A zombie is a person who has apparently died and has been brought back to life and, like an undead or revenant , haunts around as a soul- robbed, willless being.
Origin of the term
The term zombie is derived from the word nzùmbe from the Bantu language Kimbundu , which is native to northern Angola . There it originally referred to a spirit of the dead , a meaning that the word zonbi (pronounced zombi) , which is used in Creole, still has in Haiti .
Mythology and superstition
The core of the zombie mythologist is the superstitious notion that the deceased return not only as a ghost , but also as a physical one: as " undead ". According to the belief, they are mostly evil-minded towards the living and therefore uncanny , be it because they want to take revenge for injustices they have suffered (e.g. disturbance of their dead rest), or because their soul is not redeemed because of their bad way of life has been.
There is already evidence from early history that people believed and feared that the dead might return and possibly harm the living. Graves were found in various cultures in which the corpses of the deceased were tied up or pierced by wooden stakes. In Sierra Leone , this method still occurs sporadically. It is unclear, however, whether this served the sole purpose of preventing the return of the deceased or whether it was a special form of execution for criminals.
Until the 18th century there was also great fear of the return of the dead among the Central European population. It was one of the tasks of the wake to kill a supposed deceased in case he got up from the deathbed. This could well happen because methods of determining death were more unreliable than they are today.
The eerie figure and its name Zombie made it into the cultural history of the United States, while Haiti was under US occupation from 1915 to 1934 . The term zombie , which comes from Creole (zonbi = ghost, spirit of the dead) , became popular in the 1920s through the book The Magic Island by adventure writer WB Seabrook and the US films and comics inspired by it , as the phenomenon and the apparent death on which it is based had not yet penetrated the consciousness of the general public.
The French ethnologist Michel Leiris was the first to undertake ethnological research into zombies . According to his definition from 1929, zombies are individuals who have been artificially put into a pseudo-death state, buried, then dug up again and awakened and who are consequently obedient as beasts of burden, since they have to assume in good faith that they are dead.
The ethnobotanist Wade Davis discovered in 1982 on his trip through Haiti that the zombie poison used contains the highly toxic tetrodotoxin , and attributed the zombification of people to it. While Terence Hines suspected that Davis was caught up in a hoax , Natias Neutert as an "ethnological detective" was able to confirm Leiris' assumption from the 1930s in 1994 with the following findings:
"Zombie poison: Substantially grated human bones, brought to boiling toads secretions and constituents of the Fou-fou , a puffer fish , the ovaries contain highly toxic tetrodotoxin. Ten milligrams of it are enough to send a person to the afterlife. A much lower dose leads to a state of apparent death: the victim's breath no longer works, the heart stands still, the muscles are paralyzed, all metabolic functions are reduced - up to the point of clinical death. "
Obvious is the widespread idea that the zombie poison is mixed with itching powder and blown onto the victim's skin so that it is absorbed through the resulting wounds and gets into the bloodstream when it is scratched. The poison quickly causes the disease-like symptoms described above, from which the victim appears to die - a belief in which both the community and the victim himself are caught, as long as a lack of enlightenment favors this. In the opinion of the anthropologist Littlewood and the neurologist Douyon, who were able to examine several “zombies” in detail, in a number of cases there are strangers, mentally ill or debilitating strangers who do not know how to find their way around and are therefore often incorrectly identified as supposedly deceased.
Zombies in voodoo
The zombie phenomenon is still in circulation in the sphere of influence of the Voodoo and similar Yoruba religions, especially in Haiti. Although Christianity was the state religion there for a long time , the voodoo belief is still anchored in large parts, especially among the rural population. The Creole formula for this is: Bokor kapab, yo gen pouvoua sekré - which means: The witchers are capable of anything, they have secret power. According to this belief, a voodoo black magician ( Bocor ) or a priestess ( Mambo ) puts a curse on someone, whereupon the person in question dies ( apparent death ). Then the (supposedly) dead person is ritually brought back to life in order to be abused as a work slave afterwards. Such zombies are called zombie cadavres .
