Gansbachgraben near Oberndorf an der Melk or the Eichgraben aqueduct, which were removed after the completion of the corresponding construction section. Also used were funiculars or cable cars as those on the Gütenbachtal.

On the so-called Regiestrecke, the section of the route built by the Vienna City Building Department, construction work began with Karl Lueger's first explosive shot in the Steinbachtal near Göstling on December 7, 1901 - long before the building consensus for the entire project was granted on February 22, 1906.

The first tender for the first three construction lots could only be issued on April 3, 1906 after this consensus had been granted. A deadline of 28 months was set for the completion of this 19,077 meter long route.

Further awards were made on June 8, 1907 (4 construction  lots ), December 27, 1907 (2 construction lots) and most recently on June 25, 1908 (one construction lot). The construction companies F. Marinelli & L. Faccanoni, Leo Arnoldi, D. Rudolf Mayreder & Peter Kraus and Heinrich Sikora were involved.

The opening of the II. Kaiser Franz Josef-Hochquellenleitung by Emperor Franz Josef I took place on December 2, 1910 at a banquet, to which the Mayor of Vienna Josef Neumayer, who succeeded Karl Lueger, who died in March of the same year, attended 1,200 guests on the occasion of the completion - Politicians, business representatives as well as members of companies and officials who were significantly involved in the construction - had invited. On the occasion of this opening, the operation of the two fountains in the town hall park was switched to water from the aqueduct that had just opened.


Watershed tunnels
: In order to keep the length of the route short, numerous watershed tunnels had to be built from one valley to the next:

  • Tunnel through Hochkogel (1820 m long),
  • Tunnel through the Röcker (2072 m),
  • Tunnel through the Göstlinger Alpe (Salza and Ybbs area, 5370 m),
  • Tunnel through the Grubberg (Ybbs and Erlauf area, 3385 m),
  • Hochpyhrastollen (Erlauf and milking area, 2307 m),
  • Umbachkogel tunnel near Kettenreith (1290 m),
  • Rametzbergstollen (Mank and Pielach area, 2481 m),
  • Trainster tunnel (Stössing and Laabenbach area, 2250 m),
  • the tunnels between Eichgraben and Bierbach (together 2098 m),
  • Tunnel through Zwickelberg near Rekawinkel (2887 m) and the
  • Tunnel through the long side (Wolfsgraben – Laab im Walde, 1912 m).
Aqueduct in Gaming
Lueger Bridge in Neubruck (St. Anton / Jessnitz, Scheibbs)

Aqueducts, siphons and pipe bridges: The planners tried to keep aqueducts and pipe bridges as small as possible in number and size because of the high construction and maintenance costs by extending valleys and ditches. In the end 100 of these structures were erected, only a few of them are longer than 100 meters and none of them are higher than 24 meters.

The longest of these 100 aqueducts is the Lueger Bridge in the Scheibbs district of Neubruck. Actually, the Jeßnitz valley near St. Anton an der Jeßnitz was supposed to be crossed underground using a siphon. At the request of the owner of the nearby Piwonka rubber band factory, who was friends with Karl Lueger, the 271 m long and 22 m high Lueger Bridge with a 30 m wide central arch was finally built.

Pfalzau aqueduct near Pressbaum
Reisingergraben / Dorotheerwald aqueduct in Kalksburg (Vienna-Liesing)

Just like the aqueducts on the 1st Vienna High Spring Pipeline, all of the 2nd Vienna High Spring Pipeline are listed.

Other such structures for crossing valleys are for example:

1910 to 1938

On June 8, 1912, the Vienna City Council decided, as the workforce was still available, to initiate the Brunngraben spring immediately. This source was the last major source that could be fed to the conduit without technical aids. This work was not completed until 1923.

Later on, the connection to the pipeline at the Kläffer spring was redesigned so that the water from the Brunngraben spring and the Höllbach spring was only fed into the original duct after the Kläffer spring. This enabled the water from the Kläffer spring to be drained off, should it be clouded by heavy rain, without losing the drinking water from the other two springs. This work was completed on October 23, 1924.

