List of parasites in humans

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The list of parasites of humans includes parasites that affect humans . The definition of parasite also applies to organisms such as bacteria and fungi , even if they do not belong to the actual (animal) parasites. Many parasites often transmit other parasites, the former being vectors . Infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animal to human or from human to animal are known as zoonoses .

Most of the developmental stages of most parasites are killed by simple pasteurization for a few minutes at 60 ° C, but some can survive even longer freezing at temperatures of minus 20 ° C.

Protista - unicellular parasites


Order Kinetoplastida
Family Trypanosomatidae (Trypanosomatiden)
Genus Trypanosoma (trypanosomes), causative agent of trypanosomiasis
Genus Leishmania (Leishmania), causative agent of leishmaniasis
  • Leishmania donovani Pathogen causing visceral leishmaniasis or kala-azar
  • Leishmania tropica , pathogen causing the oriental bump
  • Leismania brasiliensis , causative agent of American skin leishmaniasis


Class Trichomonada
Order Trichomonadida
Family Trichomonadidae
Subfamily Trichomonadinae
Genus Trichomonas
Family Monocercomonadidae
Genus Dientamoeba

Diplomonadida group

Family Hexamitidae
Subfamily Giardiinae
Genus Giardia ( Giardia )



Order Schizopyrenida
Family Vahlkampfiidae
Genus Naegleria


(no class) Apicomplexa
Class Coccidia
Order Eimeriida
Family Eimeriidae
Genus Isospora
Family Sarcocystidae
Genus Toxoplasma
Genus Sarcocystis
Order Haemosporida
Genus Plasmodium , causing malaria
Ciliophora (ciliates)
Class Litostomatea
Subclass Trichostomatia
Order Vestibuliferida
Family Balantidiidae
Genus Balantidium

Metazoa - multicellular parasites

Plathelminthes (strain: flatworms )

Class Trematoda ( flukes )
Subclass Digenea
Superorder Anepitheliocystidia
Order Echinostomida
Subordination Echinostomata
Family Echinostomatidae
Genus Isthmiophora
Genus Echinostoma
Fasciolidae family
Genus Fasciola
Genus Fasciolopsis
Order Strigeidida
Family Schistosomatidae
Genus Schistosoma ( Pärchenegel )
Subfamily Bilharziellinae
Genus Trichobilharzia
Order Plagiorchiida
Subordination Plagiorchiata
Family Dicrocoeliidae
Genus Dicrocoelium
Subordination Troglotremata
Family Paragonimidae
Genus Paragonimus (lung fluke - lungworm )
Order Opisthorchiida
Subordination Opisthorchiata
Superfamily Opisthorchioidea
Family Opisthorchoiidae (all types of bile duct parasites )
Genus Clonorchis
Genus Opisthorchis
Subordination Opisthorchiata
Superfamily Opisthorchioidea
Family Heterophyidae ( dwarf intestinal leeches )
Genus Heterophyes
Genus Metagonimus
Subordination paramphistomata
Family Gastrodiscidae
Genus Gastrodiscoides
Family Paramphistomidae
Genus Paramphistomium
Family Gastrothylacidae
Genus Fischoederius
Class: Cestoda ( tapeworms )
Subclass Eucestoda (true tapeworms)
Order Pseudophyllidea
Family Diphyllobothriidae
Genus Diphyllobothrium
Taeniidae family
Genus Taenia
Genus Echinococcus
Family Hymenolepidae
Genus Hymenolepis

Platyzoa / flatworms (strain: scratch worms )

Class Archiacanthocephala
Order Oligacanthorhynchida
Family Moniliformidae
Genus Moniliformis
Family Oligacanthorhynchidae
Genus Macracanthorhynchus

Nematoda (tribe: roundworms )

Class Secernentea
Order Rhabditida
Subordination Rhabditina
Family Strongyloididae
Subordination Strongylina
Family Ancylostomatidae
Subordination Ascaridina
Family Oxyuridae
Ascarididae family
Family Anisakidae
Anisakis marina , pathogen causing anisakiasis , ( herring worm disease )
Family Dioctophymidae
Order Spirurida
Subordination Camellalina
Superfamily Dracunculoidea
Subordination to Spirurina
Superfamily Filarioidea , filariae , pathogen causing filariasis
Filariidae family
Family Gnathostomatidae
Family Onchocercidae
Class adenophorea
Order Enoplida
Submission to Dorylaimina
Family Trichuridae
Family Trichinellidae
Suborder Dioctophymina
Family Dioctophymatidae

Nematomorpha (tribe: string worms )

In rare cases, string worms can also attack humans, who are then false hosts; they have been found particularly in the intestines and urethra, but do not appear to cause any damage.