Another form of zombie is the astral zombie. It is a lost soul that has been separated from its body, e.g. B. through their demise, their natural death. A houngan or a bokor can capture this wandering soul in a small, clay vessel or in a bottle so that they can keep the bereaved at home like in an "urn". Such rites relating to the cult of the dead are still practiced in Haiti or the southern United States . Such ceremonies are largely attributed to the followers of the Petrokult, a group of voodoo devoted to black magic. The fear of the “zombie cadavre”, however, is so great among ordinary people that the deceased are poisoned often enough, stabbed with a stake, dismembered and the graves are guarded by relatives for days.
The cultural anthropologist Wolf-Dieter Storl assumes: Originally, criminals who could not be rehabilitated were rendered harmless and punished by zombification. Regular doses of atropine have maintained their state of willless zombies, a form of punishment that has been handed down as a tool of the ancient judicial system in West and Central Africa .
Contrary to claims to the contrary, Haitian criminal law no longer contains a paragraph that criminalizes zombification, i.e. the "making" of a zombie, as an independent offense. However, any form of slavery is criminal in Haiti.
Figure of the zombie in popular culture
In pop culture, zombies act as creepy characters in horror films , comics or computer games . They are mostly portrayed as lazily wandering undead or infected people with outstretched arms and bloody disfigured, already half-decomposed faces and empty gazes, who are driven by the hunger for human flesh, but are completely unconscious. Recently, there has been an increasing trend away from the metaphysical image of the zombie. In some cases it is being replaced by a supposedly scientific concept in which the zombies were created by a viral infection, not magic. In many fantasy and horror role-playing games , zombies serve as the "standard undead", alongside animated skeletons and mummies. In doing so, they are mostly depicted as creatures with limited motor skills, the only way to attack them is to strike with the bare hand and use their teeth.
Often zombies also serve as a metaphor for an adapted vegetation, submissive and uncritical obedience ("cadaver obedience"), passive consumption and disinterest, in contrast to rebellion , autonomy or independent aesthetics . For example, the punk movement often took up the zombie motif , for example as artwork on record sleeves or T-shirts. In circles critical of religion, Jesus Christ is sometimes satirically caricatured as "Zombie Jesus", alluding to his resurrection from the dead . Since 2001 there have been recurring zombie walks in many major cities around the world.
An at least zombie-like figure appeared in the expressionist German silent film Das Cabinet des Dr. Caligari : The sleepwalking Cesare commits crimes in a trance-like state like remote-controlled, although the word “zombie” is not used in the film.
Through contact with Haitian culture during the occupation of Haiti from 1915 to 1934, the phenomenon of zombies found its way into the productions of American filmmakers as film characters. The first film in which the figure of the zombie appeared as such was Victor Halperin's White Zombie from 1932 with Bela Lugosi in the lead role, in which the portrayal of the walking undead is still very much in keeping with the voodoo belief. Zombies are not bloodthirsty monsters like in later films, but dull-obedient slaves of their master. In I followed a zombie (1942) by director Jacques Tourneur and producer Val Lewton , on the other hand, the zombie is an almost sad, peaceful figure.
It was not until the well-known horror films by George A. Romero such as The Night of the Living Dead (1968) and especially Zombie - Dawn of the Dead (1978) that the characters became carnivorous monsters. In this vampire-like representation, zombies have now become an integral part of pop culture . According to Romero, the 1954 science fiction novel Ich bin Legende (Original: I Am Legend ) by the American writer Richard Matheson , which was filmed four times, had an influence that should not be underestimated .
Last but not least, the wave of zombie films kicked off by the unexpected success of Zombie - Dawn of the Dead in the 1980s led to the emergence of a horror film subgenre of its own. Most of the zombie films are extremely bloodthirsty staged in the tradition of Romero and operate extensively with splatter and gore effects.