The water pipeline power plant Gaming  (I), a run-of-river power plant , was built between 1923 and 1926 ( ObjectID: 19086f1 ).

The reason for the initiation of the Seisenstein spring was the low level of discharge from the springs in the harsh winter of 1928/1929. In order to bring the spring water into the pipe, it was necessary to build a pump house with a centrifugal pump and a water pipeline power plant on the Poschenhöhe . The work was completed at the end of 1930, and the pumping station went into operation for the first time on March 13, 1931.

The first major renovation cases of this period concerned three tunnel structures in the Scheibbs area. First of all, the sloping canal near Neustift (Scheibbs), which was repeatedly damaged by landslides, had to be replaced by a 977-meter-long tunnel completed in 1928. The next tunnel to be rehabilitated was the one in the Upper Pyhra. The new construction of the approximately 1200 m long tunnel was completed in 1934.

A large number of new buildings between the wars in the headwaters related to the construction of water pipeline power plants. The electrical power generated here was mainly used to operate water supply systems, but it was also given to energy supply companies.

1938 to 1945 (end of the war)

In an application to the Reich Governor of Styria on November 29, 1943, the Vienna Waterworks asked for permission to follow up on the source of the Brunngraben. The construction work, which also included a pump house, was completed in 1946. Further sources (Höllbachquellen, Kläfferquelle, Schreyerbachquelle, ...) followed.


On April 7, 1945, members of the SS prepared to blow up a supply line of the Second Vienna High Spring Pipeline at the Preindlsteg over the Vienna River . However, the implementation of the project could be prevented.

1945 (end of the war) until today

The construction of the western motorway between Vienna and Salzburg also affected the second Viennese spring water pipeline, as there were crossroads in four sections:

  • Crossing point with Laabenbachdüker in Mannersdorf
  • Crossing point in Kleinberg above Altlengbach
  • Crossing point in Steinhäusl near Altlengbach
  • Crossings and parallel routes between Dürrwien and Brentenmais near Pressbaum.

The Bihaberg tunnel south of Pressbaum is one of the most complex security structures of this time . According to the plans, the new motorway and the high spring pipeline would have run parallel to each other in a section threatened by landslides, and a tunnel was built for the water pipeline.

Another problematic case was the Austrian gallery near Scheibbs. Damage caused by landslides since 1927 led to the partial reconstruction of the tunnel (the new tunnel was opened on December 4, 1970).

The expansion of the Erlauftalbundesstraße at the Kienberg-Gaming station (around 1980) made it necessary to build a further tunnel.

In the 2010s, rock shifting occurred in the tunnel near Scheibbs , so that the tunnel, which is around 2.4 meters in diameter, has to be rehabilitated. To do this, a bypass tunnel was blasted so that repairs could be carried out safely and without damage.

Construction work in Vienna

The future higher drinking water supply, which could now also reach higher areas of the city by its own means, and the associated changes in water pressure, made changes in the pipeline network just as necessary as it made it possible to build additional water tanks to store the water and to compensate for consumption peaks.

The planning required for this was based on the assumption that the mountain spring water that would be sent to Vienna in the future would be sufficient for around 3,380,000 people - a figure that, according to the calculations at the time, would be reached around 1940.

From the population of Vienna would

  • around 2,482,100 people in the low zone,
  • around 702,500 people in the central zone,
  • 116,300 people in the high zone and
  • 79,100 people live in the maximum zone and accordingly the water tanks should also be distributed over the various pressure zones.

Container construction

Container Hackenberg

The Rosenhügel reservoir lost its position as the highest water reservoir in Vienna as a result of the Second Vienna High Spring Pipeline.

