Wackerbarth Castle , originally Wackerbarths Ruh ' , is a baroque castle surrounded by vineyards in the Niederlößnitz district of Radebeul on the road to Meißen , which serves as the seat of the Saxon State Winery . The estate belongs to the individual situation Radebeuler Johannisberg within the major site Loessnitz and is in the conservation area Historic vineyard landscape Radebeul . The historical area of the castle forms an extension of the Lößnitz protected landscape area above it . Wackerbarth Castle as a Saxon cultural heritage belongs to the state cooperation Schlösserland Sachsen .
From the time when Generalfeldmarschall and Imperial Count August Christoph von Wackerbarth was established as the retirement home and until Niederlößnitz was founded in 1839, the estate was a manor on the Naundorf vineyard that was directly subordinate to the Dresden office .
Today the state-owned winery, consisting of the historical facility and the modern new building for the wine and sparkling wine factory, is open to the public for viewing. The in-house products are tasted and sold, the associated glass production can be visited. In the open spaces around the building, sample vines of the cultivated grape varieties can also be viewed in their seasonal growth. The estate's own restaurant is located in the eastern, listed farm building. The higher Belvedere also serves as a place for wedding ceremonies.
Baroque aristocratic and country residence
After the first land purchases in 1710, Field Marshal General and Cabinet Minister Augustus the Strong , Imperial Count August Christoph von Wackerbarth , acquired the Bischofsberge in Naundorf in 1727 , as well as some green areas below these vineyards. From that time on, the property was directly under the authority of Dresden until it became part of the newly formed rural community of Niederlößnitz in 1839.
At the foot of the vineyards he had his planned retirement home, Wackerbarths Ruh ', built from 1727 to 1730 by the master builder Johann Christoph Knöffel . This happened at the same time as two other Wackerbarth houses, the Kurländer Palais in Dresden and the Palais in Zabeltitz , both also by Knöffel, whom Wackerbarth had discovered as a young master mason and brought to the Dresden construction department, where he became Pöppelmann's assistant . Wackerbarth has been in charge of the electoral Saxon construction industry since 1697, was head of the engineering corps and as such, since 1706, has been general manager of the military and civil buildings and supervisor of the civil engineering department . He was involved in all of the major construction plans of the era and is known as the "director of the Dresden Baroque " ( Fritz Löffler ). The name "Wackerbarths Ruh '" was probably made as a precaution, as Wackerbarth had to sell his first private building project, the castle and the baroque garden Großsedlitz , built from 1719, to August the Strong in 1723. However, Count Wackerbarth, who was appointed General Field Marshal and Saxon Army Chief in 1730, hardly had the time or leisure to live in his retirement home. He died in 1734.
After the death of "old Wackerbarth", the "young", his stepson and adopted son, Count Joseph Anton Gabaleon von Wackerbarth-Salmour , who was also Minister of State and Cabinet, inherited the property. He used it as a country estate and since he was unmarried and childless, he determined in his will that, upon his death, Wackerbarth Castle would be auctioned in favor of "Dresden widows and orphans", which also happened in 1761. In 1768 the Minister and Secret Councilor Carl August Graf von Rex died on the estate . In 1798, the Dresdner banker and baron Christian Friedrich von Gregory , who also owned the “ Sorgenfrei” house , became the owner . Since 1799, the Jacobstein has been part of the ensemble of Wackerbarth Castle, together with the Fly Wedel vineyard , with which it is now a listed entity as a listed entity.
A great-great-nephew of the builder, the historian and art collector "Raugraf" August Josef Ludwig von Wackerbarth , acquired the property in 1808 or 1809 and initially lost it again in 1816 through bankruptcy.