In the last few years there has been a trend towards a somewhat dramaturgically altered representation of zombies within this genre. Instead of lazily wandering around, the "modern" zombies are amazingly fast and focused (the goal remains the same - attacking living people). The best-known example of this new portrayal is the 2004 Dawn-of-the-Dead remake by Zack Snyder . His portrayal of the zombies was certainly also inspired by Danny Boyle's film 28 Days Later (2003), which was continued (2007) with 28 Weeks Later . There a rabies-like virus turns people into zombie-like raging beasts. Boyle's film realigned the genre and created a new sub-genre of the zombie film: The Infected Film , which refers to realistic scenarios and which was recorded and continued by (mainly European) productions. The decisive and groundbreaking difference to traditional zombie films is that the protagonists remain living people who can also passively die (starve, thirst, drown, freeze to death, etc.) regardless of active killing. In addition, healing, immunity and an associated return to the circle of civilization, unlike the classic undead, are potentially possible.
Romero's 2005 film Land of the Dead can be rated as a further development of the zombie theme . Here the zombies are presented for the first time as living beings gifted with consciousness, capable of structured own actions. As the marginalized from society, they organize a revolutionary campaign on the city of the last survivors, who have holed up behind barbed wire from the threat of the undead. At the end of the film - this is unique for the genre - some people even give them a right to exist.
But there are also humorous depictions of the zombie motif, for example in “splatter comedies” such as Braindead (1992), Zombieland (2009) or Shaun of the Dead (2004). The Night of the Living Losers (2004), also a humorous interpretation, portrays zombies as completely "normal" (logical thinking, own will), outsiders cannot recognize them as zombies - only superhuman strength and the hunger for human flesh remains consist. In Zombiber (2014), peaceful, herbivorous animals serve as zombies.
According to Jason Thompson , Japan is the second largest producer of zombie works after the US. As an outstanding manga dealing with this topic, he lists I Am a Hero by Kengo Hanazawa, which deals with the course of a zombie apocalypse, from its quiet harbingers to its explosive outbreak and beyond; Shin'iku no Otoko by Hideshi Hino , in which the protagonist is a zombie who is accordingly hunted by humans; Biomega by Tsutomu Nihei , who depicts the subject in cyberpunk garb; Apocalypse no Toride by Yū Kuraishi; Mahō Shōjo of the End by Kentarō Satō, which is also a horror subversion of the Mahō-Shōjo genre; Life is Dead by Tomohiro Koizumi, in which the transformation into a zombie is portrayed as a disease in which those affected require long-term medical care; Hellsing by Kōta Hirano about a secret organization that fights vampires, but also zombies; The Royal Doll Orchestra ( Guignol Kyūtei Gakudan ) by Kaori Yuki , which is aimed at a female target group ( Shōjo ) and depicts zombies like puppet figures that are released by traveling musicians; the underground manga Tōkyō Zombie by Yūsaku Hanakuma; and Zombie-ya Reiko by Rei Mikamoto about a necromancer whose weapons are zombies. Other works are Highschool of the Dead by Daisuke and Shōji Satō , which has similarities with American zombie B-movies, as well as comedies with friendly zombies such as Zombie Loan from Peach-Pit or Kore wa Zombie Desu ka? by Shin'ichi Kimura, which is based on a novel. Gakkō Gurashi! by Norimitsu Kaihō and Sadoru Chiba depicts the survival of a group of girls after a zombie apocalypse with slice-of-life elements.
Zombie films have always been an ideal breeding ground for subtexts and hidden allusions. In most zombie films there is a socially critical constant: the greatest danger for the characters comes from the zombies, but the healthy people also fall into self-preservation-driven behavioral patterns: the loss of social norms and values, which in the zombie film typically comes with the invasion of the undead and fear for their own safety - paired with opportunism and egoism - create a climate of hostility between the characters that prevents cooperation . Many of the characters fall victim to this fact, at least indirectly: Man becomes, as one might say with Thomas Hobbes, man becomes wolf (“ Homo homini lupus ”).
Another, somewhat more abstract, functioning motif of many zombie films is the isolation of the remainder of the people in a facility that stands for civilization, for example a megacity ( Land of the Dead ) or a shopping center ( Zombie - Dawn of the Dead ), which is primarily the apocalyptic The character of many of these films is intended to underline, but could sometimes also be interpreted as the penetration of natural animal drives (in the form of zombies) into the cultivated human existence.