Annelida (tribe: annelids )

Class Hirudinea ( leeches )

Pentastomida (subclass: tongue worms )

Arachnida (class: arachnids )

Order Acari ( mites )
Subordination prostigmata
Family Demodicidae (hair follicle mites)
Genus Demodicidae ( hair follicle mites )
Genus Pyroglyphideae
  • Dermatophagoides ( house dust mites ) (not an actual parasite, listed for the sake of completeness)
Genus Trombiculidae ( running mites )
  • Neotrombicula autumnalis ( autumn grass mite ), causative agent of trombidiosis (harvest scabies)
Genus Sarcoptidae
Genus Psoroptidae
Parasitiformes superordinate
Order Ixodida ( ticks ), carrier of early summer meningoencephalitis , borreliosis , Q fever , Babesia , tularemia , Omsk hemorrhagic fever , Boutonneuse fever , Crimean-Congo fever , Kyasanur Forest disease , rickettsioses , typhus , relapse fever , Texas Fever , Bartonella , Chlamydia pneum. and about 50 other diseases worldwide.
Family Nuttalliellidae
Genus Nuttalliella
Family Argasidae ( leather ticks )
Family Ixodidae ( shield ticks )

Insecta (class: insects )

Subclass: Pterygota ( flying insects )

Siphonaptera ( fleas )

Order Siphonaptera (fleas)
Superfamily Pulicoidea
Family Pulicidae
Genus Xenopsylla
Genus Pulex
Genus Ctenocephalides
Family Tungidae (sand fleas)
Genus Tunga

Phthiraptera ( animal lice )

Okay animal lice
Family Pediculidae ( human lice )
Genus: Pthirus
  • Pediculus humanus ( human louse )
Subspecies Pediculus humanus capitus ( head louse ), transmits under poor hygienic conditions via contact infection or smear infection with the excrement of the louse spotted fever ( typhus , lice fever ), ( Rickettsia , Rickettsia prowazecki ), Wolhynian fever ( five-day fever ) ( Rochlimaea quintana ), lice relapse (various Borrelia including Borrelia recurrentis ) and Scrub Typhus ( Rickettsia tsutsagamushi ).
Subspecies Pediculus humanus humanus ( clothes louse ), transmits typhus ( typhus , lice fever ) ( Rickettsia , Rickettsia prowazekii ), lice relapsing fever (various Borrelia, including Borrelia recurrentis ) and Wolhynian fever via contact infection or smear infection with the excrement of the louse under poor hygienic conditions ( Five-day fever ) ( Rochlimaea quintana ).

Hemiptera ( Schnabelkerfe )

Order Hemiptera (Schnabelkerfe)
Subordination Heteroptera ( bedbugs )
Partial order Cimicomorpha
Superfamily Cimicoidea
Family Cimicidae ( flat bugs , also bed bugs)
Genus Cimex
Family Anthocoridae ( flower bugs )
Superfamily Reduvioidea
Reduviidae family ( predatory bugs )
Subfamily Triatominae , transmit Chagas disease

Lepidoptera ( butterflies )

The following genera and species can transmit various pathogens by mechanical means:

Blood-sucking butterflies

Order Lepidoptera (butterflies)
Subordination Glossata
Superfamily Noctuoidea
Family Noctuidae ( Owl Butterfly )
Subfamily Calpinae
Genus Calyptra
Genus Captra

Tear-drinking butterflies

Diptera ( two-winged )