For the second Kaiser-Franz-Josef high spring pipeline, the

  • Transition chamber and the pressure relief chamber in Mauer at the end of the 2nd high spring pipeline
  • Steinhof water tank (11,500 m³),
  • Quarry water tank (4,700 m³),
  • Gallitzinstrasse water tank (12,500 m³),
  • Hackenberg water tank (12,500 m³),
  • Michaelerberg water tank (4,500 m³²),
  • Dreimarkstein water tank (500 m³),
  • Hungerberg water tank (28,500 m³),
  • Krapfenwaldgasse water tank (4,000 m³),
  • Cobenzl water tank (1,000 m³) and the
  • Kahlenberg water tank (1,000 m³) erected.
Salmannsdorf pumping station

When planning the tanks, one started with the idea of ​​determining the storage volume of the tanks in the high and maximum zones with the one to two-day requirement of the areas they serve. A reserve was added to the high reservoirs Steinhof, Hackenberg and Krapfenwaldgasse for the supply of those water tanks in the upper zone that were dependent on them. On the other hand, the container volume was increased with the length of the supply line, as the longer the line length, the greater the risk and probability of a breakage.

The supply of the Breitensee and Schafberg containers was now possible through natural pressure, so that the Breitensee pumping station could be shut down. The Wienerberg pumping station with the Favoriten water tower also lost its importance. In return, in order to be able to supply those parts of the city that were higher than 260 m, new lifts had to be built.

The highest container quarry (400 m) was supplied by a lift at Steinhof, the Michaelerberg (370 m) and Dreimarkstein (425 m) containers from the Salmannsdorf lift and the Cobenzl (410 m) and Kahlenberg (500 m) containers from a third lift in the Krapfenwaldgasse.

As on the outer route, field railways were also used to transport materials during the construction of the water tanks. Due to the mostly relatively short distances, however, human labor served as the drive. In order to be able to supply the construction site for the Hackenberg container on the Hackenberg with building material, a funicular was built from Krottenbachstrasse.

Between 1935 and 1938, Wall was on the site of near the transition chamber Lainzer Tiergarten the water tank Lainz built with a capacity of 143,620 cubic meters.

Pipe testing institute

On May 21, 1907, the so-called pipe testing institute was built on a site near the Penzing train station of the Kaiserin-Elisabeth-Bahn in Vienna. This was ready for operation from the end of June 1908, the opening took place with the delivery of the first pipes on July 16 of the same year.

During this time, the site was leveled, a machine house, a gate valve hall, a workshop and depot building as well as the one-story administration building were built.

Here, the pipes delivered by rail were put on a field railway by means of a crane, which was put into operation on October 10, 1908 - on the 26,500 m² of the pipe testing institute a total length of 1,100 m of grooved rails as well as around 15 turntables, a track crossing, a scale and two Switches - loaded, tested for strength using three pipe presses and a device for testing elbows and stored temporarily until further use.

It is not known when the pipe testing institute ceased operations. The pipe warehouse of the Wiener Wasserwerke existed at this address until about 1990, then it was moved to Guntramsdorf (Lower Austria).

Aqueduct power plants

The water supply to the five Höchst reservoirs in Vienna was provided from the start by means of electrically operated pumps with a total of 327 hp. The electrical power required for this was generated in a water pipeline power plant connected to the Krapfenwaldgasse water reservoir and distributed via its own lines. In 1914, 2.8% of the electricity generated in Vienna was produced here. For the year 1927, seven million kilowatt hours of electricity are cited that were generated in the water pipeline power plants in Vienna alone.

The largest drinking water power plant of the Second Vienna High Spring Pipeline is the Gaming water pipeline power plant . The idea for the construction of the power plant comes from the time of the construction of the water pipeline, but at that time it was initially discarded due to a lack of connection to a pipeline network and only realized with the construction of the Opponitz power plant . In 1990 it was expanded to include the Kraftwerk Gaming II.

As a result of the construction of the first four drinking water power plants in drainage pipes from the Siebensee and Schreierklamm springs, the Wildalpen Electricity Cooperative (" Light Cooperative ") was founded in Wildalpen in 1930 .