A characteristic of the majority of zombie films is also the lack of a film-typical happy ending . The survivors are heading towards an uncertain future, symbolized by a departure into nowhere, accompanied by pessimistic musical motifs. As a result, the zombie film has a nihilistic worldview, and the viewer leaves the cinema with ambivalent feelings. Zombies are also silent, which means that the national language of the audience does not matter.
In addition, the very presence of the zombies in recent works also seems to encourage a potential impact of insanity. The zombies appear completely lacking in character (it is difficult to see them as bad guys since they know neither triumph nor defeat) and are interchangeable - both figuratively and spiritually. Sometimes people who are at the end of their tether simply go into the mass of the undead because they can no longer endure their lives or no longer want to run away.
If the werewolves stand for the animal aspect of the soul with its emotions and passions and the vampires stand for the dark, cold and cunning aspect that tests intelligence with self-reflection, then zombies represent the last thing that remains of human reason: They are a Swamp that devours everything that was human.
As early as 1983, the pop singer Michael Jackson staged his transformation into a zombie in front of the audience in the music video for his play Thriller (director: John Landis ). The song Zombie by the Irish band The Cranberries , released in 1994, addressed the Northern Ireland conflict and thus both the zombie-like behavior of soldiers as well as the behavior of the fighters in religiously motivated conflicts. The song reached first place in the charts in Germany and France , in Austria , Switzerland and Sweden it took second place, in Great Britain however only the fourteenth place.
- The American rock musician Rob Zombie actually had his family name changed from "Cummings" to "Zombie".
- The American horror punk band Misfits treats fictional zombies several times in their songs. For example, in the 1999 song Pumpkin Head , which tells how a certain Ed becomes a zombie. They also sing about zombies in songs like Night of the Living Dead , Astro Zombie , Them or similar pieces. In the music video for Scream, they play zombies themselves who rage in a hospital overflowing with Misfits fans. George A. Romero directed it.
- In addition to horror punk, there is another genre of music that deals with zombies as a subculture: Psychobilly .
- On September 14, 2007 Die Ärzte presented their new video for the single "Junge", which in the uncensored version, which was only broadcast after 10 p.m., shows a scene in a Berlin suburb that is typical for zombie films . In addition, the band released the two songs "Pro-Zombie" and "Anti-Zombie", which are about zombies, in their album "Noise" in 2004. Quotes from Dawn of the Dead were also included at the beginning.
- The album Evisceration Plague by the American death metal band Cannibal Corpse , released in 2009, was mainly about a zombie apocalypse.
- In 2010 an EP called Zombie was released by the American band The Devil Wears Prada .
- In 2011, the Swedish power metal band Hammerfall released the song One more time with a video in which the band is attacked by zombies and flees from them.
- Also in 2011, Deuce released a music video for his debut single America , in which he fights zombies in an abandoned house.
- The deathcore band Suicide Silence produced their own zombie apocalypse in short film style for their single Slaves to Substance , in which a little boy in the wasteland can save his great love from a horde of zombies - only to lose it again to them. Armed with a bow, he tries to take revenge and fails.
- The 2012 album " Zwei Welten " by the Wise Guys contains a song entitled "My Neighbor is a Zombie", which is about the singer's neighbor who acts like a zombie. In the live performance of this song, the Wise Guys incorporate parts of the dance from Michael Jackson's "Thriller" into their choreography.
In addition to the video games in the series, Resident Evil also includes six real - life and four animated films . In it, humans are transformed into zombies by specifically synthesized viruses , whose intelligence and mobility are restricted and who cannot handle weapons.
Zombies are depicted with weapons less often, as is the case in Stalker: Shadow of Chernobyl and Gothic 3 .
In The House of the Dead , zombies are hunted down with a light gun . This game was also filmed as House of the Dead (film) .
The zombies from Half-Life follow similar rules as those from Resident Evil , although they are the human hosts of extraterrestrial beings, the so-called headcrabs , and not magical undead.
Computer role-playing games like Diablo 2 or Gothic 2 also contain zombies as the "standard undead". Newer video games are Stubbs the Zombie and Dead Rising . The latter is based heavily on the film Dawn of the Dead . Part one and two of the game Left 4 Dead is about a huge zombie apocalypse in which an infection has turned almost everyone into one.