Field Marshal Count August Christoph von Wackerbarth (1662–1734)
Cabinet Minister Count Joseph Anton Gabaleon von Wackerbarth-Salmour (1685–1761)
art collector and historian August Josef Ludwig von Wackerbarth (1770–1850)
School, sanatorium, retirement home, residence, state property, reserve hospital, headquarters, post office
In 1816, Wackerbarths Ruh 'became the seat of the educational institution for boys, which had been relocated by Tharandt , under the direction of Carl Lang and later his son-in-law Carl Vogel , father of the writer Elise Polko and the Africa researcher Eduard Vogel . From 1819 to 1823, the former ducal-Braunschweig educational counselor Johann Peter Hundiker taught at Lang's boys' school , who moved to Lößnitz . Renowned students at that time were, for example, the brothers Hermann and Heinrich Brockhaus .
After Lang's death in 1822, the previous owner, August Josef Ludwig von Wackerbarth, bought the property again in 1824. From 1835 Friedrich Gustav Bräunlich (1800–1875) used the building as a sanatorium for the mentally ill, which he moved to Lindenhof in Neucoswig in 1845 . After the property had reached its greatest extent around 1840, Raugraf Wackerbarth had to auction it again in 1846 due to economic difficulties.
On April 1, 1846 Wacker Ruh went into the possession of Gustav Leopold Zembsch, but without the vineyards Eckberge and fly whisk . In the following years, a Dr. Matthiae used the premises again as an institution until 1864. The main building was partially redesigned in 1853. The painter Otto Wagner died there in the institution in 1861.
The Saxon Antiquities Association reported in its first issue of the Mitheilungen in 1853 a treatise on an "Old stone with an inscription (1512) which used to be at Wackerbahrtsruhe, [communicated] by Sr. Excellenz, Minister of Conference Nostitz and Jänckendorf ". The dating to 1512 together with a local vineyard designation Bischofsberg suggests a connection to the episcopal vineyard holdings Hohenhaus and Bischofspresse, which were located in the neighborhood in the 16th century .
Friedrich Wilhelm Weinert acquired the property of Zembsch through a foreclosure auction in 1869. He was followed in 1872 by the Saxon and Prussian statesman Albert von Carlowitz , who then lived on Wackerbarths Ruh, where he died in 1874.
Carlowitz 'heirs sold to Caroline von Tümpling in 1875; subsequently the Prussian major general von Tümpling is mentioned as the owner. This is followed by Baron and Rittmeister Adolf von Tümpling (1842–1920), who owned the property until 1882, and had the palace building redesigned in 1875 by the Leipzig master builder Friedrich Louis Winkler in the Italian Renaissance style.
The historian and councilor Johann Georg Theodor Grasse , who died there three years after he retired in 1885, also belonged to the property's owners from 1882 . Grässes heirs still owned the castle, first the widow and then a son, the Greek consul Hans Björn Grasse. In mid-1902 there was a foreclosure auction (subhastation). The following owners were Ludwig Friedrich Matthis, Alexander Schuster and then the Sparkasse von Oederan .
In the years 1916 to 1923 there was another reconstruction of the castle by Georg Heinsius von Mayenburg , who rebaroque the building for the manufacturer Alfred Tiedemann , the owner of the Coswig lacquer factory, based on the plans of Knöffels. When Tiedemann was no longer able to service his mortgage in 1926, the property came into receivership. While Tiedemann came to the Coswig retirement home penniless, the Dresdner banking house Gebrüder Arnhold took over the property. In 1931 Wackerbarths Ruh 'went to the Sächsische Staatsbank , and two years later to the Dresdner Bank .
On May 8, 1945, a conference on the nutritional situation of the population between Soviet officers and a German delegation, consisting of Hermann Matern , Rudolf Friedrichs and Kurt Fischer , took place in the castle, which is indicated on a plaque on the castle fence. After the Commander-in-Chief of the 1st Ukrainian Front , Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Stepanowitsch Konev , temporarily quartered there, a post office of the Soviet Army moved in until 1950.
With the interim handover into state- owned property , the property was handed over to the “ Volksbildung ” in 1950 , which turned it into a school with boarding school for some of the Greek Markos children ; The Korea Home Combination for North Korean children and young people was also housed there as well as in the Mohrenhaus and two other places.