After the end of the Second World War, the expansion of the water pipeline power plants continued.

The youngest water pipeline power plant is located in Mauer in the 23rd Viennese district of Liesing at the end of the 2nd high spring pipeline. On September 7, 2006, the power plant built in cooperation between MA 31 and Siemens AG Austria, which supplies electricity for around 1,000 households, was opened. The power plant is operated by the specially founded company " Hochquellenstrom Vertriebs GmbH ", and it is financed from the proceeds from the sale of the electrical energy generated here.

The City of Vienna has a total of 13 hydropower plants, seven of which are operated by MA 31 in the Wildalpen area. The exact distribution between the 1st and 2nd Vienna High Spring Pipelines can unfortunately not be determined. Around 65 million kilowatt hours are generated per year, which corresponds to the electricity needs of a city like St. Pölten .

Electricity supply agreement

On February 1, 1932, an agreement was concluded between the Wiener Wasserwerke and Wiener Städtische E-Werken on the operation and maintenance of high-voltage systems and the mutual supply of electrical energy. In 1950 a new agreement was concluded, adapted to the general circumstances, which was terminated by mutual agreement on December 31, 1968, although electricity supplies continued.

However, there was no new contract because the Wiener Wasserwerke had found a new partner in the municipality of Mariazell . From December 16, 1971, electricity was no longer supplied to the Opponitz power plant and on to Vienna, but to Mariazell.

Source protection

In addition to the Viennese waterworks as the property owner, the Wildalpen forest administration of MA 49 - Forest Office and Agricultural Company of the City of Vienna is responsible for spring protection in the Wildalpen area . The area of ​​around 14,400 hectares to be looked after extends mainly east of the Wildalpen between the Salza and the Hochschwab plateau to the Weichselboden. In addition, there are the Buchberg districts south of the Hochschwab area and Brunngraben in the Gußwerk area.

In 2007 hurricane Kyrill triggered the largest assistance mission to date - the assistance mission Wildalpen-Schreierquelle - of the Austrian Armed Forces for the federal state of Vienna, when there was a risk that a mass increase in the bark beetle in the damaged wood could spread to the healthy tree population and thus destroy the important spring protection forests.


Telephone lines were set up by the City of Vienna when the second high spring pipeline was set up to facilitate the transmission of messages between the headquarters in Vienna and the various supervisory posts.

Today MA 31 - Wiener Wasserwerke has an approximately 500 km long ring-shaped radio link with 29 stations along the two high spring lines. The starting and end point of this system is the water tower in Favoriten, which is connected to the Grabnergasse administrative building in Mariahilf, the headquarters of MA 31, with a fiber optic cable.



The distance from the source area to Vienna is 183 km. The gradient is around 2.1 ‰ on average, but only 0.22 ‰ over long stretches. The duct itself has an average clear width of 192 cm and a clear height of 208 cm.

In 1927 the second Viennese spring pipeline consisted of

  • 83.2 kilometers of canal,
  • 70.7 kilometers of tunnel pipeline,
  • 20.6 kilometers of culvert,
  • 1.6 kilometers of pipeline,
  • 4.4 kilometers of aqueducts,
  • 1.7 kilometers of canal bridges and
  • 0.3 kilometers of pipe bridges.

However, the length of the pipeline network changed due to the construction of various new galleries and further developments since 1927.

Water supplies

In 2007, the second high spring pipeline supplied a total of 75.4 million m³ of drinking water, that is 53.05% of the annual requirement, to Vienna. 61.87 million m³ of drinking water or 43.53% was supplied by the 1st high spring pipeline, the rest (4.8 million m³ or 3.42%) comes from the various groundwater works.