The Minecraft game is about fighting monsters (including various types of zombies).
In the game Shadow Man , a reference to voodoo is made throughout.
In some parts of the Call of Duty series there is a zombie mode in which the main aim is to survive bigger and stronger attacks by the undead.
DayZ , like Infestation or State of Decay: Year One , is a complex survival simulation of a zombie apocalypse with role-playing elements.
In the game Prototype and its successor, zombies act as henchmen of a central virus carrier against the protagonist of the game.
The game The Last of Us also depicts zombie-like beings whose infections (through a bite or inhalation of the spores) lead to a Cordyceps in the brain of the infected and for death - and the subsequent "resurrection" depending on the length of the infection Runner, stalker, clicker or bloater called undead worry.
Zombies play an important role in Plants vs. Zombies .
The comic series The Walking Dead , which has been published since 2003, is the basis for the cross-media marketing of a zombie topic: since 2010 there has been an adaptation as a television series , and from 2011 a computer game in several episodes.
2009 was Alan Goldsher with Zombie John, Paul Zombie, Zombie George and Ringo Ninja in his debut release Paul Is Undead: The British Zombie Invasion , the Beatles arise as the undead. 2012 followed with Give Death a Chance: The British Zombie Invasion 2, a continuation of the novel as an e-book .
Motif of the zombie in philosophy
The motif of the zombie has always occupied philosophers. So it serves z. B. as a metaphor for a hypothetical being that physically, functionally and thus also biologically resembles a person from the outside, but has no phenomenal consciousness from the inside , i.e. no "inner experience". Such a philosophical zombie behaves like a normal person, but does not have any qualitative states of consciousness. Its behavior is determined solely physically and functionally.
Zombie diseases in the animal kingdom
The chronic wasting disease is colloquially referred to as "zombie disease." It was first described in mule deer in North America in the 1960s , but it can also spread to other species.
Bumblebees and honey bees , which move around aimlessly in their bodies after laying eggs of the fly species Apocephalus borealis , are colloquially known as zombie bees . The larvae attack the host's brain, which eventually leads to the death of the host. Wasps infected with the Xenos vesparum parasite are also referred to as zombie wasps.
In 2009, a Canadian team of math students made a mathematical analysis of zombie epidemics and concluded that only "extremely aggressive tactics" could save humanity in this case. The study achieved some media reception.
The US military developed the educational game Conplan 8888 for its young leaders. In order to familiarize them with strategic thinking, they had to devise a defense against a "zombie apocalypse".
In 2011, the US Department of Health studied the CDC as part of a general preparation program for crises and disasters with a fictional zombie scenario called Preparedness 101 . In the following year, a monthly webinar by the US Federal Emergency Management Agency was devoted to the topic of possible preparations for a hypothetical zombie disaster.
In the USA (Portland, Oregon) there is training on how to survive in a zombie apocalypse.
There's a cocktail called Zombie .
In March 2013 the members of the Pirate Party asked whether Berlin was prepared for a zombie catastrophe. According to the Pirate Party, the background to the small request was that population groups who usually do not deal with the issue of disaster control should also be made aware of this. In an emergency, 3.8 million people have to be evacuated in Berlin. Reference was also made to a kind of manual for a zombie disaster in the United States of America. The Berlin Senate Administration saw this as no sensible disaster risk management.
On February 9, 2017, decided Illinois General Assembly ( Legislature of the State of Illinois ) October 2017. zombie preparation month (ger .: "Zombie Preparedness Month") to explain. Citizens should prepare for every imaginable type of natural disaster, including a possible zombie apocalypse . The reason is: "If the citizens of Illinois are prepared for zombies, than they are prepared for any natural disaster." ("If the citizens of Illinois are prepared for zombies, then they are prepared for any kind of natural disaster.")
The term has been included in the economic policy discussion found and the terms Zombie Bank and zombie companies created.
- Max Brooks : The Zombie Survival Guide . Survive among the undead . Goldmann, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-442-45809-9 (English: The zombie survival guide . Translated by Joachim Körber, Andreas Kasprzak).
