Kalkberg (Weismain)

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height 454  m above sea level NHN
location District of Lichtenfels , Upper Franconia , Bavaria , Germany
Mountains Weismain-Alb , Northern Franconian Alb
Dominance 0.7 km →  Teisenberg
Notch height 18 m ↓  ridge between Kalkberg and Teisenberg
Coordinates 50 ° 4 ′ 31 ″  N , 11 ° 14 ′ 25 ″  E Coordinates: 50 ° 4 ′ 31 ″  N , 11 ° 14 ′ 25 ″  E
Topo map Topographic map
1: 25000 Weismain 5933
(detail with Kalkberg)
Kalkberg (Weismain) (Bavaria)
Kalkberg (Weismain)
Type Zeugenberg
rock Dogger β to Malm γ
Development Hiking trail / dirt road to the summit
Normal way from the Weismainer Kastenhof in 40 minutes
particularities Species rich grassland flora in the summit area
Template: Infobox Berg / Maintenance / TOPO-MAP

The Kalkberg is 454  m above sea level. NHN high mountain in the Franconian Alb near Weismain in the Upper Franconian district of Lichtenfels ( Bavaria ).

Geographical location and description

The Kalkberg rises around 138 meters above Weismain and the Weismain valley funnel in the Weismain-Alb , a northern foothill of the Franconian Alb . In the west it descends into the foothills of the Kleinziegenfelder valley and in the east into the Krassach valley , the foothills of the Bärental . The dominance to the next higher mountain, the Teisenberg , is 0.7 km. The notch height on the ridge between the Kalkberg and the Teisenberg is 18 m. The secondary peak has a height of 450  m above sea level. NHN . Pits in the area of ​​the two peaks indicate earlier removal of marl lime for the production of building lime . There is a cell phone mast on the northeast slope of the mountain .


Brown Jura

Geologically, the mountain is stratified from deposits of the Brown Jurassic (Dogger) β to δ . According to the name, brown rock and soil colors predominate, predominantly fine-grained light beige, yellow or brown sandstone or earth-sandstone mixtures, e.g. T. limonitisch with pitches .

The upper three Braunjura layers γ, δ and ε together form an approximately 10 m thick ornate clay layer , rising from 395 to 405 m above sea level. NN. It stands out from the easily recognizable upper edge of the iron sandstone and the steeply rising White Jura as a gently rising, 20–100 m wide terrace-like slope. Due to the almost complete forest cover on this level, it does not stand out as clearly as in previous centuries, when there were mostly fields and meadows. The regalia is gray in color and contains numerous limestone fragments from the rock above. Due to the poor exposure conditions, a tripartite division of the layer can only be seen occasionally. The lower gamma layer, approximately two to three feet thick is from calcareous sandstone benches and sand lenses interspersed tone. The middle, two to four meters thick delta layer is formed from Eisenoolith limestone , which are relatively hard, tough limestone spheres with a brown bark and a bluish core. After frost blast , they are mostly only present as broken pieces. The remaining almost ten meters thick brown Jurassic ε layer emerges as a light gray, stiff, plastic, low-lime clay. In the unweathered state, underground, it has a semi-solid to solid consistency and is rich in fossils in layers. In all three layers there are particularly large brown irons - ooids that can be seen with the naked eye. The youngest Brown Jurassic layer ζ was not deposited in the entire Obermaing area or only in negligibly small remnants.

White Jura

The upper layers of the mountain and the two peaks represent reefs of the White Jura . The lowest two White Jura levels α and β form a single floor of a good 25 meters on the Kalkberg and in the entire Weismain area. Nevertheless, they consist of different rocks. The alpha formation, which is also called lower marl limestone there, consists mainly of marls . The beta formation consists of fine-grained, smooth-breaking limestone . It is rich in fossils such as ammonites , belemnites , thin-shelled shells and calcite crystals that arise in cavities. The common name for the layer Werkkalk but in the Upper Main region misleading because the country's banking limestones not frost resistant and therefore as work material are not suitable. On the Kalkberg the alpha and beta levels are at an altitude of 405 to 430 m above sea level. NN. The iron layer silicate glauconite also occurs at the boundaries of the layer .

Above the already flattening but easily separable beta level begins at 430 m above sea level. NN the layer of the Weißjura γ. It is also known as Upper Marl Limestone , contains clayey marl and rises gently to moderately. Occasionally there are larger limestone banks or lumpy limestone beds in the formation.

Flora and fauna


Two different vegetation areas can be clearly identified on the Kalkberg. The lower layers are predominantly made up of forests, the biodiversity of which is characterized by the sandy soils of the brown Jurassic rocks of the Dogger β to ε. From a height of about 395  m above sea level. NHN changes with the geological composition of the mountain, the vegetation, which from then on is shaped by the calcareous soils of the White Jura α and β.

The mountain slopes of the Kalkberg are characterized by mixed forest areas , fields and meadows . Tree species such as spruce , Scots pine , oak , linden and red beech dominate the forests . Is also found on the forest fringes and roadsides more diverse trees with black elderberry , red dogwood , hazelnut , bird cherry , hawthorn , blackthorn , aspen , crab apple , wild pear , various flour berry species such as rowan , Sorbus aria and Wild Service Tree , Wild gooseberry and honeysuckle . Thrive in non-woody plants in the shrub and herb layer among others, ivy , clematis , ivy-leaved toadflax , Real Avens , euonymus , Corydalis , liverwort , chickweed , wood anemone , wood sorrel , wild ginger , Ordinary and Wayfaring tree , garlic mustard , yellow archangel and celandine . Shortly before the transition to the summit vegetation, but already on chalky soils, hornbeams and field maples also occur more frequently .