In July 1990, VEG Weinbau Radebeul was renamed Weinbau Radebeul GmbH , which came into the possession of the Free State of Saxony in 1992, making it again the Saxon state winery. In the same year the first summer night ball took place there, to which the hosts, the Saxon State Winery and the State Theaters of Saxony , invited Rüdiger Freiherr von Wackerbarth and his wife Adelheid as guests of honor .
The modern winery goes back to the state winery founded in Radebeul in 1928. On the resulting Staatsweingut Radebeul-Loessnitz which was after the Second World War winemakers school of state winery in Oberlößnitz affiliated.
Volksweingut Lößnitz, Radebeul winegrowing
The Radebeul city winery in Hoflößnitz and the state winery of the State of Saxony both became legal entities of the Central Association of People's Own Goods (ZVVG) Southeast on October 1, 1949 . This was subordinate to the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of the State of Saxony. Then there were the city wineries of Dresden and Meißen as well as some expropriated businesses of private winemakers. From the union of the two wineries, the state-owned wine estate "Lößnitz" arose . The Paulsberg winery in the Zitzschewig district , which has belonged to the state property administration of the Saxon state government since 1940, was designated as the seat of the Volksweingut . In addition to the "Lößnitz" viticulture, only the winegrowers' cooperative in Meißen remained as a producer in the region.
The Volksweingut cultivated 39.1 hectares of agricultural land in 1952, of which 23.4 hectares were vineyards. Also in 1952, the first sparkling wine was produced using bottle fermentation under the Sachsengold brand .
In 1954 it became the VEG (B) People's winery , which the Department of state-owned assets of the Council of the District Dresden shelter. From 1963 it belonged as VEG (Z) Weinbau Radebeul to the VVB Saat- und Pflanzgut Quedlinburg .
The vineyards and the structures of the Barnewitz house, expropriated in 1952 , also belonged to the Volksweingut. From 1955, the people's winery made its first major new developments.
Due to the planning of the Radebeul City Council in April 1958 to also produce sparkling wine using large-tank high-pressure fermentation in the future , the Volksgut received the von Wackerbarths Ruhe estate, on which, from 1967 to 1969, a new wine and sparkling wine cellar and one in addition to the historic castle complex Bottling line was built. The expansion planning was accompanied by an increase in sales planning from 3 to 11 million marks . The new, partly fully automatic plant was supposed to enable an annual production of 4.3 million bottles of sparkling wine, the base wines of which, however, did not come from our own production, but were brought in from outside.
In the period that followed, the Volksweingut developed into the largest wine-growing business in the Elbe Valley with around 80 hectares, also through the acquisition of further vineyards and land consolidation. In 1974, for example, there were six parts of the business that cultivated 32.5 hectares in the Radebeul area , 10.5 hectares around Meißen ( Meißner Stadtweingut ) , 33.5 hectares in Seusslitz (near Nünchritz ) and 3.5 hectares in Cossebaude . Cultivation types were in particular Müller-Thurgau , Riesling , Pinot Blanc , Traminer and Ruländer . According to the values of our homeland , a total of 136 hectares of vineyards belonged to the winery in 1970; areas in Diesbar and in the Spaar Mountains are added to the previous list . Before the land reform, the vineyards in Diesbar-Seusslitz were assigned to the city of Dresden together with the local manor and the castle as a municipal business enterprise (KWU). The vineyards later went to the Volksweingut, which in 1959 undertook efforts based on the Lenz-Moser education system on flat sites between Heinrichsburg and Goldkuppe .
Between 1974 and 1977 the Volksweingut Wackerbarth Castle and parts of the garden were renovated; From 1977 onwards, extensive maintenance work followed on the Hoflößnitz buildings, which had deteriorated due to aging and misuse.
In April 1974 the winery took over the nearby Sektkellerei Bussard , which was expropriated in 1972 and which was still used for the artisanal production of sparkling wine in bottle fermentation until 1978. In 1978/1979 the traditional bottle fermentation was discontinued and the last remaining Bussard employees were converted into mass sparkling wine production on the site of the property, which was named Wackerbarthsruhe in the time of the GDR . The tank fermentation process practiced there for the mass production of cheap sparkling wine had priority over the classic bottle fermentation practiced by Bussard with a lot of manual labor, which delivered higher quality sparkling wine, but was more cost-intensive. By 1981 the sparkling wine output increased from 25,600 to 36,500 hectoliters. The protected brands were Schlossberg (after Hoflößnitz's local mountain) and Wackerbarth Castle , in 1985 the sparkling wine brand Graf Wackerbarth was introduced. The name of the castle was also shortened for the sparkling wine brand, as the calm probably didn’t fit the sparkling product, and so this name gradually carried over to the building itself.