- Michael Dellwing, Martin Harbusch (eds.): Communityization in times of the zombie apocalypse: social constructions on the fantastic other . Springer VS, Wiesbaden 2014, ISBN 978-3-658-01721-7 .
- Wade Davis: Snake and Rainbow. Exploring the voodoo culture and its secret drug . Knaur, Munich 1988, ISBN 3-426-03895-1 (American English: The Serpent and the Rainbow . Translated by Christa Broermann, Wolfram Ströle).
- Peter Dendle: The Zombie Movie Encyclopedia . McFarland, Jefferson 2001, ISBN 0-7864-0859-6 (English).
- Jan Niklas Meier: Zombie. Introduction. Oldib-Verlag, Essen 2017, ISBN 978-3-939556-60-2
- Wolfgang Schwerdt: Vampires, revenants and undead. On the trail of the living dead . Past Publishing, 2011, ISBN 978-3-940621-39-9 .
- Robert Smith ?: Mathematical Modeling of Zombies. University of Ottawa Press, Ottawa 2014, ISBN 978-0-7766-2210-1 .
- Natias Neutert : Encounter with a zombie. On the trail of a legend. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung. No. 53, 5./6. March 1994, p. II.
- Patrick D. Hahn: Dead Man Walking , ethnobiological specialist article about zombies in: Biology Online from September 4, 2007, accessed on July 13, 2012 (English)
- Robert Kirk: Zombies. In: Edward N. Zalta (Ed.): Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .
- "Zombies are like us". Interview with George A. Romero. In: Spiegel Online. August 5, 2005.
- In the realm of the zombies video on Spiegel Online
- Zombies , magazine for cultural studies, issue 1/2014.
- Bob Corbett: Review of the book "Passage of Darkness" by Wade Davis ( Memento of February 4, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) (English)
- When the zombies ate the world up. In: Comic Radio Show. March 6, 2008 (comic book review).
- In love, engaged and eaten up! In: Evolver. (Brief reviews of numerous zombie films available on DVD)
- Zombies through the ages - Analysis of the development of the zombie over the course of film history
- Zombies on the web. Compiled by David Chalmers - Information on different forms of zombies
- Hamilton Morris: Nzambi , documentary on the trail of the Haitian zombie phenomenon, USA 2010 (English)
- ↑ See Alfred Métraux: le vaudou haitien. Preface de Michel Leiris. Editions Gallimard, Paris 1958, ISBN 2-07-029653-9 , pp. 249-252 and Wolfgang Schwerdt: Vampires, revenants and undead. On the trail of the living dead (= small cultural stories ). Past Publishing, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-940621-39-9 .
- ↑ See Ti Diksyonnè Kreyol-Franse. Dictionaire élémentaire créole Haitien-Francais. Maury-Imprimeur, Malesherbes 1976, ISBN 2-218-03600-2 , p. 511.
- ↑ Cf. Gerhard Zwerenz: Magic, Star Belief, Spiritism. Chapter II: The historical origins of superstition. Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1974. ISBN 3-436-02011-7 .
- ↑ Cf. Zora Neale Hurston: Tell My Horse. Voodoo and Life in Haiti and Jamaica. (1938), Harper & Row, Publishers, New York. 1990, pp. 179-198.
- ↑ See Alfred Métraux: le vaudou haitien . Preface de Michel Leiris. Editions Gallimard, Paris 1958, ISBN 2-07-029653-9 , pp. 249-252.
- ↑ Cf. Otto Prokop, Wolf Wimmer: The modern occultism. Parapsychology and Paramedicine. Magic and Science in the 20th Century. Gustav Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart 1976, p. 175 ff.
- ↑ See Jean Ziegler: Die Lebenden und der Tod. Luchterhand Verlag, Darmstadt and Neuwied 1977, ISBN 3-472-77024-4 , pp. 71-75.
- ^ German WB Seabrook: Mysterious Haiti. Riddles and symbols of the Vodu cult. Matthes & Seitz Verlag, Munich 1982.
- ↑ Natias Neutert : Encounter with a zombie. On the trail of a legend. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung . No. 53, 5./6. March 1994, p. II.