Order Diptera (two-winged)
Suborder: Nematocera ( mosquitoes )
The Culicidae family ( mosquitoes ) transmit many tropical diseases
Genus Anopheles (fever mosquitoes), carriers of malaria , filariasis , O'nyong-nyong fever and various viruses (arboviruses)
Genus Stegomyia
Genus Aedes , carrier of Chikungunya virus , Ross River virus , yellow fever virus , dengue virus (1-4), California encephalitis virus , Rift Valley fever virus
Genus Culex
Genus Mansonia
Partial order Culicomorpha ( mosquito-like )
Superfamily Chironomoidea
Family Simuliidae ( black flies ), carriers of onchocerciasis
Family Ceratopogonidae ( midges )
Genus Culicoides , carrier of the Filaria Dipetalonema perstans with mostly benign disease in humans
Family Psychodidae ( butterfly mosquitoes )
Subfamily Phlebotominae ( sand flies ), transmit leishmanias
Genus Phlebotomus (Eurasia)
Genus Sergentomyia
Suborder Brachycera ( flying )
Family Tabanidae ( horseflies ) transmit mechanically a. a. Weil's disease , anthrax, and tularemia
Subfamily Chrysopinae
Genus Chrysops , (biological) carrier of Loa loa , causing the Cameroon bump
Family Muscidae ( True Flies )
Subfamily Muscinae
Genus Musca
Subfamily Stomoxydinae ( biting flies )
Family Glossinidae ( tongue flies )
Genus Glossina ( tsetse flies ), vector of sleeping sickness
Family Calliphoridae ( blowflies ) mechanical transmission of various pathogens
Genus Lucilia
Genus Cordylobia (Cordylobiae)
Genus Calliphora
Genus Cochliomyia
Family Oestridae ( botfly )
Subfamily Oestrinae ( Nasendasseln )
Genus Oestrus
Genus Rhinoestrus
Subfamily Hypoderminae ( Hautdasseln )
Genus Hypoderma , causing myiasis
Subfamily Cephenemyiinae ( pharynx / pharynx brakes)
Genus Cephenemyia
Genus Gedoelstia , causing ophtalmomyiasis
Subfamily Gasterophilinae ( Gastendasseln / Gastric brakes)
  • Gasterophilus intestinalis ( horse stomach fly ), causative agent of the skin mole
Family Cuterebridae
Subfamily Cuterebrinae
Genus Dermatobia
Family Hippoboscidae ( louse flies )
Subfamily Hippoboscinae
Genus Lipoptena
  • Lipoptena cervi ( deer louse fly )

Collembola ( springtails )

In rare cases, people have been reported to be infected with springtails. The extent to which parasitism is present here is largely unclear.

Cyclostomata ( round mouths )

Class Petromyzontida
Order Petromyzontiformes ( lampreys )
Family Petromyzontidae

Osteichthyes ( bony fish )

Order: Catfish (Siluriformes)
Superfamily: Loricarioidea
Family: Trichomycteridae ( loach catfish )
Subfamily Vandelliinae ( urethral catfish )
Genus Tridensimilis
  • Tridensimilis brevis
Genus Vandellia

Mammalia ( mammals )

See also


  1. bacteria and fungi are due to their medical significance, and also their partially only optional parasitism in the fields of bacteriology and Mycology within the microbiology treated, which (for the study of the disease-causing pathogenic ) micro-organisms to the branch of medical microbiology has formed (within which it in turn the branch of human medical microbiology).
  2. ^ Systematics for the time being according to: Johannes Dönges : Parasitology - with special consideration of human pathogenic forms. 2. revised and extended edition, Thieme, Stuttgart / New York 1988, ISBN 3-13-579902-6 .
  3. ^ Systematics of the Protista according to: David J. Patterson: The Diversity of Eukaryotes . In: The American Naturalist. Volume 154, Supplement 4, October 1999, ISSN  0003-0147 , pp. 96-124, doi : 10.1086 / 303287 (= Laura A Katz: Evolutionary relationships among eukaryotes: a symposium. University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1999).
  4. ^ National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) - Taxonomy Browser: Eukaryota . last accessed April 16, 2015.
  5. s. a. Toxocaridae (English WP)
  7. ^ WP: en Gnathostoma spinigerum
  8. AA Hartmann: [Pulicosis Caused by Ctenocephalides canis]. In: The dermatologist; Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Allied Fields. Volume 33, Number 11, November 1982, pp. 616-617, PMID 7152907 .


  • Gerhard Piekarski : Medical Parasitology in Plates. Bayer AG, 1962, OCLC 3305112 .
  • PubMed , med. Database
  • Steve Frank: Immunology and Evolution of Infectious Disease. Princeton University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-691-09595-7 . (engl.)
  • William Albert Riley, Oskar Augustus Johannsen: Handbook of Medical Entomology. New York 1915. (Project Gutenberg)
  • Horst Aspöck (Ed.): Sick through arthropods - arthropods as pathogens and carriers of diseases in humans. (= Denisia. Volume 30). Linz 2010, OCLC 697264205 .
  • Richard Lucius, Brigitte Loos-Frank: Biology of Parasites (= Springer textbook. ). 2nd edition, Springer, Berlin / Heidelberg 2008, ISBN 978-3-540-37707-8 .
  • Marianne Abele-Horn: Antimicrobial Therapy. Decision support for the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. With the collaboration of Werner Heinz, Hartwig Klinker, Johann Schurz and August Stich, 2nd, revised and expanded edition. Peter Wiehl, Marburg 2009, ISBN 978-3-927219-14-4 , S 289-295 ( infections caused by parasites. Frequent parasitoses ).

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