In the area of ​​the two sparsely overgrown peaks of the Kalkberg, the vegetation is strongly characterized by the calcareous soils. Only a few Scots pines , juniper bushes and whitebeams grow on larger plants on the extensive lawns. The grasslands themselves are characterized by wild flowers such as limestone , silver thistle , thyme , oregano , German fringed gentian and another type of gentian, golden thistle , bear pods , St. John's wort and golden aster . Another, rather rare species that thrives on the mountain is the bastard brownelle (Prunella x spuria), which emerged as a bastard from the parent species Prunella vulgaris and Prunella grandiflora .


The fauna around the Kalkberg is not very different from that of other areas with mixed forests and open areas in the Franconian Alb. So there are from insects and vertebrates on small mammals up to singing birds , birds of prey and larger mammals such as red and black game numerous ways. Special habitats represent, however, the further mentioned below in the section on trail "bat cellars" and the reading Steinriegel and dry stone walls. While in the former particularly indigenous bat species find refuge and have the stone walls ideal habitat for amphibians , insects and the weasel . For the fauna of A special feature of the summit area is the occurrence of the tiger beetle, which is threatened with extinction in Germany .

Landscape protection

The limestone is wholly multipart Fauna Flora Habitat -region dry grasslands, meadows and forests around Weismain (FFH no. 5933-371) and in the northern part of the company founded in 2001, 1,021.64 square kilometers of protected landscape Veldensteiner Switzerland Nature Park Franconian Forest ( LSG No. 322697).

Grazing the meadows with sheep is essential for maintaining the biodiversity of insects and plants on the Kalkberg . In order to ensure that the meadows are grazed in this traditional form, the Lichtenfels District Landscape Management Association has been involved in exposing the old sheep herds and creating driving routes for over 15 years. The grazing takes place with around 600 sheep and goats from the Roß sheep farm in Middle Franconia .

Most recently, in 2010, the landscape conservation association of the Lichtenfels district optimized the existing dry grassland by enlarging it. This landscape conservation measure enabled the situation of threatened species to be significantly improved by expanding their habitat.

Kalkberg educational trail

In the mid-2000s, the Kalkberg educational trail was established by the environmental station of the Lichtenfels district . It is a 3.6 km long circular hiking trail created as a nature trail . The pure walking time is about 40 minutes. The path leads from the office of the environmental station of the district of Lichtenfels in the Weismain Kastenhof, turning right over the Kalkberg and over the historic town center of Weismain back to the Kastenhof. Occasionally, guided hikes lasting 2 to 3 hours are also offered. The path comprises the following 16 stations:


  • Günter Dippold (Ed.): Weismain - A Franconian city on the northern Jura 1 . Dechant Bau GmbH, Weismain 2011, ISBN 978-3-9814302-0-2

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e f g Topographic map of Bavaria - Kalkberg near Weismain , geoportal.bayern.de, accessed on December 28, 2014
  2. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Leaflet Lehrpfad Kalkberg (454m) , publisher: Umweltstation des Landkreis Lichtenfels, Weismain 2008, 2nd edition (online: [1] )
  3. 115 radio antennas in three municipalities , obermain.de, accessed on December 29, 2014
  4. a b c d e Geological map of Bavaria 1: 25,000, map sheet 5933 Weismain, online: Archive link ( Memento of the original from December 28, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , bestellen.bayern.de, accessed on December 29, 2014 @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.bestellen.bayern.de
  5. a b c d e Dippold (2011), pp. 32–52
  6. a b c d Consciously enjoying the landscape - adventure hike to Kalkberg - picnic with the shepherd on the dry grass (August 21, 2014) , obermain.de, accessed on December 29, 2014
  7. Sebastian Hopfenmüller: First evidence of Allium zebdanense Boiss. & Noë and other remarkable plant finds in the Regnitz area . In: RegnitzFlora - Announcements of the Association for Research on the Flora of the Regnitz Area , Volume 6, Erlangen 2014, pp. 29 - 33 (online: full text , PDF 780 kB)
  8. NATURERBE BAYERN NATURA 2000 FFH area 5933-371 "Dry grasslands, meadows and forests around Weismain" , regierung.oberfranken.bayern.de, PDF 670KB, accessed on December 28, 2014
  9. Map of the Franconian Switzerland-Veldensteiner Forest nature reserve, naturparkinfo.de, accessed on December 28, 2014
  10. Landschaftspflegeverband Landkreis Lichtenfels - Annual Report 2010 ( Memento from December 29, 2014 in the Internet Archive ), lpv-lkr-lichtenfels.de, accessed on December 29, 2014 (PDF 1.8 MB)
  11. Bavarian State Office for Monument Preservation - Weismain - Baudenkmäler , geodaten.bayern.de, PDF 160 kB, p. 13 (No. D-4-78-176-80)

See also