- ↑ Quoted from Natias Neutert : Encounter with a zombie. On the trail of a legend. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung No. 53, 5./6. March 1994, p. II.
- ↑ See also the TV interview by Roger Willemsen with Natias Neutert about his 'zombie research' in: 0137 , Premiere, 1994.
- ↑ Natias Neutert: Encounter with a zombie. On the trail of a legend. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung No. 53, March 1994.
- ^ Roland Littlewood, Chavannes Douyon: Clinical findings in three cases of zombification. ( Memento of March 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 186 kB) In: The Lancet. 350, No. 9084, 1997, pp. 1094-1096, doi: 10.1016 / S0140-6736 (97) 04449-8 ( translation )
- ↑ Translated from the Creole by Natias Neutert: Encounter with a zombie. On the trail of a legend. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung No. 53, 5./6. March 1994, p. II.
- ↑ Gaby Herzog: The slave children of Port-au-Prince. In: Berliner Zeitung. August 25, 2009, p. 8 , accessed August 26, 2009 .
- ↑ Jürgen Schübelin: Without rights, dependent, extradited: Child slaves in Haiti. (No longer available online.) In: Kindernothilfe - Topics - Child Labor - Report: Child slaves in Haiti. Formerly in the original ; Retrieved August 26, 2009 . ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )
- ↑ Presentation of the creation of the caricature on knowyourmeme.com
- ↑ Jason Thompson : 10 Great Zombie Manga. In: Anime News Network. January 9, 2014, accessed January 1, 2016 .
- ↑ Rebecca Silverman: School Live! In: Anime News Network. December 10, 2015, accessed January 1, 2016 .
- ↑ Minecraft: Bunkers & Zombies in the trailer for the Fallout Mashup Pack . In: PC GAMES . ( pcgames.de [accessed on February 17, 2018]).
- ↑ Paul is Undead: The British Zombie Invasion , accessed March 22, 2012.
- ↑ Zombie Beatles Return in Give Death a Chance: The British Zombie Invasion 2 , accessed March 22, 2012.
- ^ Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD). In: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID), Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology (DHCPP). October 9, 2018, accessed February 19, 2019 .
- ↑ Dirk Förger: Fly larvae turn bees into zombies. In: Wissenschaft aktuell. January 4, 2012, accessed February 19, 2019 .
- ↑ P. Munz, I. Hudea, J. Imad, R. J. Smith? When zombies attack !: Mathematical modeling of an outbreak of zombie infection. (PDF; 310 kB) In: J. M. Tchuenche, C. Chiyaka (Ed.): Infectious Disease Modeling Research Progress. Nova Science, Hauppauge 2009, ISBN 978-1-60741-347-9 , pp. 133-150.
- ↑ "Strike hard and often". ( Memento of the original from August 21, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: news.ORF.at.
- ↑ Military training: US soldiers are supposed to play through zombie invasion . In: SPIEGEL ONLINE . May 14, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2016.
- ↑ The Pentagon is planning the zombie apocalypse welt.de.
- ↑ US draws up plans to fight off zombie invasion telegraph.co.uk, accessed May 30, 2014.
- ↑ How the US is preparing for the undead ; Zombie apocalypse preparedness geekout.blogs.cnn.com.
- ↑ Zombie Preparedness cdc.gov, accessed on 21 March 2012 found.
- ↑ Government Zombie Promos Are Spreading ( Memento of the original from September 12, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. abcnews.go.com, accessed September 12, 2012.
- ↑ Zombie Survival Basics . trackerspdx.com. Retrieved May 13, 2016.
- ↑ Pirkko Gohlke: Pirates want to know whether Berlin is prepared for a zombie attack . ( derwesten.de [accessed on May 26, 2018]).
- ↑ Inquiry from the Pirate Party: Is Berlin prepared for a zombie catastrophe? In: Berliner Zeitung . ( berliner-zeitung.de [accessed on May 26, 2018]).
- ↑ House - Resolution HR0030 on the official Illinois General Assembly website.Retrieved February 24, 2017
- ↑ Citizens of Illinois should prepare for zombies , ORF , February 14, 2017, accessed on February 15, 2017