Saxon State Winery Schloss Wackerbarth
In July 1990 the state-owned estate was converted to Weinbau Radebeul - Schloß Wackerbarth GmbH . Wackerbarth was taken over by the Free State of Saxony in April 1992, while the Stadtweingut Radebeul , which had been incorporated into the Volksweingut, was separated again as the municipal Hoflößnitz winery . Under the name Sächsisches Staatsweingut GmbH Schloss Wackerbarth , the winery belonged to the Saxon State Agency for Agriculture in the Pillnitz district of Dresden .
After an unsuccessful privatization attempt in 1998, the fiduciary administration of the company was transferred to the Sächsische Aufbaubank . In September 1999, the company converted this into a GmbH under the sole ownership of Sächsische Aufbaubank. From 2002 onwards, the historical building fabric was extensively reconstructed step by step and the castle expanded into an "adventure winery". The urban planning concept envisaged separating the historic palace complex from the place of production, but leaving the winery as a whole recognizable and accessible. The public road that had been pulled in earlier was reopened; It is assigned a spacious entrance area under the roof of the modern production hall. The new building block itself deliberately deviates from the symmetry of the baroque complex; Construction and materials used show the spirit of the times and lightness.
The renovation of the palace complex followed a conversion from the years after 1920. Wall paintings from the Semper period were reconstructed in the Belvedere . The reconstruction of the terraces and the baroque garden facing the street with the revitalized fountains was carried out - like the execution of all structural and urban planning details - with high quality standards.
Today the castle is marketed as “the first adventure winery in Europe that is as dedicated to the 800-year Saxon winemaking tradition as it is to contemporary enjoyment with all the senses”. Under this motto there are multimedia tours with tastings and numerous series of events. The winery is particularly known for its fine, fruity, mineral Rieslings and Pinot Blanc as well as for its expressive Traminer. The sparkling wine is made according to the classic bottle fermentation. In addition to various brands, the tradition of the Bussard brand as the second oldest German sparkling wine brand (based on the founding date of the closed sparkling wine cellar Bussard ) is continued.
In 2012, the state winery cultivated 90 hectares of vineyards, which are located in the three Radebeul locations; this also includes the state vineyard Goldener Wagen directly north of the Hoflößnitz . Other wine growing areas are located in the vineyard Seußlitzer Heinrichsburg ( Großlage Schloss Weinberg , area Meissen ). The annual production is 500,000 bottles.
The cultural monument ensemble with the individual monuments of the palace building, Belvedere, the Jacobstein, remains of garden sculptures, the enclosure with the memorial plaque attached to it, as well as the vineyards and their original dry stone walls from the 17th and 18th centuries, including the fly whisk vineyard, are now listed as monument conservation Material entity under monument protection ( ensemble protection ). The entire garden and vineyard landscape is considered a work of landscape and garden design that is worth protecting .
With their own monument identification are provided:
- Wackerbarthstraße 1: Wackerbarth's rest as a whole with a single monument in the castle building
- Wackerbarthstrasse 9001-I: Belvedere to the palace
- Wackerbarthstrasse 9001-II and -III: farm buildings to the castle
- Wackerbarthstraße 9001-IV: Park to the castle
- Wackerbarthstrasse 9001-V: Jacobstein
As early as 1912, the Niederlößnitz community issued a local decree to protect the property in order to protect it against parceling efforts ( urban sprawl ). The basis was the Saxon law against disfigurement of town and country of 1909. At that time, the Wackerbarths Ruhe vineyard property was already included and published as a building and art monument in the Saxon fundamental inventory by Gurlitt (1904) and the German short inventory by Dehio (1905) .