Maximum daily drinking water deliveries:

  • 1. High spring pipeline 220,000 m³
  • 2. High spring pipeline 217,000 m³
  • Lobau groundwater works 80,000 m³
  • Moosbrunn waterworks 62,000 m³
  • further smaller water dispensers 10,000 m³

With an average daily consumption of around 390,000 m³ drinking water deliver to Vienna:

  • 1. High spring pipeline around 180,000 m³
  • 2. High spring pipeline around 210,000 m³

Water quality

According to the Drinking Water Ordinance, Federal Law Gazette number 304/2001 in the current version, Wiener Wasserwerke is obliged to publish pesticide and nitrate values. The control of the concentration of these pollutants in the spring water was suspended for five years by the food supervisory authority according to the decision of MA 59 / II-1260/07, as the corresponding values ​​have been below the limit of quantification for years.

Analysis date: June 8, 2015
examined on found: unit
Colony-forming units (CFU / milliliter at 22 degrees Celsius incubation temperature) 0
Colony-forming units (CFU / milliliter at 37 degrees Celsius incubation temperature) 0
Coliform bacteria / 250 milliliters 0
Escherichia coli / 250 milliliters 0
Electric conductivity 220 (Micro Siemens / centimeter)
PH value 7.95
Total hardness 6.5 Degree of German hardness
Carbonate hardness 6.4 Degree of German hardness
Total organic carbon 0.82 Milligrams per liter
ammonium <0.01 Milligrams per liter
nitrite 0.008 Milligrams per liter
nitrate 3.0 Milligrams per liter
chloride <1.0 Milligrams per liter
sulfate 2.8 Milligrams per liter
fluoride <0.2 Milligrams per liter

In general, tap water in Vienna has a water hardness of 6 to 11 degrees German hardness. Only in districts 11, 20, 21 and 22, which are occasionally supplied by the Lobau groundwater works, the hardness can rise to 16 ° dH.

Water taxes

The second Viennese mountain spring pipeline primarily supplies the city of Vienna. However, high spring water is given to Styrian and Lower Austrian municipalities on the basis of water supply contracts.

In part, this water donation took place on the basis of water law comparisons with individual landowners and municipalities, but also as a result of applications to the municipality of Vienna. The first such agreements were concluded in 1913 with Atzgersdorf, Liesing, Mauer, Inzersdorf, Siebenhirten and Erlaa, and further agreements followed.

"Water tax"

The introduction of a levy on high spring water, which came from the Styrian springs of the two Viennese high spring pipelines - i.e. mainly the second high spring pipeline - by the state of Styria, caused a political stir in 1996.

The Viennese provincial government rejected this plan, which would have cost the city around 330 million schillings, with the arguments that they would have to pay for the utilization of the springs themselves by building the pipeline and maintaining it, and that they would also be in possession of the spring areas. This dispute was exacerbated by the approval of the then Environment Minister Martin Bartenstein . Vienna appealed against this decision to the Constitutional Court and the Federal Government also appealed against it for constitutional reasons.

Wildalpen water pipe museum (Museum HochQuellenWasser)

Local history, parish and water pipe museum

There is also a museum in Wildalpen . It is located in an old hammer mansion , the Tulleck'schen trade union . The local history and parish museum are also located in the house.

Postage stamps

On the occasion of “75 Years of the Second Vienna High Spring Line”, the Austrian Post issued a 3.50 Schilling special stamp with the image of the aqueduct over the Hundsaubach in the Steinbachtal near Göstling an der Ybbs on November 29, 1985. The design is by Ferdinand Dorner, the engraving by Alfred Nefe.


