Weißensee Office

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The Weißensee office was a territorial administrative unit in the Thuringian district of the Electorate of Saxony, which was converted into a kingdom in 1806 . It belonged to the "Upper District" of the Thuringian district and was part of the Albertine secondary school principality of Saxony-Weißenfels between 1657 and 1746 .

Until it was ceded to Prussia in 1815, as a Saxon office it formed the spatial reference point for the collection of sovereign taxes and compulsory services , for the police , jurisdiction and military service .

Geographical expansion

The Weißensee office was located in the north of the Thuringian Basin on the middle course of the Unstrut , which flowed through the office on the southern and eastern edge and partially delimited it. The official area reached in the north to the edge of the Hainleite . Further tributaries of the Unstrut, which flowed through or touched the official area with their lower reaches, were the Gera , the Gramme with the Vippach , both arms of the lower Helbe and the Wipper . The territory included u. a. three cities and five exclaves. The two northern exclaves Bendeleben and Großfurra are located south of the Windleite near Sondershausen, the eastern exclave Großmonra is on the southern edge of the Schmücke near Kölleda and the southern exclaves Nöda and Kranichborn are in the Thuringian Basin.

The official area is now largely in the Sömmerda district in the northeast of the Free State of Thuringia . The four western places Kutzleben, Lützensömmern, Groß- and Kleinballhausen belong today to the Unstrut-Hainich district , the four northern places Obertopfstedt, Niedertopfstedt, Grüningen, Oberbösa and the two exclaves Großfurra and Bendeleben belong to the Kyffhäuserkreis .

Adjacent administrative units

Since the middle of the 17th century, the Albertinische Amt Weißensee bordered the following areas:

The five exclaves of the Weißensee office were surrounded by the following areas:

  • West: Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (subordinate rule)
  • East: Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (subordinate rule)
Great Monra
  • The place was as an enclave completely in the west of the Electoral Saxon office Eckartsberga
  • Northeast, east and south: Sömmerda office exclave of the Erfurt area (to Kurmainz, from 1802 to the Kingdom of Prussia, from 1807 to the French Principality of Erfurt)
  • Southwest: Haßleben exclave of the Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (1811 to the Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach (Office Großrudestedt))
  • Northwest: Werningshausen exclave of the upper county of Gleichen (1677 to the Duchy of Saxony-Gotha-Altenburg)
  • Southwest, west, north and northeast: Duchies of Saxony-Weimar and Saxony-Eisenach (from 1741 Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach (Großrudestedt office))
  • Southeast: Erfurt area (to Kurmainz, from 1802 to the Kingdom of Prussia, from 1807 to the French Principality of Erfurt)


Ludowingian Landgraves of Thuringia

In the 12th century, the area around Weißensee belonged to the Landgraviate of Thuringia , which was under the rule of the Ludowingers . From 1168, the Countess Jutta Claricia of Thuringia , a half-sister of Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa , had Weißensee Castle expanded into a residence for the Ludowingian Landgraves of Thuringia . The castle was first mentioned as Wyssense in 1174 in a document from Landgrave Ludwig III, the Mild of Thuringia . Today's castle was the main castle and today's old town Weißensee can be described as the outer bailey. The latter received only in 1265, d. H. After the extinction of the Ludowingian Landgraves of Thuringia, own municipal rights, while the main castle remained in sovereign property.

Wettin Landgraves of Thuringia

With the death of King Heinrich Raspe in 1247, the Ludowinger family died out. After the Hessian-Thuringian War of Succession , the Thuringian parts of the country and thus also the castle and the town of Weißensee fell to Margrave Heinrich III. the illustrious of Meissen . The Wettin margraves stayed at the castle frequently and regularly. In 1349 the “Amt Weißensee” appears as a property of the Wettins. In 1382 Weißensee Castle came back into the possession of the Thuringian Landgraves from the House of Wettin. In May 1440 the last Landgrave of Thuringia, Friedrich IV., The simple-minded , died at Weissensee Castle, which then came into the possession of the related Wettin dukes of Saxony .

Albertine line

Through the division of Leipzig in 1485, the northern part of Thuringia with the castle, the city and the Weißensee office came under the Albertine line of the House of Wettin . During the Peasants' War in 1525, the rebellious peasants were refused entry into the town and the castle. As a result of the Schmalkaldic War , the Wettins' electoral dignity passed from the Ernestines to the Albertines in 1547 , making the Weißensee office with the north and north-eastern part of the former Landgraviate of Thuringia now part of the Albertine Electorate of Saxony . Due to the necessary reorganization of the Saxon administration, the Weißensee office was assigned to the "Upper District" of the newly formed Thuringian District . From 1554, Weißensee Castle served as the widow's seat of the Electors of Saxony.

From 1657 to 1746 belonged to the castle, town and Office Weissensee for Albertine Sekundogenitur -Fürstentum Saxe-Weissenfels . The Electorate of Saxony, however, reserved the supervision of the writers in the offices left to the secondary school. The newly created Tennstedt district office took on this task for the offices of Langensalza , Sangerhausen and Weißensee in the Thuringian district . During this time, when the actual landgrave story of the castle and town of Weißensee was forgotten, the confused name " Runneburg " (round castle) was used for the castle for the first time in files . After the Saxony-Weißenfels branch line had expired, the Weißensee office fell back to the main Albertine line in 1746. With the appointment of the Electorate of Saxony to the Kingdom , the office belonged to the Kingdom of Saxony from 1806 .

Assignment to Prussia

At the Congress of Vienna in 1815 the Kingdom of Saxony ceded territory to the Kingdom of Prussia . a. concerned the entire Thuringian district with its offices. The Office Weissensee belonged starting from 1816 with the former Kurmainzisch - Erfurtischen office Sömmerda the newly formed district Weissensee in the administrative district of Erfurt of the Prussian province of Saxony . In the following years, the Runneburg in Weißensee was rebuilt for administrative purposes.

The exclave Großmonra came to the district of Eckartsberga in the Prussian administrative district of Merseburg in the province of Saxony. The two northern exclaves Bendeleben and Großfurra were incorporated into the subordinate rule of the Principality of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen , while the two southern exclaves Kranichborn and Nöda were ceded to the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach and became the office of Großrudestedt .

Associated places

Villages (exclaves)
  • Bendeleben (1815 under the rule of Schwarzburg special houses)
  • Großfurra (1815 to the Schwarzburg special houses subordination)
  • Großmonra (1815 to the Prussian district of Eckartsberga)
  • Kranichborn (1815 to the office of Großrudestedt of the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach)
  • Nöda (1815 to the office of Großrudestedt of the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach)
Castles and Palaces

In most of the locations of the Weißensee district there were one or more manors .




Individual evidence

  1. ^ The Tennstedt district office in the Saxony-Anhalt state archive
  2. ^ The district of Weißensee in the Thuringia archive portal
  3. Places of the Prussian district Eckartsberga in the municipality register 1900
  4. ^ Locations of the Schwarzburg-Sondershäuser administrative district Sondershausen
  5. ^ Locations of the Saxon-Weimar-Eisenach administrative district Weimar
  6. ^ History of Gebesee Castle
  7. ^ History of Straussfurt Castle
  8. Schloss Bendeleben at www.burgen-und-schloesser.net
  9. ^ Castle Ballhausen / Thuringia in Kleinballhausen in the castle lexicon
  10. ^ Entry on Großballhausen in the private database "Alle Burgen".
  11. ^ Entry on Tunzenhausen in the private database "Alle Burgen".
  12. ^ History of Großfurra Castle

Web links