Even during the GDR era, Wackerbarths Ruhe was on the district monument list as a monument to cultural history . The entry under monument areas (ensembles) and streets also included the neighboring restaurant at Mittlere Bergstrasse 4.
The modern production hall with vinotheque was awarded for its architecture.
The basic conception of the baroque garden by state architect Johann Christoph Knöffel is an axis of symmetry tapering towards the mountains, which begins at Meißner Straße and ends as the climax at the beginning of the steep ascent to the vineyard at Belvedere. The strictly symmetrical French park, bounded by the fence, is divided into three from Meißner Straße: the two thirds on the mountain side are shown on Knöffel's garden plan.
The middle third is bounded on the mountain side by the transverse castle building, in front of which a transverse axis runs from Wackerbarthstrasse across the property to the gate at Mittlere Bergstrasse. The part facing Meißner Straße in front of the castle is dominated by a large, centrally located water basin with a high fountain. There are parks on both sides with cut hedges.
The third on Meißner Straße consists of a central lawn, bounded by cut hedges. There are numerous old, tall deciduous trees facing the Mittlere Bergstrasse in particular.
The third on the mountain side is delimited on both sides by the two farm buildings. From in front of the entrance to the palace building, an ascending path with landings as a central axis leads to the Belvedere. On both sides of the path there are lawns with tall boxwood cones and on the lawn with alternating small cones and balls. This path ends between the two sandstone sculptures Bacchus and Venus on the floor where the substructure with the Belvedere and the upper fountain rises.
In the Baroque era, the park was "completely determined by viticulture through the lavish use of vines on trellises and arcades."
The simple castle building, also referred to as a manor house, is a two-storey plastered building with eleven to two window axes. On top of it sits a high slate hipped roof with triangular dormers in the lower row and sheet metal arched dormers in the upper row. In addition, there are four plastered chimneys on the ridge.
In the symmetrical street view, there is a three-axis hall porch with two window axes deep in the middle with a mansard roof , due to the slightly sloping location with a four-step wide flight of stairs from the only round-arched garden doors to the garden ground floor . In this decorative facade there is a pilaster structure , cornices and a coat of arms above the middle upper floor door as a French balcony that does not protrude from the facade . The three dormers of this risalit-like porch are segment-arched with keystones. This two-storey porch was built between 1916 and 1923 by re-baroque renovation of the three-storey neo-renaissance risalit from 1875. In particular, the figured attic was removed and the roof raised again.
On the mountain side there is an only slightly protruding central projection with an arbor supported by four pillars, which protects the entrance door on the ground floor. Ornamental grilles between posts frame the exit on top. A coat of arms crowns the exit door from the upper floor. In the roof area, the risalit continues as a dwelling with a triangular gable, which does not extend to the ridge but only to the upper row of dormers.
In the two side views there are closed arenas facing the mountain.
Inside, a double staircase leads to the upper floor. The layout of the rooms has been preserved; only a few fixtures were made for today's events such as B. made modern toilet facilities. The original interior no longer exists.
The two elongated farm buildings of the same design form the lateral boundary of the upper park between the palace and the Belvedere. The buildings are single-storey and have tiled hip roofs.
The building on the west side is the vinotheque ( Mittlere Bergstrasse . The entrance door is to the interior, on whose water-bound path ceiling tables and chairs can be set up for events.). It closes the property from the
The building on the east side is the inn (). It closes off the park from the property with the modern sparkling wine factory built at an angle to it. There is an entrance door to the interior of the castle, but the actual entrance is from the side of the manufactory, where guest tables are also set up outside.
The farm buildings delimit the garden area on the mountain side. On the far right behind the vinotheque, outside the fence, is the caterer house
Remnants of garden plastic
At the top of the central staircase from the palace building to the Belvedere, there are two sandstone sculptures from around 1730 on both sides, each on a pedestal ( ). The figure on the left is a Bacchus with a dog, on the right there is a Venus with a cupid .