  • The City of Vienna's Second Kaiser Franz Josef Mountain Spring Pipeline - A commemorative publication on December 2, 1910 . Gerlach & Wiedling, commission publisher of the municipality of Vienna, Vienna 1910. - Full text online .
  • The water supply . In: Das neue Wien, Städtewerk . Volume III. Published with the official cooperation of the municipality of Vienna, Elbemühl, Vienna 1927, pp. 190–215. - Full text online .
  • Hans Kellermann, Gustav Greiner, Franz Schmid: A school trip to the area of ​​the second high spring water pipeline and to the Styrian Erzberg (trips: Vienna-Mariazell and Hieflau-Amstetten-Vienna) . German publishing house for youth and people, Vienna 1929.
  • Alfred Drennig: The II. Vienna high spring water pipeline . Published by the Vienna City Administration, Department 31 - Waterworks. Compress-Verlag, Vienna 1988, ISBN 3-900607-11-7 . - Full text online .
  • Manfred Hohn : Feldbahnen in the construction of the Viennese high spring pipelines - railways in the construction of the 1st and 2nd Viennese high spring pipelines, the Schneealpenstollen, the Pfannbauernquelle overpass and the water pipeline power plant Gaming . Bohmann Druck und Verlag Gesellschaft mbH & Co. KG., Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-901983-73-3 .

Web links

Commons : II. Wiener Hochquellenleitung  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Felix Czeike (ed.): Sykora Karl. In:  Historisches Lexikon Wien . Volume 5, Kremayr & Scheriau, Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-218-00547-7 , p. 405 ( digitized version ).
  2. Joanneum Research: KARST - Karstwasserdynamik und Karstwasserschutz Hochschwab
  3. ^ Web service of the City of Vienna: Kläfferquelle - The largest source of drinking water in Europe
  4. Web service of the City of Vienna: Wildalpen Water Pipeline Museum - visit to the Kläffer spring ( memento of the original from June 23, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.wien.gv.at
  5. Alfred Drennig: The II. Vienna Mountain Spring Line, page 22
  6. tiscover.com: Adventure trail - Vienna high spring water pipeline
  7. ^ Web service of the City of Vienna: Sima: General renovation of the Speising aqueduct completed , October 19, 2006
  8. Web service of the City of Vienna: April 8, 1965: It happened 20 years ago: A worker from Ottakring prevented the second high spring pipe from being blown up ( memento of the original from November 25, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.wien.gv.at
  9. Gattinger: Baugeologischer report on the new Austrian tunnel in Scheibbs, N.-ö. (PDF; 429 kB) of the Federal Geological Institute of Austria
  10. II. High spring pipeline must be rehabilitated. On: ORF.at. May 4, 2015, accessed May 4, 2015.
  11. Das neue Wien, Städtewerk
  12. Wien Energie.at: Wasserkraftwerk Gaming 2  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.wienenergie.at  
  13. Der Ennstaler: 75 Years Electricity Cooperative Wildalpen  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , No. 15, April 15, 2005 (PDF 2 MB)@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / www.ennstal-it.at  
  14. a b Web service of the City of Vienna: Wall small hydropower plant - clean electricity through drinking water ( Memento of the original from March 10, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.wien.gv.at
  15. Web service of the City of Vienna: Wildalpen Forest Management - Source Protection Forest of the City of Vienna ( Memento of the original from May 18, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.wien.gv.at
  16. BASSENA employee information for Wiener Wasserwerke , 5th edition, May 2004
  17. Das neue Wien, Städtewerk
  18. ^ Web service of the City of Vienna: Vienna Water Statistics ( Memento of November 3, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
  19. a b Web service of the City of Vienna: Current individual results of drinking water inspections , (accessed on February 21, 2009)
  20. ^ Web service of the City of Vienna: Edlinger: "Styrian water tax is political piracy" , March 22, 1996
  21. ^ Web service of the City of Vienna: Edlinger: Water tax is a scandal , March 25, 1996
  22. ^ Web service of the City of Vienna: Water tax: Vienna calls the Constitutional Court , April 24, 1996
  23. ^ Web service of the City of Vienna: Häupl convinced of the inadmissibility of the water tax , June 18, 1996
  24. Post.at: 75 years of the II. Vienna Mountain Spring Line ( memento from September 8, 2015 in the Internet Archive ), stamp with the motif of the mountain spring line

Coordinates: 48 ° 9 '  N , 16 ° 14'  E