Today's Belvedere () is a reconstruction from 1884/85 of the burnt down chapel building on the remains of the wall that can still be used. The building stands on a high terrace substructure at the end of the baroque park on the mountain side.
Knöffels garden plan shows a semi-oval formation in the middle of which the substructure rises. The sides are formed by quarter circles, on the outer course of which ramps rise on both sides from the square to the terrace on the substructure, which also form the mountain-side closure of the park. The interior of the quarter circles form lawns. The sandstone face of the substructure with corner blocks is about as wide as the stairway up from the castle. On the side there are angled, plastered round arch niches.
Up to half the height there is a wall fountain with a spearhead, the water of which falls into a conch shell. The mussel empties into a water basin from which jets of water rise on both sides, which also radiate into the mussel shell. Above the wall fountain there is a saying that can be read in his handwriting as a quote from the historian and writer August Josef Ludwig von Wackerbarth on his stone engraving portrait from the early 19th century:
MORE GENDERLY MOVING BY LIKE THE
SHADOWS IN FRONT OF THE SUN"
The Belvedere itself is an octagonal building with a tent roof and a lantern with a round dome. In the middle of the valley in a protruding porthole is a clock that was lost in 1957 and replaced in the 2000s. The roof attachment comes from the Dresden armory , where it was placed in 1779. The uphill eighth of the pavilion building is pulled out through a porch of the same cornice height. The plastered structure is divided into pilaster strips, and there is a round arched door window in each of the walls. The interior shows a decorative painting from the reconstruction period in 1885.
The vineyard pavilion ( fly whisk built, which at times also belonged to Wackerbarth estate and its own wine mountain flyswatter part of the protected work of landscape and garden design.), which has been part of the Wackerbarth estate since 1799 , sits enthroned on the edge of the slope in the middle of the vineyard landscape. It was in 1742 by the owner of the property eastern neighbors
Enclosure with a memorial plaque
On the south side of the property, on Meißner Straße, an opening in the fence allows a view of the manor house. A vaulting of the enclosure with a lattice fence forms a former memorial of the GDR, which as a memorial to political history with the commemorative plaque attached to it commemorates the meeting of the Soviet military with German politicians on May 8, 1945. The memorial plaque () is still under monument protection today as part of the monument ensemble.
Enclosure with an eastern gate, next to it the Wackerbarth-Salmour coat of arms
On the far left of the eastern gate by the inn there is a coat of arms that represents the union of the Wackerbarth and Salmour families . It is the coat of arms of Count Joseph Anton Gabaleon von Wackerbarth-Salmour (1685–1761), son of Katharina von Wackerbarth-Salmour born. Balbiano di Colcavagno (1670–1719) from her first marriage to Michele Conte Gabaleone di Salmour. Katharina, widowed Margravine of Brandenburg in her second marriage, married Count August Christoph von Wackerbarth (1662–1734) in her third marriage in 1707 , who adopted the stepson and bequeathed him the Wackerbarth Castle (as well as the Zabeltitz Castle and the Kurländer Palais in Dresden) . The left half of the coat of arms, i.e. on the right in the picture, shows the coat of arms of Count Wackerbarth, the right side the coat of arms of Count Gabaleone von Salmour. It is a cast of the donor's coat of arms from the reliquary altar of the St. Valentine's Chapel in the Church of San Filippo Neri in Chieri , which Joseph Anton Gabaleon von Wackerbarth-Salmour had donated in his hometown for a relic that he had on his trip to Italy with the Prince Elector Friedrich Christian was given by the Pope. The cast is a gift from the Marchese Balbiano di Colcavagno to the Baron von Wackerbarth, who handed it over to Wackerbarth Castle a few years ago.
The renovated Wackerbarth Castle, including the new construction of the production hall, which was deliberately positioned without reference to the symmetry axes of the baroque complex, received the Radebeul builder award in the commercial / public buildings category in 2004.
The Gottfried Semper Architecture Prize for sustainable building , first awarded in 2007 by the Saxon Academy of the Arts and the Saxon State Foundation for Nature and Environment, was presented to the architect Erich Schneider-Wessling on October 19, 2007 in Schloss Wackerbarth.
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